Statue of Charlie Chaplin, London
The statue of Charlie Chaplin in Leicester Square, London, is a work of 1979 by the sculptor John Doubleday. It portrays the actor and filmmaker in his best-known role, as The Tramp. A memorial to Chaplin in the city of his birth was proposed on 25 December 1977, soon after Chaplin's death, by Illtyd Harrington, the leader of the opposition in the Greater London Council. Initial plans for a memorial in the Elephant and Castle, in South London where Chaplin spent his early years, were dropped and instead Leicester Square, at the centre of London's entertainment district, became the preferred location for the work; the bronze statue was first unveiled on 16 April 1981 at its original site, on the south-western corner of the square, by the actor Sir Ralph Richardson. An inscription on the plinth read THE COMIC GENIUS/ WHO GAVE PLEASURE/ TO SO MANY; the following year a modified version was erected in the Swiss town of Vevey, Chaplin's home from 1952 until his death. Following a refurbishment of Leicester Square in 1989–1992, the statue was moved to a site north of the statue of William Shakespeare, the square's centrepiece.
In a refurbishment of 2010–2012 Chaplin's statue was removed altogether, together with busts of William Hogarth, John Hunter, Sir Isaac Newton and Sir Joshua Reynolds. The statue was installed in a nearby street, Leicester Place, in 2013; this was. In 2016 it was re-unveiled on Chaplin's birthday. Media related to Statue of Charlie Chaplin, London at Wikimedia Commons
In the context of hairstyles, the usage of the term pigtail shows considerable variation. The term may refer to a single braid, but is more used in the plural to refer to twin braids on opposite sides of the head. For some people, the term "pigtails" applies whether or not the hair is braided, but there is not widespread agreement on this; the term pigtail appears in English in the American colonies in the 17th century to describe a twist of chewing tobacco. One of the steps in processing the tobacco was to twist a handful of leaves together to form a compact bunch that would be cured; the term "pigtail" was applied to the bunch based on its resemblance to a twisted pig's tail. From the 17th century through the 19th century, the term came to be applied to any braided hairstyle; the British army adopted a single pigtail or "queue" as its standard dress for long hair. British barristers continue to wear a wig with pigtails as a way to hide the hairline in an attempt to provide basic anonymity. Robert Louis Stevenson mentions "pigtail" referring to hair and to "pigtail tobacco" in the first and fourth chapters of Treasure Island, respectively.
Most modern dictionaries still define "pigtail" as a single tight braid. However, many speakers use the term to describe two symmetrical bunches of hair on either side of the head, braided or not. There are numerous styles of pigtails, they may be braided, beaded, ribboned, in buns and French braided. Pigtails can be placed to the side. In some regions of China, traditional culture related the wearing of pigtails to a girl's marital status. A young, Chinese girl would wear two buns, or bundles of hair on either side of the head to display her availability to prospective husbands; this style of pigtails is sometimes referred to as "ox horns." However, when this girl would marry, the two pigtails, or buns, would be replaced with just one, thus indicating her marriage. The Manchu and Qing dynasty men's coiffe called the "queue" is sometimes described incorrectly as a pigtail; the hairstyle is popular in Japan in anime and manga fandom and Japanese geek culture. Traditionally a hairstyle worn by young girls, it has come to represent innocence, is known as the "twintail" or futatsu-yui.
Anime and manga characters sporting twintails have been prevalent since the 1960s, the hairstyle has since entered mainstream culture, in part due to Japanese pop groups such as Puffy AmiYumi and AKB48 embracing the look. This includes the creation of a "Japan Twintail Association" to promote and celebrate the hairstyle, as well as running photo spreads of models sporting the dual tails. "Twin Tail Day" is recognized by the Japan Anniversary Association and falls on February 2, when girls post images of themselves with the hairstyle onto Twitter. Pigtail Ordinance French braid List of hairstyles
Robert Burns (Steell)
Robert Burns is a bronze portrait statue of Robert Burns by John Steell. Four versions exist, in New York City, Dundee and Dunedin; the memorial sculpture in Manhattan's Central Park was cast c. 1880 and dedicated on 2 October 1880. It was the first statue of Burns to be erected outside Scotland and was a gift to the City of New York from Saint Andrew's Society of the State of New York and the Scottish-American community. For this sculpture Steell followed the portrait of Burns painted by Alexander Nasmyth in 1787. Seated on a tree stump with a quill pen in one hand, Burns looks up to heaven, he is thinking of his true love Mary Campbell. It was to her; the statue is located at 40°46′12.5″N 73°58′21.0″W. The Dundee statue was unveiled only two weeks after the one in New York in 1880 and the third cast was erected on the Thames Embankment in London in 1884; the Dundee statue is located at 56°27′44.5″N 02°58′19.0″W and the London statue is located at 51°30′30.5″N 00°07′18.5″W. The Dunedin statue was the last of the set to be unveiled on 24 May 1887.
A statue of Burns was deemed relevant to the city, both because of the city's Scottish roots, because one of the city's founding fathers was Rev. Thomas Burns, a nephew of the poet. In likeness, it is closest to the London statue. There had been discussion whether to place the statue in front of the railway station, but an elevated placement in The Octagon, the central plaza of Dunedin, was chosen; the statue was unveiled by a great-grand niece of Robert Burns. Speeches were given by former Governor and Premier of New Zealand Sir George Grey, Richard Henry Leary, the Mayor of Dunedin; because of its placement on what is now known as the McMillan terrace, the statue is the backdrop to many public speeches. On 27 July 1988, the statue was registered by the New Zealand Historic Places Trust as a Category I heritage structure with reference number 2208; the statue is located at 45°52′26.5″S 170°30′11.5″E. List of Robert Burns memorials List of sculptures in Central Park Media related to Robert Burns by John Steell at Wikimedia Commons
Statue of James II, Trafalgar Square
The statue of James II is an outdoor bronze sculpture located in the front garden of the National Gallery at Trafalgar Square in London, United Kingdom. Inspired by French statues of the same period, it depicts James II of England as a Roman emperor, wearing Roman armour and a laurel wreath, it also depicted him holding a baton. It was produced by the workshop of Grinling Gibbons, though not by Gibbons himself; the statue has been relocated several times since it was first erected in the grounds of the old Palace of Whitehall in 1686, only two years before James II was deposed. The statue depicts James II as a Roman emperor, he is shown standing in a contrapposto pose and pointing downwards in "great ease of attitude and a certain serenity of air", as Allan Cunningham described it. It held a baton in its right hand, though this is now missing; the face is said to be an excellent depiction of the king. Unusually for the time, Gibbons sought a degree of fidelity to original classical styles; the statue was inspired by similar imperial portrayals of Louis XIV of France.
One in particular, a colossal statue by Martin Desjardins of Louis XIV wearing Roman armour with a laurel wreath and baton, is so similar in type to the figures of Charles II and James II that it may have been their direct inspiration. The plinth is inscribed with the legend JACOBUS SECUNDUS/ DEI GRATIA/ ANGLIÆ SCOTIÆ/ FRANCIÆ ET/ HIBERNIÆ/ REX/ FIDEI DEFENSOR/ ANNO M. D. C. LXXXVI, which translates to: "James II, by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland and Ireland. Defender of the Faith. 1686." The statue of James II is one of three of the Stuart monarchs commissioned by the royal servant Tobias Rustat from Grinling Gibbons's workshop in the 1670s and'80s, the others being of James's brother and predecessor Charles II: an equestrian statue in Windsor Castle and a standing figure at the Royal Hospital in Chelsea. The statue of James II was commissioned for the Palace of Whitehall at the same time as the standing Charles II, the two works might have been intended as pendent pieces, it was produced in the workshop of Grinling Gibbons at a reported cost of £300.
Although long attributed to Gibbons himself, large-scale sculptures were not his forté and it is probable that the statue's principal originator was the Dutch sculptor Artus Quellinus III, working at Gibbons' workshop at the time. The James II was erected at the Palace of Whitehall on 24 March 1686, as recorded by a contemporary, Sir John Bramston the Younger. George Vertue, who found an agreement and a receipt of payment for the work, wrote that it was "modelled & made by Lawrence... & Devoot, imployed by... Gibbons", that Thomas Benniere was involved in the casting. A series of five drawings in the British Museum, which might be for either the standing Charles II or the James II, is attributed variously to Gibbons or to Peter Van Dievoet, its artistic qualities were praised by J. P. Malcolm in his 1803 history, London Redivivum, in which he wrote: There is but one fault in the figure, and, the attitude; the King seems to point with a baton at the earth. This is an egregious error; however the artist may have been commanded to model the statue thus.
James II's statue has stood in several locations. It stood in the Palace of Whitehall's Pebble Court, where it was installed on New Year's Day, 1686, it was situated behind the Banqueting House and faced the river, a position which attracted much satirical comment after James' flight from London during the Glorious Revolution of 1688. It was taken down after the Glorious Revolution but was replaced by order of William III. In 1898 it was moved to a location in the garden of Gwydyr House but was taken down four years to make room for the stands for the coronation of Edward VII, it lay on its back amid grass and weeds in a state of total neglect until it was re-erected in 1903 outside the New Admiralty building, but was displaced again when the Admiralty Citadel was built in 1940. During the Second World War it was put into storage at Aldwych tube station, it was relocated to its present site in 1947. The statue is listed by Historic England as a Grade I listed building, a status which it was granted in 1970.
1686 in art Statue of James II – Trafalgar Square, London, UK at Waymarking.com
Southwark is a district of Central London and is the north-west of the London Borough of Southwark. Centred 1 1⁄2 miles east of Charing Cross, it fronts the River Thames and the City of London to the north, it was at the lowest bridging point of the Thames in Roman Britain, providing a crossing from Londinium, for centuries had the only Thames bridge in the area, until a bridge was built upstream more than 10 miles to the west. It was a 1295-enfranchised Borough in the county of Surrey created a burh in 886, containing various parishes by the high medieval period succombing to City attempts to constrain its free trade and entertainment, its entertainment district, in its heyday at the time of Shakespare's Globe Theatre has revived in the form of the Southbank which overspills imperceptibly into the ancient boundaries of Lambeth and commences at the post-1997 reinvention of the original theatre, Shakespeare's Globe, incorporating other smaller theatre spaces, an exhibition about Shakespeare's life and work and which neighbours Vinopolis and the London Dungeon.
After the 18th century decline of Southwark's small wharves, the borough grew in population and saw the growth of great docks, printing/paper, goods yards, small artesan and other low-wage industries and Southwark was among many such inner districts to see slum clearance and replacement with social housing during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It is now at an advanced stage of regeneration and has the City Hall offices of the Greater London Authority. At its heart is the area known as Borough, which has an eclectic covered and semi-covered market and numerous food and drink venues as well as the skyscraper The Shard. Another landmark is Southwark Cathedral, a priory parish church created a cathedral in 1905, noted for its Merbecke Choir; the area has three main tube stations: Borough, Southwark nearby and one close to the river, combined with a major railway station above, London Bridge. The name Suthriganaweorc or Suthringa geweorche is recorded for the area in the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon document known as the Burghal Hidage and means "fort of the men of Surrey" or "the defensive work of the men of Surrey".
Southwark is recorded in the 1086 Domesday Book as Sudweca. The name is formed from the Old English sūþ and weorc; the southern location is in reference to the City of London to the north, Southwark being at the southern end of London Bridge. Until 1889, the county of Surrey included the present-day London Borough of Southwark, yet the name has been used for various areas of civil administration, including the ancient Borough of Southwark, the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark and the current London Borough of Southwark; the ancient borough of Southwark was known as The Borough—or Borough—and this name, in distinction from'The City', has persisted as an alternative name for the area. The medieval heart of Southwark was referred to as the ward of Bridge Without when administered by the City and as an aldermanry until 1978. For the toponymy of the area's street names see Street names of Southwark Southwark is sited on a once marshy area south of the River Thames. Recent excavation has revealed prehistoric activity including evidence of early ploughing, burial mounds and ritual activity.
Much was in pre-Roman years a series of tidal islands in the Thames, formalised into ditches such as the so-called River Neckinger. This formed the best place to bridge the Thames and the area became an important part of Londinium, owing its importance to its position as the endpoint of the Roman London Bridge. Two Roman roads, Stane Street and Watling Street, met at Southwark in what is now Borough High Street. Archaeological work at Tabard Street in 2004 discovered a plaque with the earliest reference to'Londoners' from the Roman period on it. Londinium was abandoned at the end of the Roman occupation in the early 5th century and both the city and its bridge collapsed in decay. Archaeologically, evidence of settlement is replaced by a featureless soil called the Dark Earth which represents an urban area abandoned. Southwark appears to recover only during the time of his successors. Sometime about 886, the burh of Southwark was created and the Roman city area reoccupied, it was fortified to defend the bridge and hence the reemerging City of London to the north.
This defensive role is highlighted by the use of the bridge in 1016 as a defence against King Sweyn and his son King Cnut by Ethelred the Unready and again, in 1066, against Duke William the Conqueror. He failed to force the bridge during the Norman conquest of England. Southwark appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 within the hundred of Brixton as held by several Surrey manors, its assets were: Bishop Odo of Bayeux held the monastery and the tideway – which still exists as St Mary Overie dock. Southwark's value to the King was £16. Much of Southwark was owned by the church – the greatest reminder of monastic London is Southwark Cathedral the priory of St Mary Overie. During the early Middle Ages, Southwark developed and was one of the four Surrey towns which returned Members of Parliament for the first commons assembly in 1295. An important market occupied the High Street from some
A wig is a head covering made from human hair, animal hair, or synthetic fiber. The word wig is short for periwig, which makes its earliest known appearance in the English language in William Shakespeare's The Two Gentlemen of Verona; some people wear wigs to disguise baldness. In Egyptian society men and women had clean shaven or close cropped hair and wore wigs; the ancient Egyptians created the wig to shield shaved, hairless heads from the sun. They wore the wigs on top of their hair using beeswax and resin to keep the wigs in place. Wealthy Egyptian would wear scented cones of animal fat on top of their wigs. Other ancient cultures, including the Assyrians, Jews in ancient Israel and Romans used wigs as an everyday fashion. In China, the popularization of the wig started from Autumn period. In Japan, the upper classes wearing wigs started from before Nara period. In Korea, gache were popular among women during Goryeo dynasty until it was banned in the late 18th century. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the use of wigs fell into disuse in the West for a thousand years until they were revived in the 16th century as a means of compensating for hair loss or improving one's personal appearance.
They served a practical purpose: the unhygienic conditions of the time meant that hair attracted head lice, a problem that could be much reduced if natural hair were shaved and replaced with a more de-loused artificial hairpiece. Fur hoods were used in a similar preventive fashion. Royal patronage was crucial to the revival of the wig. Queen Elizabeth I of England famously wore a red wig and elaborately curled in a "Roman" style, while among men King Louis XIII of France started to pioneer wig-wearing in 1624 when he had prematurely begun to bald; this fashion was promoted by his son and successor Louis XIV of France, which contributed to its spread in European and European-influenced countries. Perukes or periwigs for men were introduced into the English-speaking world with other French styles when Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660, following a lengthy exile in France; these wigs were shoulder-length or longer, imitating the long hair that had become fashionable among men since the 1620s.
Their use soon became popular in the English court. The London diarist Samuel Pepys recorded the day in 1665 that a barber had shaved his head and that he tried on his new periwig for the first time, but in a year of plague he was uneasy about wearing it:"3rd September 1665: Up, put on my coloured silk suit fine, my new periwig, bought a good while since, but darst not wear it because the plague was in Westminster when I bought it, and it is a wonder what will be the fashion after the plague is done as to periwigs, for nobody will dare to buy any haire for fear of the infection? That it had been cut off the heads of people dead of the plague." Wigs were not without other drawbacks, as Pepys noted on March 1663: "I did go to the Swan. With wigs obligatory garb for men with social rank, wigmakers gained considerable prestige. A wigmakers' guild was established in France in a development soon copied elsewhere in Europe, their job was a skilled one as 17th century wigs were extraordinarily elaborate, covering the back and shoulders and flowing down the chest.
Such wigs were expensive to produce. The best examples were made from natural human hair; the hair of horses and goats was used as a cheaper alternative. In the 18th century, men's wigs were powdered to give them their distinctive white or off-white color. Women in the 18th century did not wear wigs, but wore a coiffure supplemented by artificial hair or hair from other sources. Women powdered their hair grey, or blue-ish grey, from the 1770s onwards never bright white like men. Wig powder was made from finely ground starch, scented with orange flower, lavender, or orris root. Wig powder was colored violet, pink or yellow, but was most used as off-white. Powdered wigs and powdered natural hair with supplemental hairpieces became essential for full dress occasions and continued in use until the end of the 18th century; the elaborate form of wigs worn at the coronation of George III in 1761 was lampooned by William Hogarth in his engraving Five Orders of Periwigs. Powdering wigs and extensions was messy and inconvenient, the development of the white or off-white powderless wig for men made the retention of wigs in everyday court dress a practical possibility.
By the 1780s, young men were setting a fashion trend by powdering their natural hair, as women had done from the 1770s onwards. After 1790, both wigs and powder were reserved for older, more conservative men, were in use by ladies being presented at court. After 1790, English women powdered their hair. In 1795, the British government levied a tax on hair powder of one guinea per year; this tax caused the demise of both the fashion for wigs and powder. Granville Leveson-Gower, in Paris during the winter of 1796, at the height of the Thermidorian Directory, noted "The word citoyen seemed but little in use, hair powder being common, the appearance of the people was less democratic than in England."Among women in the French court of Versailles in the mid-to-late 18