Papyrus 66 is a near complete codex of the Gospel of John, part of the collection known as the Bodmer Papyri. The manuscript contains John 1:1–6:11, 6:35b–14:26, 29–30, it is one of the oldest well-preserved New Testament manuscripts known to exist. Its original editor assigned the codex to the early third century, or around AD 200, on the basis of the style of handwriting in the codex. Herbert Hunger claimed that the handwriting should be dated to an earlier period in the middle or early part of the second century. More Brent Nongbri has produced a broader study of the codex and argued that when one takes into consideration the format, construction techniques, provenance of the codex along with the handwriting, it is more reasonable to conclude that the codex was produced "in the early or middle part of the fourth century." In common with both the other surviving early papyri of John's Gospel. The manuscript contains the use of Nomina Sacra. Studies done by Karyn Berner and Philip Comfort, contended that P 66 had the work of three individuals on it: The original, professional scribe, a thoroughgoing corrector and a minor corrector.
But more James Royse argues that, with the possible exception of John 13:19, the corrections are all by the hand of the original copyist. The staurogram appears in at least ten places in the papyrus; the Greek text of this codex is a representative of the Alexandrian text-type. Aland placed it in I Category. A transcription of every single page of P 66 is contained in the book referenced in reference, pages 388-468. In John 1:15 ο οπισω ] ο πισω, the reading is supported by Sangallensis and 1646. In John 13:7 it has αρ instead of αρτι; the manuscript was found in 1952 at Jabal Abu Mana near Dishna. In fact, the preservation level of P 66 surprised scholars because the first 26 leaves were fully intact, the stitching of the binding remained, it was published in 1956 and it was the most important New Testament manuscript publication since the Chester Beatty Papyri in 1933–1934. It is housed at the Cologny-Geneva, Switzerland: Bibliotheca Bodmeriana; the Papyrus contains 39 folios –, 78 leaves, 156 pages – at a size of 14.2 cm x 16.2 cm for each leaf with 15-25 lines per page.
List of New Testament papyri Bodmer papyri Karyn L. Berner, Papyrus Bodmer II, P66: A re-evaluation of the Correctors and corrections, M. A. thesis, Wheaton College, Ill.. Victor Martin, Papyrus Bodmer II: Evangile de Jean 1-14, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana 5. Cologny-Geneva, Bibliothèque Bodmer, 1956. Victor Martin, Papyrus Bodmer II: Evangile de Jean 14-21, Cologny-Geneva, Bibliothèque Bodmer, 1958. Victor Martin, J. W. B. Barns, Papyrus Bodmer II. Supplement. Évangile de Jean chap. 14-21. New edition augmented and corrected with the photographic reproduction of the complete manuscript, Cologny-Geneva, Bibliothèque Bodmer, 1962. James R. Royse, Scribal Habits in Early Greek New Testament Papyri, Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2008. Comfort, Philip W.. The Text of the Earliest New Testament Greek Manuscripts. Wheaton, Illinois: Tyndale House Publishers. Pp. 376–468. ISBN 978-0-8423-5265-9. Image of p 52 of Papyrus 66 at Bible Research "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research.
Retrieved 26 August 2011. Edgar R. Smothers, Papyrus Bodmer II: An Early Codex of St. John „Theological Studies” 3D visualization of Papyrus Bodmer II, Fondation Martin Bodmer
An ossuary is a chest, building, well, or site made to serve as the final resting place of human skeletal remains. They are used where burial space is scarce. A body is first buried in a temporary grave after some years the skeletal remains are removed and placed in an ossuary; the reduced space taken up by an ossuary means that it is possible to store the remains of many more people in a single tomb than if the original coffins were left as is. In Persia, the Zoroastrians used a deep well for this function from the earliest times and called it astudan. There are many regulations in the Zoroastrian faith concerning the astudans. Many examples of ossuaries are found within Europe, including the Santa Maria della Concezione dei Cappuccini in Rome, Italy; the village of Wamba in the province of Valladolid, has an impressive ossuary of over a thousand skulls inside the local church, dating from between the 12th and 18th centuries. A more recent example is the Douaumont ossuary in France, which contains the remains of more than 130,000 French and German soldiers that fell at the Battle of Verdun during World War I.
The Catacombs of Paris represents another famous ossuary. The catacombs beneath the Monastery of San Francisco in Lima, Peru contains an ossuary; the use of ossuaries is a longstanding tradition in the Orthodox Church. The remains of an Orthodox Christian are treated with special reverence, in conformity with the biblical teaching that the body of a believer is a "temple of the Holy Spirit", having been sanctified and transfigured by Baptism, Holy Communion and the participation in the mystical life of the Church. In Orthodox monasteries, when one of the brethren dies, his remains are buried for one to three years, disinterred and gathered into the monastery's charnel house. If there is reason to believe that the departed is a saint, the remains may be placed in a reliquary; the remains of an abbot may be placed in a separate ossuary made out of metal. The use of ossuaries is found among the laity in the Greek Orthodox Church; the departed will be buried for one to three years and often on the anniversary of death, the family will gather with the parish priest and celebrate a parastas, after which the remains are disinterred, washed with wine and placed in a small ossuary of wood or metal, inscribed with the name of the departed, placed in a room in or near the church, dedicated to this purpose.
During the time of the Second Temple, Jewish burial customs included primary burials in burial caves, followed by secondary burials in ossuaries placed in smaller niches of the burial caves. Some of the limestone ossuaries that have been discovered around the Jerusalem area, include intricate geometrical patterns and inscriptions identifying the deceased. Among the best-known Jewish ossuaries of this period are: an ossuary inscribed'Simon the Temple builder' in the collection of the Israel Museum, another inscribed'Elisheba wife of Tarfon', one inscribed'Yehohanan ben Hagkol' that contained an iron nail in a heel bone suggesting crucifixion, another inscribed'James son of Joseph, brother of Jesus', the authenticity of, opposed by some and supported by others, ten ossuaries recovered from the Talpiot Tomb in 1980, several of which are reported to have names from the New Testament. During the Second Temple period, Jewish sages debated whether the occasion of the gathering of a parent's bones for a secondary burial was a day of sorrow or rejoicing.
The custom of secondary burial in ossuaries did not persist among Jews past the Second Temple period nor appear to exist among Jews outside the land of Israel. The skeletal remains of six million people lie, neatly arranged, in subterranean catacombs beneath the streets of Paris, France; the city is riddled with an estimated 300 km of tunnels and pathways, of which 11,000 square meters are packed with the bones of those re-interred from the city's overflowing cemeteries in the late 1700s. See Catacombs of Paris. Aircraft boneyard Boneyard, Arizona Catacomb Charnel house Columbarium Crypt Grave James Ossuary Mausoleum Reliquary Tomb Tzompantli
In Abrahamic religions, a messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people. The concepts of moshiach, of a Messianic Age originated in Judaism, in the Hebrew Bible. Messiahs were not Jewish: the Book of Isaiah refers to Cyrus the Great, king of the Achaemenid Empire, as a messiah for his decree to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple. Ha mashiach referred to as melekh mashiach, is to be a human leader, physically descended from the paternal Davidic line through King David and King Solomon, he is thought to accomplish predetermined things in only one future arrival, including the unification of the tribes of Israel, the gathering of all Jews to Eretz Israel, the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem, the ushering in of a Messianic Age of global universal peace, the annunciation of the world to come. In Christianity, the Messiah is called the Christ, from Greek: translit. Khristós, translating the Hebrew word of the same meaning; the concept of the Messiah in Christianity originated from the Messiah in Judaism.
However, unlike the concept of the Messiah in Judaism, the Messiah in Christianity is the Son of God. Christ became the accepted Christian designation and title of Jesus of Nazareth, because Christians believe that the messianic prophecies in the Old Testament were fulfilled in his mission and resurrection; these include the prophecies of him being descended from the Davidic line, being declared King of the Jews which happened on the day of his crucifixion. They believe that Christ will fulfill the rest of the messianic prophecies that he will usher in a Messianic Age and the world to come at his Second Coming. In Islam, Jesus was a prophet and the Masîḥ, the Messiah sent to the Israelites, he will return to Earth at the end of times, along with the Mahdi, defeat al-Masih ad-Dajjal, the false Messiah. In Ahmadiyya theology, these prophecies concerning the Mahdi and the second coming of Jesus have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement, the terms'Messiah' and'Mahdi' are synonyms for one and the same person.
In Chabad messianism, Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, sixth Rebbe of Chabad Lubavitch, Menachem Mendel Schneerson, seventh Rebbe of Chabad, are Messiah claimants. Resembling early Christianity, the deceased Schneerson is believed to be the Messiah among some adherents of the Chabad movement. Messiah means "anointed one". In Hebrew, the Messiah is referred to as מלך המשיח The Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament renders all thirty-nine instances of the Hebrew word for "anointed" as Χριστός; the New Testament records the Greek transliteration Μεσσίας, Messias twice in John.al-Masīḥ is the Arabic word for messiah. In modern Arabic, it is used as one of the many titles of Jesus. Masīḥ is used by Arab Christians as well as Muslims, is written as Yasūʿ al-Masih by Arab Christians or ʿĪsā al-Masīḥ by Muslims; the word al-Masīḥ means "the anointed", "the traveller", or the "one who cures by caressing". The literal translation of the Hebrew word mashiach is "anointed", which refers to a ritual of consecrating someone or something by putting holy oil upon it.
It is used throughout the Hebrew Bible in reference to a wide variety of objects. In Jewish eschatology, the term came to refer to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line, who will be "anointed" with holy anointing oil, to be king of God's kingdom, rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age. In Judaism, the Messiah is not considered to be a pre-existent divine Son of God, he is considered to be a great political leader. That is why he is referred to as Messiah ben David, which means "Messiah, son of David"; the messiah, in Judaism, is considered to be a great, charismatic leader, well oriented with the laws that are followed in Judaism. He will be the one who will not "judge by what his eyes see" or "decide by what his ears hear". Belief in the eventual coming of a future messiah is a fundamental part of Judaism, is one of Maimonides' 13 Principles of Faith. Maimonides describes the identity of the Messiah in the following terms: And if a king shall arise from among the House of David, studying Torah and occupied with commandments like his father David, according to the written and oral Torah, he will impel all of Israel to follow it and to strengthen breaches in its observance, will fight God's wars, this one is to be treated as if he were the anointed one.
If he succeeded and built the Holy Temple in its proper place and gathered the dispersed ones of Israel together, this is indeed the anointed one for certain, he will mend the entire world to worship the Lord together, as it is stated: "For I shall turn for the nations a clear tongue, so that they will all proclaim the Name of the Lord, to worship Him w
Stauros is a Greek word which in the oldest forms is found used in the plural number in the sense of an upright stake or pole. In Koine Greek, in use during the Hellenistic and Roman periods, within which the New Testament was written, it was used in the singular number with reference to an instrument of capital punishment; the word stauros comes from the verb ἵστημι, which in turn comes from the Proto-Indo-European root *steh2-u- "pole", related to the root *steh2- "to stand, to set". In Homeric and classical Greek, until the early 4th century BC, stauros meant an upright stake, pole, or piece of paling, "on which anything might be hung, or which might be used in impaling a piece of ground."In the literature of that time, it never means two pieces of timber placed across one another at any angle, but always one piece alone, is always used in the plural number, never in the singular. In Koine Greek, the form of Greek in use between about 300 BC and AD 300, the word σταυρός was used to denote a wooden object on which Romans executed criminals.
When the word is thus employed in the writings of the Diodorus Siculus and Lucian – non-Christian writers, of whom only Lucian makes clear the shape of the device – the authoritative A Greek–English Lexicon translates it as "cross". According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, this form of capital punishment involved binding the victim with outstretched arms to a crossbeam, or nailing him to it through the wrists. Speaking about the σταυρός of Jesus, early Christian writers unanimously suppose it to have had a crossbeam, thus Justin Martyr said it was prefigured in the Jewish Passover lamb:That lamb, commanded to be wholly roasted was a symbol of the suffering of the cross which Christ would undergo. For the lamb, roasted, is roasted and dressed up in the form of the cross. For one spit is transfixed right through from the lower parts up to the head, one across the back, to which are attached the legs of the lamb. In A Critical Lexicon and Concordance to The English and Greek New Testament, hyperdispensationalist E. W. Bullinger, in contrast to other authorities, stated:The σταυρός was an upright pale or stake to which Romans nailed those who were thus said to be crucified, σταυρόω means to drive stakes.
It never means two pieces of wood joining at any angle. The Latin word crux means a mere stake; the initial letter Χ, of Χριστός, was anciently used for His name, until it was displaced by the T, the initial letter of the pagan god Tammuz, about the end of cent. Iv. A similar view was put forward by John Denham Parsons in 1896. Bullinger's 1877 statement and that of Parsons in 1896, written before the discovery of thousands of manuscripts in Koine Greek at Oxyrhyncus in Egypt revolutionised understanding of the language of the New Testament, conflict with the documented fact that, long before the end of the fourth century, the Epistle of Barnabas, earlier than 135, may have been of the 1st century AD, the time when the gospel accounts of the death of Jesus were written, likened the σταυρός to the letter T, to the position assumed by Moses in Exodus 17:11-12; the shape of the σταυρός is likened to that of the letter T in the final words of Trial in the Court of Vowels among the works of 2nd-century Lucian, other 2nd-century witnesses to the fact that at that time the σταυρός was envisaged as being cross-shaped and not in the form of a simple pole are given in early Christian descriptions of the execution cross.
In modern Greek the word σταυρός means: "The combination of two beams crossing each other perpendicularly on which Christ was crucified and killed, by synecdoche any object of that shape. To render the English terms "stake" and "pole", modern Greek employs not σταυρός but παλούκι and πάσσαλος. Christian cross Christos Early Christian descriptions of the execution cross Instrument of Jesus' crucifixion Staurogram Staurology, or Theology of the Cross Stavros, the modern Greek name derived from stauros
In ancient Greek religion, Nike was a goddess who personified victory. Her Roman equivalent was Victoria; the word νίκη nikē is of uncertain etymology. R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin. Others have connected it to Proto-Indo-European *neik-, making it cognate with Greek νεῖκος and Lithuanian ap-ni̇̀kti. Nike was variously described as the daughter of the Titan Pallas and the goddess Styx, the sister of Kratos and Zelus, and Styx the daughter of Ocean was joined to Pallas and bore Zelus and trim-ankled Nike in the house. She brought forth Cratos and Bia, wonderful children. In other sources, Nike was described as the daughter of the god of war. Ares... O defender of Olympos, father of warlike Nike. Nike and her siblings were close companions of the dominant deity of the Greek pantheon. According to classical myth, Styx brought them to Zeus when the god was assembling allies for the Titanomachy against the older deities. Nike assumed the role of the divine charioteer, a role in which she is portrayed in Classical Greek art.
Nike flew around battlefields rewarding the victors with glory and fame, symbolized by a wreath of laurel leaves. Nike is seen with wings in most statues and paintings, with one of the most famous being the Winged Victory of Samothrace. Most other winged deities in the Greek pantheon had shed their wings by Classical times. Nike is the goddess of strength and victory. Nike was a close acquaintance of Athena, is thought to have stood in Athena's outstretched hand in the statue of Athena located in the Parthenon. Nike is one of the most portrayed figures on Greek coins. After victory at the Battle of Marathon, Athenians erected the Nike of Callimachus. Names stemming from Nike include among others: Nikolaos, Nicola, Nicolai, Niccolò, Nicolae, Klaas, Ike, Nikita, Nika, Naike, Nikki and Veronica; the sports equipment company Nike, Inc. is named after the Greek goddess Nike. Project Nike, an American anti-aircraft missile system is named after the goddess Nike. Since Giuseppe Cassioli's design for the 1928 Summer Olympics, the obverse face of every Olympic medal bears Nike's figure holding a palm frond in her right hand and a winner's laurel crown in her left.
The Honda motorcycle company's logo is inspired by the goddess Nike. Winged Victory of Samothrace Altar of Victory Nike of Paeonius Ángel de la Independencia Smith, William. William Smith, LLD. William Wayte. G. E. Marindin. Albemarle Street, London. John Murray. 1890. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Media related to Nike at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of Nike at Wiktionary Goddess Nike
Ephrem the Syrian
Ephrem the Syrian was a Syriac-Aramean Christian deacon and a prolific Syriac-language hymnographer and theologian of the fourth century. Ephrem is beloved in the Syriac Orthodox Church, counted as a Venerable Father in the Eastern Orthodox Church, his feast day is celebrated on the Saturday of the Venerable Fathers. He was declared a Doctor of the Church in the Catholic Church in 1920. Ephrem wrote a wide variety of hymns and sermons in verse, as well as prose exegesis; these were works of practical theology for the edification of the Church in troubled times. So popular were his works, for centuries after his death, Christian authors wrote hundreds of pseudepigraphal works in his name, he has been called the most significant of all of the fathers of the Syriac-speaking church tradition. Ephrem was born around the year 306 in the city of Nisibis, in the contested border region between Sassanid Assyria and Roman Mesopotamia, then-recently acquired by Rome. Internal evidence from Ephrem's hymnody suggests that both his parents were part of the growing Christian community in the city, although hagiographers wrote that his father was a pagan priest.
Numerous languages were spoken in the Nisibis of Ephrem's day dialects of Aramaic. The Christian community used the Syriac dialect; the culture included pagan religions and early Christian sects. Jacob, the second bishop of Nisibis, was appointed in 308, Ephrem grew up under his leadership of the community. Jacob of Nisibis is recorded as a signatory at the First Council of Nicea in 325. Ephrem was baptized as a youth and certainly became a son of the covenant, an unusual form of syriac proto-monasticism. Jacob appointed Ephrem as a teacher, he was ordained as a deacon either at his baptism or later. He began to write biblical commentaries as part of his educational office. In his hymns, he sometimes refers to himself as a "herdsman", to his bishop as the "shepherd", to his community as a'fold'. Ephrem is popularly credited as the founder of the School of Nisibis, which, in centuries, was the centre of learning of the Syriac Orthodox Church. In 337, Emperor Constantine I, who had legalised and promoted the practice of Christianity in the Roman Empire, died.
Seizing on this opportunity, Shapur II of Persia began a series of attacks into Roman North Mesopotamia. Nisibis was besieged in 338, 346 and 350. During the first siege, Ephrem credits Bishop Jacob as defending the city with his prayers. In the third siege, of 350, Shapur rerouted the River Mygdonius to undermine the walls of Nisibis; the Nisibenes repaired the walls while the Persian elephant cavalry became bogged down in the wet ground. Ephrem celebrated what he saw as the miraculous salvation of the city in a hymn that portrayed Nisibis as being like Noah's Ark, floating to safety on the flood. One important physical link to Ephrem's lifetime is the baptistery of Nisibis; the inscription tells that it was constructed under Bishop Vologeses in 359. In that year, Shapur attacked again; the cities around Nisibis were destroyed one by one, their citizens killed or deported. Constantius II was unable to respond, his army elected Jovian as the new emperor, to rescue his army, he was forced to surrender Nisibis to Persia and to permit the expulsion of the entire Christian population.
Ephrem, with the others, went first to Amida settling in Edessa in 363. Ephrem, in his late fifties, applied himself to ministry in his new church and seems to have continued his work as a teacher in the School of Edessa. Edessa had always been at the heart of the Syriac-speaking world, the city was full of rival philosophies and religions. Ephrem comments that orthodox Nicene Christians were called "Palutians" in Edessa, after a former bishop. Arians, Manichees and various gnostic sects proclaimed themselves as the true church. In this confusion, Ephrem wrote a great number of hymns defending Nicene orthodoxy. A Syriac writer, Jacob of Serugh, wrote that Ephrem rehearsed all-female choirs to sing his hymns set to Syriac folk tunes in the forum of Edessa. After a ten-year residency in Edessa, in his sixties, Ephrem succumbed to the plague as he ministered to its victims; the most reliable date for his death is 9 June 373. Over four hundred hymns composed by Ephrem still exist. Granted that some have been lost, Ephrem's productivity is not in doubt.
The church historian Sozomen credits Ephrem with having written over three million lines. Ephrem combines in his writing a threefold heritage: he draws on the models and methods of early Rabbinic Judaism, he engages skillfully with Greek science and philosophy, he delights in the Mesopotamian/Persian tradition of mystery symbolism; the most important of his works are his lyric. These hymns are full of rich, poetic imagery drawn from biblical sources, folk tradition, other religions and philosophies; the madrāšê are written in stanzas of syllabic verse and employ over fifty different metrical schemes. Each madrāšâ had a traditional tune identified by its opening line. All of these qālê are now lost, it seems that Bardaisan and Mani composed madrāšê, Ephrem felt that the medium was a suitable tool to use against their claims
Greek ligatures are graphic combinations of the letters of the Greek alphabet that were used in medieval handwritten Greek and in early printing. Ligatures were used in the cursive writing style and extensively in minuscule writing. There were dozens of conventional ligatures; some of them stood for frequent letter combinations, some for inflectional endings of words, some were abbreviations of entire words. In early printed Greek from around 1500, many ligatures fashioned after contemporary manuscript hands continued to be used. Important models for this early typesetting practice were the designs of Aldus Manutius in Venice, those of Claude Garamond in Paris, who created the influential Grecs du roi typeface in 1541. However, the use of ligatures declined during the 17th and 18th centuries and became obsolete in modern typesetting. Among the ligatures that remained in use the longest are the ligature Ȣ for ου, which resembles an o with an u on top, the abbreviation ϗ for καὶ, which resembles a κ with a downward stroke on the right.
The ου ligature is still used in decorative writing, while the καὶ abbreviation has some limited usage in functions similar to the Latin ampersand. Another ligature, frequent in early modern printing is a ligature of Ο with ς for a terminal ος; the ligature ϛ for στ, now called stigma, survived in a special role besides its use as a ligature proper. It took on the function of a number sign for "6", having been visually conflated with the cursive form of the ancient letter digamma, which had this numeral function. In the modern computer encoding standard Unicode, the abbreviation ϗ has been encoded since version 3.0 of the standard. An uppercase version Ϗ was added in version 5.1. A lower and upper case "stigma", designed for its numeric use, is encoded in Unicode. Letters derived from the ου ligature exist for use in Latin, for Cyrillic, though not for Greek itself; some attempts have been made at recreating typesetting with ligatures in modern computer fonts, either through Unicode-compliant OpenType glyph replacement, or with simpler but non-standardized methods of glyph-by-glyph encoding.
Greek digraphsLatin and Cyrillic Ou digraphs iota adscript, written with a ligatured iota: ᾼ iota subscript written with a ligatured iota: ᾳ Tau-Rho Chi-Rho