Royal visits to Manchester and Salford during the reign of Queen Victoria
Royal visits to Manchester and the surrounding areas in the nineteenth century signify important achievements in the city's history and offer an insight into the development of the area during this period. Moreover, Manchester's response to such visits, the preparations and public displays of loyalty to the crown, challenge the perceived political history of Victorian Manchester, famed for its Liberalist notions, Free Trade and the radical position of parties such as the Chartists. Queen Victoria's accession to the throne in 1837 was a turbulent time for Manchester, as it had been in the previous century. Manchester had been divided politically and the Industrial Revolution had created new men at all levels, including the lower social orders and dissatisfaction with the 1832 Reform Act had provoked widespread agitation among the working classes; as Victoria came to the throne, so Chartism came to the masses and in Manchester this manifested itself in the Manchester Political Union who sponsored a massive rally at Kersal Moor in Salford.
The party concerned with the working people, supported the general strikes of 1842, known as Plug Plot, in which thousands of mill workers protested against wage cuts, but shortly afterwards the Chartist movement declined. At the same time the town's cultural diversity had continued to widen, as an influx of Irish immigrants had entered the town and in the 1880s, Jewish immigrants fleeing persecution in Russia settled in Manchester. Both nationalities were representative of everything the English working man, at this time, was not, a point emphasised by Tory politics, whilst not advocating extreme sectarian attitudes, maintained that the Monarch and the Church of England were at the heart of the Englishman's national identity. Furthermore, attitudes towards the Monarchy were improving, as the public saw Queen Victoria as a better example of the constitutional monarch, not involving herself in politics, when combined with Prince Albert's philanthropic activities, in the late 1840s, with education and housing for the poor, resulted in a shift in public opinion and the popularity of the Royal family increased.
The Reform Acts of 1867 and 1884 had enabled many working men to vote, from which "popular Toryism" emerged and needless to say the party's ethos of constitution and Church attracted the working classes, which despite nineteenth-century England's shift towards a secularised state manifested itself in open displays of loyalty to the Crown. This was the first visit of a monarch to the region for a century and a half and both Manchester and Salford went to great lengths to host a memorable event; the escort for the royal party included a Guard of Honour of the Yeoman Cavalry who accompanied them as far as Cross lane, the boundary between Pendleton and Salford. However, at this point, the cavalry were dismissed "for fear of disturbances, as Peterloo was still fresh in the minds of the people." 1851 had been a significant year for Prince Albert with the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park, London, an event with which he had direct involvement and one which celebrated industry and technology, an important connection with Manchester.
They stayed at Worsley New Hall as guests of the Earl of Ellesmere. On 10 October the Queen and Prince Albert left Worsley Hall and the procession took them through Salford to Peel Park, where a suggested 80,000 Sunday school children performed the National Anthem, a moment, argued as the most celebrated of the visit for its mass public appeal, as well as religious and educational significance: "One of the great moral features of Manchester – of the manufacturing districts – is the extent to which the Sunday-School system is carried… educating thousands who would otherwise have grown up in utter and deplorable ignorance" The Queen responded with an address in which she expressed her ‘great pleasure…seeing the attention, paid to the education of the rising generation in Manchester and Salford’. From Peel Park the royal procession continued into Manchester and the combined spectator figure recorded for both boroughs was 800, 000, which the Times described as, ‘a population new on the soil mixed laborious, accustomed to hear all sides of political questions and to decide them on Utilitarian principles’.
This practical, down-to-earth stereotype of the people of Manchester was, by the 1850s visible as the warehouse, representative of the town’s trading success and the advances of industry and technology, close to the heart of Prince Albert, were at the centre of the its achievements. In May 1857 Prince Albert arrived in Manchester, one month before the Queen, to open the Art Treasures Exhibition and inaugurate one of the first portrait statues to be erected of Queen Victoria during her reign; the statue in Peel Park commemorated the Royal visit to Salford in 1851 and the aforementioned success of the 80, 000 strong, Sunday schools' performance of the National Anthem. Like 1851 the visit attracted large crowds and Manchester was awash with colour, as the Standard and Royal Arms flags decorating the majestic Watts Warehouse celebrated the city's civic pride and dedication to the crown. On 21 May the Queen visited to perform the official opening of the Manchester Ship Canal; the Ship Canal took seven years to build and stretched for 35 miles, creating the city's link to the open sea and independent shipping.
The Queen knighted the mayor of Salford, William Henry Bailey and the lord mayor of Manchester, Anthony Marshall at the opening of the Canal. In the ru
Hong Kong Film Awards statue
The Hong Kong Film Awards statue is a 6-metre bronze sculpture depicting the Hong Kong Film Award statuette presented to recipients, installed along Hong Kong's Avenue of Stars, in Tsim Sha Tsui's waterfront in Kowloon. The statue has been relocated to the Tsim Sha Tsui East Waterfront Podium Garden temporarily, during an ongoing waterfront revitalisation project. List of public art in Hong Kong Media related to Hong Kong Film Awards Statue, Avenue of Stars at Wikimedia Commons
Victoria Park (Hong Kong)
Victoria Park is a public park in Hong Kong, named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. It is located in Causeway Bay, on the north of Hong Kong Island, between Causeway Bay and Tin Hau MTR stations, it is part of Wan Chai District, bordered by Victoria Park Road and Victoria Harbour to the north and Causeway Road and Hong Kong Central Library to the south. The park underwent a major revamp in the early 2000s, which gave it many of its new features, including the basketball courts and tennis stadiums; the park was a typhoon shelter known as Causeway Bay Typhoon Shelter, part of Victoria Harbour, used as a refuge by fishing boats and yachts during typhoon seasons. In the 1950s, the shelter was reclaimed and the park was built there; the typhoon shelter was relocated to the north. The park has long been a gathering place for domestic workers on Sundays. Since the early 2000s, helpers from Indonesia have come to predominate, in and around the western end of the Park, as their numbers in Hong Kong have increased relative to those from the Philippines.
The parallel tradition for Filipina domestic workers is to congregate around Statue Square in Central. A portion of the park was occupied by construction of a slip road for the Central–Wan Chai Bypass project; this was "hugely controversial" as local councillors and residents alleged they were not informed that the road would cut through the park. In March 2015 construction unearthed unexploded ordnance dating from World War II and the Explosive Ordnance Disposal Bureau of the Hong Kong Police Force was called in to dispose of it; the bypass opened in early 2019. The slip road is now a permanent fixture in the north of the park, where it runs in a depression for about 150 metres before entering a tunnel portal. There is a statue of Queen Victoria, seated, at the main entrance of the park on Causeway Road; this statue was located in Statue Square. The park includes tennis courts, a swimming pool, a bowling green and other sports facilities such as the central lawn, basketball courts, football pitches and multiple children's areas and playgrounds.
The tennis centre court, enclosed with spectator seating for 3,607, is used to host international tennis tournaments, such as the Hong Kong Open and Hong Kong Tennis Classic. There are several pools of water located in the garden area that are used for operating remote-controlled boats; the Victoria Park Swimming Pool, opened 1957 as the first public swimming pool complex in the territory, was reconstructed as an indoor complex with a 50-metre international standard pool and a multi-purpose, adjustable-depth secondary pool. Every year, in the days preceding Chinese New Year, the park is home to the Lunar New Year Fair, which attracts large crowds late into the night. Other large events in the park include the Hong Kong Brands and Products Expo and the Hong Kong Flower Show. Since 1990, a vigil attracting tens of thousands of people is held every year on June 4 to commemorate the 1989 Tiananmen Square Crackdown; the park is often used as a gathering point for demonstrations, such as the July 1 marches and 124 March.
The recent event of the umbrella revolution has taken place near Victoria Park. Sponsored and broadcast to the public by Radio Television Hong Kong, the City Forum 城市論壇 is held in the park every Sunday, it brings together politicians and prominent public figures to discuss current public issues. The forum attracts tens of pro-Beijing men yelling expletives outside the venue when there are pro-Democratic politicians participating; such men are popularly known as the "uncles of Victoria Park". In 2010, due to the negative public sentiment aroused by the legislative reforms and from the lack of progress in universal suffrage in Hong Kong, there has been increased interest in the discussion of public issues; this resulted in heightened interest in the City Forum. There is an emergence of a new class of participants, passionate about the current affairs, predominantly male in the age category around 20s-30s, called "Brothers of Victoria Park". Though the title is similar, their political agenda is at the opposite of the spectrum.
The United Buddy Bears exhibition, displayed under the patronage of Jackie Chan in summer of 2004 on the historic lawn of Victoria Park, was the largest open air art show held in Hong Kong. About 2.0 million people saw the international exhibition in Victoria Park. The United Buddy Bears exhibition is the biggest of its kind, created by renowned artists from all over the world. Meanwhile, 140 member states of the United Nations are represented in this exhibition, shown in 20 metropolises on all 5 continents so far. Transport to the park is rather convenient. Visitors can arrive by MTR, getting off at either Causeway Bay MTR Tin Hau station. Dozens of bus routes and the trams provide convenient access. Hong Kong Tennis Classic List of tennis stadiums by capacity Victoria Park Station Official website of Victoria Park Images from a vigil in Victoria Park, commemorating the 1989 Tiananmen Square demonstrations Discover Hong Kong - Victoria Park
Bronze is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures. It can be used for statues, singly or in groups and small statuettes and figurines, as well as bronze elements to be fitted to other objects such as furniture, it is gilded to give gilt-bronze or ormolu. Common bronze alloys have the unusual and desirable property of expanding just before they set, thus filling the finest details of a mould; as the bronze cools, it shrinks a little, making it easier to separate from the mould. Their strength and ductility is an advantage when figures in action are to be created when compared to various ceramic or stone materials; these qualities allow the creation of extended figures, as in Jeté, or figures that have small cross sections in their support, such as the equestrian statue of Richard the Lionheart. But the value of the bronze for uses other than making statues is disadvantageous to the preservation of sculptures; as as 2007 several life sized bronze sculptures by John Waddell were stolen due to the value of the metal after the work has been melted.
There are many different bronze alloys, the term is now tending to be regarded by museums as too imprecise, replaced in descriptions by "copper alloy" for older objects. Modern bronze is 88% copper and 12% tin. Alpha bronze consists of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper. Alpha bronze alloys of 4 -- 5 % tin are used to make a number of mechanical applications. Historical bronzes are variable in composition, as most metalworkers used whatever scrap was on hand; the proportions of this mixture may suggest. The Benin Bronzes are brass, the Romanesque Baptismal font at St Bartholomew's Church, Liège is described as both bronze and brass. In the Bronze Age, two forms of bronze were used: "classic bronze", about 10% tin, was used in casting. Bladed weapons were cast from classic bronze, while helmets and armour were hammered from mild bronze. According to one definition, modern "statuary bronze" is 10 % tin; the great civilizations of the old world worked in bronze for art, from the time of the introduction of the alloy for tools and edged weapons.
Dancing Girl from Mohenjodaro, belonging to the Harappan civilization and dating back to c. 2500 BCE, is the first known bronze statue. The Greeks were the first to scale the figures up to life size. Few examples exist in good condition. Far more Roman bronze statues have survived; the ancient Chinese knew both lost-wax casting and section mould casting, during the Shang dynasty created large numbers of Chinese ritual bronzes, ritual vessels covered with complex decoration, which were buried in sets of up to 200 pieces in the tombs of royalty and the nobility. Over the long creative period of Egyptian dynastic art, small lost-wax bronze figurines were made in large numbers. Sri Lankan Sinhalese bronze statue of Buddhist Alakothiveshwara Tara Devi statue, now in England, is an excellent example of Bronze statues. From the ninth through the thirteenth century the Chola dynasty in South India represented the pinnacle of bronze casting in India. Making bronzes is skilled work, a number of distinct casting processes may be employed, including lost-wax casting, sand casting and centrifugal casting.
The term "bronze" is applied to metal sculptures made by electrotyping, although these sculptures are pure copper and their fabrication does not involve metal casting. In lost-wax or investment casting, the artist starts with a full-sized model of the sculpture, most a non-drying oil-based clay such as Plasticine model for smaller sculptures or for sculptures to be developed over an extended period, water-based clay for larger sculptures or for sculptures for which it is desired to capture a gestural quality - one that transmits the motion of the sculptor in addition to that of the subject. A mould is made from the clay pattern, either as a piece mould from plaster, or using flexible gel or similar rubber-like materials stabilized by a plaster jacket of several pieces. A plaster master will be made from this mould for further refinement; such a plaster is a means of preserving the artwork until a patron may be found to finance a bronze casting, either from the original moulds or from a new mould made from the refined plaster positive.
Once a production mould is obtained, a wax is cast from the mould. For a hollow sculpture, a core is cast into the void, is retained in its proper location by pins of the same metal used for casting. One or more wax sprues are added to conduct the molten metal into the sculptures - directing the liquid metal from a pouring
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, its half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. There was a strong religious drive for higher moral standards led by the nonconformist churches, such as the Methodist, the Evangelical wing of the established Church of England. Britain's relations with the other Great Powers were driven by the colonial antagonism of the Great Game with Russia, climaxing during the Crimean War. Britain embarked on global imperial expansion in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history. National self-confidence peaked. Ideologically, the Victorian era witnessed resistance to the rationalism that defined the Georgian period and an increasing turn towards romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, arts.
Domestically, the political agenda was liberal, with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform, industrial reform, the widening of the franchise. There were unprecedented demographic changes: the population of England and Wales doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotland's population rose from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Ireland's population decreased from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901 due to emigration and the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrated from Great Britain to the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia; the two main political parties during the era remained the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, Lord Salisbury; the unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the Victorian era in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement in Ireland.
In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from her accession on 20 June 1837—after the death of her uncle, William IV—until her death on 22 January 1901, after which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII. Her reign lasted for seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors; the term'Victorian' was in contemporaneous usage to describe the era. The era has been understood in a more extensive sense as a period that possessed sensibilities and characteristics distinct from the periods adjacent to it, in which case it is sometimes dated to begin before Victoria's accession—typically from the passage of or agitation for the Reform Act 1832, which introduced a wide-ranging change to the electoral system of England and Wales. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have been defences of it.
Michael Sadleir was insistent that "in truth the Victorian period is three periods, not one". He distinguished early Victorianism – the and politically unsettled period from 1837 to 1850 – and late Victorianism, with its new waves of aestheticism and imperialism, from the Victorian heyday: mid-Victorianism, 1851 to 1879, he saw the latter period as characterised by a distinctive mixture of prosperity, domestic prudery, complacency – what G. M. Trevelyan called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". In 1832, after much political agitation, the Reform Act was passed on the third attempt; the Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales. Minor reforms followed in 1835 and 1836. On 20 June 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle, William IV, her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne, but within two years he had resigned, the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry.
In the same year, a seizure of British opium exports to China prompted the First Opium War against the Qing dynasty, British imperial India initiated the First Anglo-Afghan War—one of the first major conflicts of the Great Game between Britain and Russia. In 1840, Queen Victoria married her German cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield, it proved a happy marriage, whose children were much sought after by royal families across Europe. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand; the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 ended the First Opium War and gave Britain control over Hong Kong Island. However, a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column in Afghanistan. In 1845, the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration. Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell. In 1853, Britain fought alongside France in the Crimean War against Russia.
The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status
Wedding dress of Queen Victoria
The wedding dress of Queen Victoria was worn by Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom, at her wedding to Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha on 10 February 1840. She selected a white dress, considered an unusual choice at a time when colours were more usual, made from heavy silk satin; the Honiton lace used for her wedding dress proved an important boost to Devon lace-making. Queen Victoria has been credited with starting the tradition of white weddings and white bridal gowns, although she was not the first royal to be married in white; the lace was designed by William Dyce, head of the Government School of Design, mounted on a white satin dress made by Mary Bettans. The plain, cream-coloured satin gown was made from fabric woven in Spitalfields, east London, trimmed with a deep flounce and trimmings of lace hand-made in Honiton and Beer, in Devon; this demonstrated support for English industry the cottage industry for lace. The handmade lace motifs were appliquéd onto cotton machine-made net.
Orange flower blossoms, a symbol of fertility trimmed the dress and made up a wreath, which Victoria wore instead of a tiara over her veil. The veil, which matched the flounce of the dress, was four yards in length and 0.75 yards wide. Victoria's jewellery consisted of a necklace and earrings made up of diamonds presented to her by the Sultan of Turkey, a sapphire cluster brooch given to her by Albert a day earlier; the slippers she wore matched the white colour of the dress. The train of the dress, carried by her bridesmaids, measured 18 feet in length. Queen Victoria described her choice of dress in her journal thus: "I wore a white satin dress, with a deep flounce of Honiton lace, an imitation of an old design. My jewels were my Turkish diamond necklace & earrings & dear Albert's beautiful sapphire brooch." While photography existed in 1840, the techniques were not yet developed. A series of photographs taken by Roger Fenton on 11 May 1854 of Victoria and Albert are described as wedding or reenactment photographs, with the dress identified as her wedding dress.
The Royal Collection has refuted these interpretations, stating that the images are the first photographs to show Victoria as a queen, rather than as a wife or mother, that she and Albert are wearing court dress. In 1847, Victoria commissioned Franz Xaver Winterhalter to paint a portrait of her wearing her wedding clothes as an anniversary present for Prince Albert; the portrait was copied as an enamel miniature by John Haslem. Victoria revisited the lace-makers to create the christening gown worn by her children, including Albert Edward, the future Edward VII; this gown was worn for the christening of all subsequent Royal babies until the baptism of James, Viscount Severn in 2008, when a replica was used for the first time. As a mark of support for the Honiton industry, in addition to wearing their lace on her and her children's clothes, Victoria insisted her daughters order Honiton lace for their wedding dresses. Victoria wore her wedding lace mounted on the dresses she wore to the christenings of her nine children.
She wore it to the weddings of two of her children, her eldest daughter, Victoria, in 1858, her youngest son, Leopold, in 1882. Her youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice, was permitted to wear it as part of her wedding gown in 1885. Victoria wore the lace to the wedding of her grandson George to Mary of Teck in 1893, for her Diamond Jubilee official photograph in 1897; when Victoria died, she was buried with her wedding veil over her face. In 2012 it was reported that while the dress itself had been conserved and displayed at Kensington Palace that year, the lace was now too fragile to move from storage. Wearing white was adopted by wealthy, fashionable brides. Less than a decade Godey's Lady's Book would incorrectly claim that white wedding gowns were an ancient custom reflecting a bride's virginity, writing "Custom has decided, from the earliest ages, that white is the most fitting hue, whatever may be the material, it is an emblem of the purity and innocence of girlhood, the unsullied heart she now yields to the chosen one" though white had been a distinctly uncommon choice for bridal gowns before Victoria's wedding and was not chosen by a majority of brides until decades later.
Following the 2011 wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, comparisons were drawn between the bride's white wedding dress and Queen Victoria's own. BBC audio slideshow featuring her wedding dress
Pillar of Shame
Pillar of Shame is a series of sculptures by Danish artist Jens Galschiot. Each sculpture is an 8-metre tall statue of copper or concrete; the sculpture was inaugurated at the NGO Forum of the FAO summit in Rome in 1996. Since three other pillars have been erected, in Hong Kong and Brazil. A fourth one in Berlin was planned for completion in 2002, but the plan has not come to fruition due to various issues. According to Galschiot, the sculptures remind people of a shameful event; the torn and twisted bodies of the sculpture symbolize the degradation and lack of respect for the individual. The black colour symbolizes grief and loss and the sculpture, which represents the victims, expresses the pain and the despair of the event, it can be used by both sides in complicated conflict situations, where it can be difficult to point out the guilty party. The Pillar of Shame in Hong Kong is a concrete sculpture, first erected in Victoria Park in 1997 to mark the eighth anniversary of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
The statue depicts 50 torn and twisted bodies to symbolize those who died in the government crackdown. On the base of the statue, the history and pictures of the massacre are carved in and engraved into the base, in both English and Chinese, are the words "The Tiananmen Massacre", "June 4th 1989" and "The old cannot kill the young forever." The Pillar was first exhibited at the Candlelight Vigil in commemoration of the eighth anniversary of the Tiananmen Square protests on 3 June 1997. Following the vigil on the night of 4 June 1997, local university students fought for a place to permanently home the statue. After scuffles with the police and controversy with the university leadership, at 3 a.m. students succeeded in moving the 2-tonne statue onto the podium of the Haking Wong Building at the University of Hong Kong, however the pieces were not assembled due to concerns that the floor was not strong enough. The Pillar was re-erected at the same place on 16 June 1997. During the following months, the Pillar was exhibited at the following universities: Chinese University of Hong Kong from 28 September 1997 Lingnan College from 2 November 1997 Hong Kong Baptist University from 29 November 1997 Hong Kong University of Science and Technology from 23 January 1998 Hong Kong Polytechnic University from 1 March 1998 City University of Hong Kong from 29 March 1998.
On 31 May 1998, the ninth anniversary of the Tiananmen Square protests, the sculpture was returned to Victoria Park where a candlelit vigil was held. On the morning before the vigil, a self-professed artist splashed two buckets of red paint onto the Pillar, claiming that "the blood of people is my blood."On 24 and 25 September 1998, The Hong Kong University Students' Union held a general polling on a motion to home the Pillar of Shame at the University of Hong Kong on a long-term basis. The students' motion was carried, when 1,629 out of 2,190 voted to support, the Pillar was moved onto the Haking Wong Podium again on 3 December 1998, it was again exhibited at the 10th anniversary candlelit vigil of the Massacre in 1999 at Victoria Park. Without the University authorities' endorsement, the Pillar was moved back to the Haking Wong podium after the anniversary, where has remained on display at. On 30 April 2008, the Pillar of Shame was painted orange as part of the project The Color Orange, to raise awareness about human rights in China.
As the sculptor Galschiot was denied access to Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Alliance in Support of Patriotic Democratic Movements in China painted the Pillar without his participation. Other Pillars have been erected in the following locations: Ostiense Air Terminal, Italy, 1996, during the FAO Summit, depicting the deaths caused worldwide by hunger due to the uneven distribution of the world's resources. Acteal, Mexico in 1999, to mark the site of the December 1997 massacre of 45 members of the civil society group Las Abejas in Acteal. Brasilia, Brazil in 2000 in homage to the victims of the Eldorado dos Carajás massacre which occurred in 1996; this was moved to the capital of Pará, the federal state where the massacre occurred. A fourth Pillar of Shame was planned in Berlin, Germany, in homage to the victims of the Nazi regime. Due to various problems, the artist had to cancel the project. A pile of over 16,000 shoes, each pair representing a victim of the 1995 Srebrenica massacre is placed in front of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Sunday July 11, 2010.
The shoes were collected to make The Pillar of Shame by German activist Phillip Ruch's monument to Srebrenica. Hong Kong My Inner Beast The Color Orange Fundamentalism In the name of God Jens Galschiot Official information of the Pillar of Shame Timeline of Pillar of Shame in Hong Kong 10th Anniversary of 4 June Massacre