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Status quo ante bellum

The term status quo ante bellum is a Latin phrase meaning "the state existing before the war". The term was used in treaties to refer to the withdrawal of enemy troops and the restoration of prewar leadership; when used as such, it means that no side loses territory or economic and political rights. This contrasts with uti possidetis, where each side retains whatever territory and other property it holds at the end of the war; the term has been generalized to form status quo ante. Outside this context, the term antebellum is, in the United States associated with the period before the American Civil War, while in Europe and elsewhere with the period before World War I. An early example is the treaty that ended the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 between the Eastern Roman and the Sasanian Persian Empires; the Persians had occupied Asia Minor and Egypt. After a successful Roman counteroffensive in Mesopotamia brought about the end of the war, the integrity of Rome's eastern frontier as it was prior to 602 was restored.

Both empires were exhausted after this war, neither was ready to defend itself when the armies of Islam emerged from Arabia in 632. Another example is the sixteenth-century Abyssinian–Adal war between the Muslim Adal Sultanate and Christian Ethiopian Empire which ended in a stalemate. Both empires were exhausted after this war, neither was ready to defend itself against the pagan Oromo Migrations; the Seven Years' War between Prussia and Austria maybe lasted from 1756 to 1763 and may have concluded in status quo ante bellum. Austria tried to regain the region of Silesia, lost in the War of the Austrian Succession eight years but the territory remained in the hands of the Prussians. Another example of a war that ended status quo ante bellum is the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom, concluded with the Treaty of Ghent in 1814. During negotiations, British diplomats had suggested ending the war uti possidetis. While American diplomats demanded cession from Canada, the final treaty, due in large part to pressure from the British government to secure peace early, left neither gains nor losses in land for the United States or the United Kingdom's Canadian colonies.

The Korean DMZ Conflict referred to as the Second Korean War by some, was a series of low-level armed clashes between North Korean forces and the forces of South Korea and the United States occurring between 1966 and 1969 at the Korean DMZ. The Football War known as the Soccer War or 100 Hour War, was a brief war fought between El Salvador and Honduras in 1969, it ended in a ceasefire due to intervention by the Organization of American States. The Iran–Iraq War lasted from September 1980 to August 1988. "The war left the borders unchanged. Three years as war with the western powers loomed, Saddam Hussein recognized Iranian rights over the eastern half of the Shatt al-Arab, a reversion to the status quo ante bellum that he had repudiated a decade earlier." In exchange Iran gave a promise not to attempt any invasion of Iraq while the latter was busy in Kuwait. The Kargil War was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between 3 May and 26 July, in 1999 of the Kargil district in Jammu and Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control.

The war started with the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and armed insurgents into positions on the Indian side of the LoC. After two months of fighting, the Indian military regained the majority of the positions on the Indian side, the Pakistani forces withdrew to their peacetime positions; the war ended with no territorial changes on either side

Magin Catalá

Magin Catalá ) was a Catholic Franciscan missionary. Magin Català was born on January 30, 1761, together with another twin brother, in the town of Montblanc, Tarragona diocese, Spain, he was the son of Francesca Guasch i Burgueras. At the age of sixteen, both of the twin brothers entered the Observant Franciscan order on April 4, 1777, in Barcelona, he studied philosophy and morals in Girona and was ordained as priest in 1785. Shortly after, he went to Cádiz, where he sailed in October of 1786 to America with Father Josep de la Creu Espi, O. F. M, he joined the Missionary School of San Fernando. It was spent a few years until it was destined to missions on the west coast of the current countries of the United States and Canada, to accompany travelers on the Nootka Bay route, acting as the priest of the Aranzazu frigate. In 1793 he was sent to Monterrey, shortly thereafter, he was sent to the Mission of Santa Clara on the Pacific coast. Never came out of Santa Clara and his evangelizing and humanitarian work was extraordinary among the American Indians.

He was buried in the Mission Santa Clara church. He became renowned for his prophecies; the figure of a crucifix in Mission Santa Clara de Asís is said to have leaned forward to commend him when preaching. The cause of his beatification was introduced in 1884. In 1884 the archbishop of San Francisco, the Catalan Dominican Joseph Sadoc Alemany, instructed the canonical process of beatification of Fra Magín, in which they declared 62 witnesses. In 1908, the Vatican Court ordered the instruction of the "non-cult" process, as well as the collection of writings of the Catalan missionary, his memory is kept at Montblanc, Tarragona in Spain, which has a street dedicated to his name this street and the house where he was born is a missionary plate marble memorial. Juan Bautista Sancho José Francisco Ortega Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "José Viader". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Magin Catalá". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company

Serie A1 1979–80 (men's volleyball)

1979–80 Serie A1 was the thirty-fifth men's volleyball major Italian championship. Twelve contestants took part to a simple round-robin tournament, earning two points for each win. In the end, the final chart-leading team won the title, while bottom two teams were relegated in the lower division. 14 November 1979: in the opening match of the season, Klippan Torino beat Grondplast Ravenna 3–1 at PalaRuffini. Klippan was the defending champion, while Sai Marcolin Belluno and Isea Falconara were the new-promoted teams. 11 December 1979: in Catania, Paoletti defeats Klippan 3–0 and reaches the solitary top of the chart with a remarkable 6:0 score. Klippan was sharing the second position along with Veico Parma, which lost its first match to Amaro Più Loreto in the same day. 5 January 1980: Paoletti Catania broke its winning run losing 0–3 to Edilcuoghi Sassuolo. 16 January 1980: winning in Ravenna 3–1, Paoletti ended the first half of the season at first place of the league table. Veico, who lost its last two matches to Paoletti and Klippan fell at third place, surpassed by Klippan.

2 February 1980: Paoletti lost 1–3 away to Mazzei Pisa and got caught by Klippan, which defeated Sai Marcolin Belluno 1–3. The score of the two teams was 12:2. 23 February 1980: in Turin, Klippan knocked off Paoletti 3–1 and remained alone on the top of the chart. 22 March 1980: beating Edilcuoghi Sassuolo 3–1 away, Klippan won the second title of its history, having six points of advantage than Paoletti Catania and Veico Parma, with only one match left to play. On March 19, in the final day, Klippan defeated Veico, closed its tournament with a 20:2 score. La Stampa, years 1979 and 1980. Grassia, Filippo. Almanacco Illustrato del Volley 1987. Modena, Italy: Panini. Official Lega Pallavolo Serie A Site


Funkdoobiest was an American hip hop group from Los Angeles, United States, composed of rappers Jason "Son Doobie" Vasquez, Tyrone "Tomahawk Funk" Pacheco and DJ Ralph "Tha Funky Mexican" Medrano. They are members of the Soul Assassins collective; the group has released four studio albums. Their third LP, The Troubleshooters, was recorded and released without any participation of Tomahawk Funk due to his departure from the group; the group's most successful hit single, "Bow Wow Wow" from their debut album Which Doobie U B?, peaked at number 89 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart in the United States. They were appeared in the soundtrack to Allison Anders' 1994 film Mi Vida Loca with the song "The Good Hit"; the song "Superhoes" from their sophomore album Brothas Doobie was featured in the soundtrack to F. Gary Gray's 1995 film Friday; the song "Act On It" from their third album was used in the Kirk Wong's 1998 film The Big Hit. From 2003 to 2004, Son Doobie has released two solo full-length albums via Battle Axe Records, Funk Superhero and Doobie Deluxe.

1992: "Bow Wow Wow" 1992: "The Funkiest" 1993: "Wopbabalubop" 1993: "Freak Mode" 1994: "Rock On" 1995: "Dedicated" 1995: "XXX Funk" 1997: "Act On It" 1997: "Papi Chulo" 2006: "Hip Hop Music" 2009: "The Heavyweight Funk" Funkdoobiest at Discogs

Donnya Piggott

Donnya Piggott is a human rights activist from Barbados. In 2012, she co-founded a support organisation for LGBT persons in Barbados. In 2015, she was awarded Queen Elizabeth's Young Leaders Award for her activism in changing the lives of young people. Donnya Piggott was born in 1990 in Barbados, she attended the University of the West Indies studying history and accounts. In 2012 Piggott and Ro-Ann Mohammed founded an association Barbados Gays and All-Sexuals Against Discrimination B-GLAD as an organisation to create an education mechanism and open public dialogue in a supportive manner for the LGBT community of Barbados. According to Piggott, her organisation focuses on people's common humanity. Piggott believes. Instead, she believes that the questions of focus are whether discrimination is legal and whether equal opportunity for employment and protection under the law should exist for all people. In June 2014, Piggott joined with other LGBT support groups throughout the Caribbean in a project called Generation Change.

Activists from the region called on heads of state to embrace all members of society and eliminate discriminatory laws and customs. In response to B-GLAD's appeal, Prime Minister Freundel Stuart said he was committed to eliminating discrimination for all Bajans, including the LGBT community. A study completed by B-Glad in 2014, The State of LGBT Barbados: A Brief Overview, found that stigma and discrimination and homophobic legislation, lack of acceptance produce "covert oppression" for LGBT Bajans. Piggott stressed that the harshness of Barbadian law, which calls for life imprisonment for consensual sexual acts, leads to feelings of non-acceptance, substance abuse, absence from school due to fear of discrimination. In January 2015, Piggott was named as one of the recipients of the Queen's Young Leader Award; the award provides recognition to young leaders across the Commonwealth in the name of HM Queen Elizabeth II, the Head of the Commonwealth and the Head of State of Barbados. Queen Elizabeth presented the award in June 2015


The Kooikerhondje is a small spaniel-type breed of dog of Dutch ancestry, used as a working dog in an eendenkooi to lure ducks. Kooikers were popular in the 17th and 18th century and appeared in the paintings of Rembrandt and Jan Steen; the breed is gaining popularity in the United States and Scandinavia, where it is still unknown. The Kooikerhondje is a small, flashy and white spaniel-like sporting dog. Bred in The Netherlands as a duck decoy dog, its white plumed tail waves jauntily to entice and lure ducks to follow it into Eendenkooi; when not working the traps, Kooikers were expected to work on the farm to catch vermin. The preferred height at the withers is 38 CM for females; the FCI standard allows variation of 38 to 41 CM for 36 to 39 CM for females. Allowable size in the United States is 14.5 to 17.5 inches for males, 13.5 to 16.5 inches for females. The proportion of the Kooiker is off-square; the bone and substance of the Kooiker is moderate. The head should be in proportion to the dog.

The expression is alert. Ears should be well feathered and ideally adorned with earrings; the color for the Kooiker should preferably be distinct patches of clear orange-red on pure white although a few small spots on the legs are acceptable. Color should be predominate on the back with the chest, belly and the majority of the legs and tail white. Black ear A black tail ring where the color changes from orange-red to white is permitted. A dog, solid red on the back is acceptable but not preferred. Kooikerhondjes are cheerful, good natured, quiet, well-behaved, alert. Depending on its domestic environment, it is kind and lively, they are intelligent and more than willing to please their owner. The Kooikerhondje adapts to situations rather changing his behavior from quiet to lively when the situation allows him to be, he will not always like strangers, instead choosing to retreat. But once he warms up to someone, the trust will be there for the rest of his life; the Kooikerhondje can make a fine apartment dog if exercised but a fenced yard will be more ideal.

He has a medium energy level, yet is quiet when indoors. Kooikerhondje are wary of boisterous children, in general. Kooikers have a tendency to put on weight easily, their life span is 12–15 years on average. As Kooikerhondjes have a small genetic base, hereditary diseases are somewhat prevalent; these include: von Willebrand's disease, a blood clotting disorder preventable through DNA testing Cataract and other eye diseases Patellar luxation Hereditary Necrotising Myelopathy a fatal neurologic disease preventable through DNA testing Polymyositis Kidney disordersToday most Kooikers used for breeding are free from von Willebrands disease. Patellar luxation is not a major problem in most countries at the moment, but is kept under a close watch to prevent it from becoming a problem again. In the Netherlands, eye tests are available and all breeders breeding according to the breed club's rules have to test their dogs. Only dogs that are free of eye diseases are allowed to be used for breeding. Testing for ENM became available in 2012.

In the Netherlands, only dogs who are tested may be used for breeding. Only allowed breedings are Free X Carrier. Carrier to Carrier should never be done. Puppy purchasers should inquire about the ENM status of the parents; the Kooikerhondje was developed in the Netherlands sometime prior to the sixteenth century to be a breed to lure ducks into traps - a technique called tolling. They were used to lure'kooien', where the hunter could catch the fowl; the dogs that were used by the Kooiker for this kind of hunting technique, were referred to as the'Kooiker's hondjes'. This led to this dog being called Kooikerhondje; the breed became extinct during World War II until Baroness van Hardenbroek van Ammerstol rescued it. The breed was only recognized by the Raad van Beheer, the Dutch Kennel Club, in 1971 and has since been imported into other countries and recognised officially; the breed is still unknown in North America and not yet recognized as a breed in Canada, although it was accepted into the AKC's FSS program, in 2004.

The breed was moved to the AKC Miscellaneous class on July 1, 2015 in preparation to moving to the Sporting Group upon full recognition. As of Jan 1, 2018, the Nederlandse Kooikerhondje has been recognized by the American Kennel Club and is now competing in the Sporting Group. In the United States, both the UKC and ARBA recognize the breed. In the UK, the breed has been removed from the import list and is now eligible to enter Crufts for the Best in Show award, despite there being only 76 of the breed in the UK. In January 2013, the Kennel Club announced it was re-classifying the Kooikerhondje from the gundog group to the utility group effective from January 2014; the decision was reached after discussions with the UK breed clubs and unanimous agreement was achieved. Some historians believe the Kooikerhondje may have played a part in the development of the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retriever. Kooikerhondje at Curlie