Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths. About 180,000 species of the Lepidoptera are described, in 126 families and 46 superfamilies, 10 per cent of the total described species of living organisms, it is one of the most widespread and recognizable insect orders in the world. The Lepidoptera show many variations of the basic body structure that have evolved to gain advantages in lifestyle and distribution. Recent estimates suggest the order may have more species than earlier thought, is among the four most speciose orders, along with the Hymenoptera and Coleoptera. Lepidopteran species are characterized by more than three derived features; the most apparent is the presence of scales that cover the bodies, a proboscis. The scales are modified, flattened "hairs", give butterflies and moths their wide variety of colors and patterns. All species have some form of membranous wings, except for a few that have reduced wings or are wingless. Mating and the laying of eggs are carried out by adults near or on host plants for the larvae.
Like most other insects and moths are holometabolous, meaning they undergo complete metamorphosis. The larvae are called caterpillars, are different from their adult moth or butterfly forms, having a cylindrical body with a well-developed head, mandible mouth parts, three pairs of thoracic legs and from none up to five pairs of prolegs; as they grow, these larvae change in appearance, going through a series of stages called instars. Once matured, the larva develops into a pupa. A few butterflies and many moth species spin a silk case or cocoon prior to pupating, while others do not, instead going underground. A butterfly pupa, called a chrysalis, has a hard skin with no cocoon. Once the pupa has completed its metamorphosis, a sexually mature adult emerges; the Lepidoptera have, over millions of years, evolved a wide range of wing patterns and coloration ranging from drab moths akin to the related order Trichoptera, to the brightly colored and complex-patterned butterflies. Accordingly, this is the most recognized and popular of insect orders with many people involved in the observation, collection, rearing of, commerce in these insects.
A person who collects or studies this order is referred to as a lepidopterist. Butterflies and moths play an important role in the natural ecosystem as pollinators and as food in the food chain. In many species, the female may produce from 200 to 600 eggs, while in others, the number may approach 30,000 eggs in one day; the caterpillars hatching from these eggs can cause damage to large quantities of crops. Many moth and butterfly species are of economic interest by virtue of their role as pollinators, the silk they produce, or as pest species; the term was coined by Linnaeus in 1735 and is derived from Greek λεπίς, gen. λεπίδος and πτερόν. Sometimes, the term Rhopalocera is used for the clade of all butterfly species, derived from the Ancient Greek ῥόπαλον and κέρας meaning "club" and "horn" coming from the shape of the antennae of butterflies; the origins of the common names "butterfly" and "moth" are varied and obscure. The English word butterfly is with many variations in spelling. Other than that, the origin is unknown, although it could be derived from the pale yellow color of many species' wings suggesting the color of butter.
The species of Heterocera are called moths. The origins of the English word moth are more clear, deriving from the Old English moððe" from Common Germanic, its origins are related to Old English maða meaning "maggot" or from the root of "midge", which until the 16th century was used to indicate the larva in reference to devouring clothes. The etymological origins of the word "caterpillar", the larval form of butterflies and moths, are from the early 16th century, from Middle English catirpel, catirpeller an alteration of Old North French catepelose: cate, cat + pelose, hairy; the Lepidoptera are among the most successful groups of insects. They are found on all continents, except Antarctica, inhabit all terrestrial habitats ranging from desert to rainforest, from lowland grasslands to mountain plateaus, but always associated with higher plants angiosperms. Among the most northern dwelling species of butterflies and moths is the Arctic Apollo, found in the Arctic Circle in northeastern Yakutia, at an altitude of 1500 m above sea level.
In the Himalayas, various Apollo species such as Parnassius epaphus have been recorded to occur up to an altitude of 6,000 m above sea level. Some lepidopteran species exhibit symbiotic, phoretic, or parasitic lifestyles, inhabiting the bodies of organisms rather than the environment. Coprophagous pyralid moth species, called sloth moths, such as Bradipodicola hahneli and Cryptoses choloepi, are unusual in that they are found inhabiting the fur of sloths, mammals found in Central and South America. Two species of Tinea moths have been recorded as feeding on horny tissue and have been bred from the horns of cattle; the larva of Zenodochium coccivorella is an internal parasite of the coccid Kermes species. Many species have been recorded as breeding in natural materials or refuse such as owl pellets, bat caves, honeycombs or diseased fruit; as of 2007, there was 174,250 lepi
Morus, a genus of flowering plants in the family Moraceae, comprises 10–16 species of deciduous trees known as mulberries, growing wild and under cultivation in many temperate world regions. The related genus Broussonetia is commonly known as mulberry, notably the paper mulberry, Broussonetia papyrifera. Mulberries are fast-growing when young, but soon become slow-growing and exceed 10–15 metres tall; the leaves are alternately arranged and lobed and serrated on the margin. Lobes are more common on juvenile shoots than on mature trees; the trees can be dioecious. The mulberry fruit is a multiple fruit 2–3 cm long. Immature fruits are green, or pale yellow. In most species the fruits turn pink and red while ripening dark purple or black, have a sweet flavor when ripe; the fruits of the white-fruited cultivar are white. Although quite similar looking, they are not to be confused with blackberries; the taxonomy of Morus is complex and disputed. Over 150 species names have been published, although differing sources may cite different selections of accepted names, only 10–16 are cited as being accepted by the vast majority of botanical authorities.
Morus classification is further complicated by widespread hybridisation, wherein the hybrids are fertile. The following species are accepted by the Kew Plant List as of August 2015: Black and white mulberry are widespread in southern Europe, the Middle East, northern Africa and Indian subcontinent, where the tree and the fruit have names under regional dialects. Jams and sherbets are made from the fruit in this region. Black mulberry was imported to Britain in the 17th century in the hope that it would be useful in the cultivation of silkworms, it was much used in folk medicine in the treatment of ringworm. Mulberries are widespread in Greece in the Peloponnese, which in the Middle Ages was known as Morea, deriving from the Greek word for the tree. Mulberries can be grown from seed, this is advised as seedling-grown trees are of better shape and health, but they are most planted from large cuttings which root readily; the mulberry plants which are allowed to grow tall with a crown height of 1.5 to 1.8 metres from ground level and a stem girth of 10–13 cm.
They are specially raised with the help of well-grown saplings 8–10 months old of any of the varieties recommended for rainfed areas like S-13 or S-34 which are tolerant to drought or soil-moisture stress conditions. The plantation is raised and in block formation with a spacing of 1.8 by 1.8 m, or 2.4 by 2.4 m, as plant to plant and row to row distance. The plants are pruned once a year during the monsoon season to a height of 1.5–1.8 m and allowed to grow with a maximum of 8–10 shoots at the crown. The leaves are harvested three or four times a year by a leaf-picking method under rain-fed or semiarid conditions, depending on the monsoon; the tree branches pruned during the fall season are cut and used to make durable baskets supporting agriculture and animal husbandry. Some North American cities have banned the planting of mulberries because of the large amounts of pollen they produce, posing a potential health hazard for some pollen allergy sufferers. Only the male mulberry trees produce pollen.
Conversely, female mulberry trees produce all-female flowers, which draw pollen and dust from the air. Because of this pollen-absorbing feature, all-female mulberry trees have an OPALS allergy scale rating of just 1, some consider it "allergy-free". Mulberry tree scion wood can be grafted onto other mulberry trees during the winter, when the tree is dormant. One common scenario is converting a problematic male mulberry tree to an allergy-free female tree, by grafting all-female mulberry tree scions to a male mulberry, pruned back to the trunk. However, any new growth from below the graft must be removed, as they would be from the original male mulberry tree; the fruit of the white mulberry – an East Asian species extensively naturalized in urban regions of eastern North America – has a different flavor, sometimes characterized as refreshing and a little tart, with a bit of gumminess to it and a hint of vanilla. In North America, the white mulberry is considered an invasive exotic and has taken over extensive tracts from native plant species, including the red mulberry.
The ripe fruit is edible and is used in pies, wines and herbal teas. The fruit of the black mulberry and the red mulberry have the strongest flavor, likened to'fireworks in the mouth'; the fruit and leaves are sold in various forms as nutritional supplements. The mature plant contains significant amounts of resveratrol in stem bark. Unripe fruit and green parts of the plant have a white sap that may be toxic, stimulating, or mildly hallucinogenic. In a 100 g serving, raw mulberries provide 180 kJ, 44% of the Daily Value for vitamin C, 14% of the DV for iron. Mulberry leaves those of the white mulberry, are ecologically important as the sole food source of the silkworm, the cocoon of, used to make silk; the wild silk moth eats mulbe
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori. It is an economically important insect. A silkworm's preferred food is white mulberry leaves, though they may eat other mulberry species and osage orange. Domestic silkmoths are dependent on humans for reproduction, as a result of millennia of selective breeding. Wild silkmoths are different from their domestic cousins. Sericulture, the practice of breeding silkworms for the production of raw silk, has been under way for at least 5,000 years in China, whence it spread to India, Korea and the West; the silkworm was domesticated from the wild silkmoth Bombyx mandarina, which has a range from northern India to northern China, Korea and the far eastern regions of Russia. The domesticated silkworm derives from Chinese rather than Korean stock. Silkworms were unlikely to have been domestically bred before the Neolithic age. Before the tools to manufacture quantities of silk thread had not been developed; the domesticated B. mori and the wild B. mandarina can still sometimes produce hybrids.
Domestic silkmoths are different from most members in the genus Bombyx. Mulberry silkworms can be categorized into types; the major groups of silkworms fall under the bivoltine categories. The univoltine breed is linked with the geographical area within greater Europe; the eggs of this type hibernate during winter due to the cold climate, cross-fertilize only by spring, generating silk only once annually. The second type is called bivoltine and is found in China and Korea; the breeding process of this type takes place twice annually, a feat made possible through the warmer climates and the resulting two life cycles. The polyvoltine type of mulberry silkworm can only be found in the tropics; the eggs are laid by female moths and hatch within nine to 12 days, so the resulting type can have up to eight separate life cycles throughout the year. Eggs take about 14 days to hatch into larvae, they have a preference for white mulberry. They are not monophagous since they can eat other species of Morus, as well as some other Moraceae Osage orange.
They are covered with tiny black hairs. When the color of their heads turns darker, it indicates. After molting, the larval phase of the silkworms emerge white and with little horns on their backs. After they have molted four times, their bodies become yellow and the skin becomes tighter; the larvae prepare to enter the pupal phase of their lifecycle, enclose themselves in a cocoon made up of raw silk produced by the salivary glands. The final molt from larva to pupa takes place within the cocoon, which provides a vital layer of protection during the vulnerable motionless pupal state. Many other Lepidoptera produce cocoons, but only a few—the Bombycidae, in particular the genus Bombyx, the Saturniidae, in particular the genus Antheraea—have been exploited for fabric production. If the animal is allowed to survive after spinning its cocoon and through the pupal phase of its lifecycle, it releases proteolytic enzymes to make a hole in the cocoon so it can emerge as an adult moth; these enzymes are destructive to the silk and can cause the silk fibers to break down from over a mile in length to segments of random length, which reduces the value of the silk threads, but not silk cocoons used as "stuffing" available in China and elsewhere for doonas, jackets etc.
To prevent this, silkworm cocoons are boiled. The heat kills the water makes the cocoons easier to unravel; the silkworm itself is eaten. As the process of harvesting the silk from the cocoon kills the larva, sericulture has been criticized by animal welfare and rights activists. Mahatma Gandhi was critical of silk production based on the Ahimsa philosophy "not to hurt any living thing"; this led to Gandhi's promotion of cotton spinning machines, an example of which can be seen at the Gandhi Institute. He promoted Ahimsa silk, wild silk made from the cocoons of wild and semiwild silkmoths; the moth – the adult phase of the lifecycle – is not capable of functional flight, in contrast to the wild B. mandarina and other Bombyx species, whose males fly to meet females and for evasion from predators. Some may emerge with the ability to lift off and stay airborne, but sustained flight cannot be achieved; this is because their bodies are too heavy for their small wings. However, some silkmoths can still fly.
Silkmoths have a wingspan of 3 -- a white, hairy body. Females are about two to three times bulkier than males, but are colored. Adult Bombycidae do not feed, though a human caretaker can feed them; the cocoon is made of a thread of raw silk from 300 to about 900 m long. The fibers are fine and lustrous, about 10 μm in diameter. About 2,000 to 3,000 cocoons are required to make a pound of silk. At least 70 million pounds of raw silk are produced each year. Due to its small size and ease of culture, the silkworm has become a model organism in the study of lepidopteran and arthropod biology. Fundamental findings on pheromones, brain structures, physiology have been made with the silkworm. One example of this was the m
Padua is a city and comune in Veneto, northern Italy. It is the capital of the economic and communications hub of the area. Padua's population is 214,000; the city is sometimes included, with Venice and Treviso, in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area which has a population of c. 2,600,000. Padua stands on 29 km southeast of Vicenza; the Brenta River, which once ran through the city, still touches the northern districts. Its agricultural setting is the Venetian Plain. To the city's south west lies the Euganaean Hills, praised by Lucan and Martial, Ugo Foscolo, Shelley, it hosts the University of Padua, founded in 1222, where Galileo Galilei was a lecturer between 1592 and 1610. The city is picturesque, with a dense network of arcaded streets opening into large communal piazze, many bridges crossing the various branches of the Bacchiglione, which once surrounded the ancient walls like a moat. Padua is the setting for most of the action in Shakespeare's The Taming of the Shrew. There is a play by the Irish writer Oscar Wilde entitled The Duchess of Padua.
The city is known for being the city where Saint Anthony, a Portuguese Franciscan, spent part of his life and died in 1231. The original significance of the Roman name Patavium is uncertain, it may be connected with the ancient name of the River Po. Additionally, the root pat-, in the Indo-European language may refer to a wide open plain as opposed to nearby hills; the suffix -av (also found in the name of the rivers such as the Timavus and Tiliaventum is of Venetic origin indicating the presence of a river, which in the case of Padua is the Brenta. The ending - ium, signifies the presence of villages. Padua claims to be the oldest city in northern Italy. According to a tradition dated at least to the time of Virgil's Aeneid and to Livy's Ab Urbe Condita, Padua was founded in around 1183 BC by the Trojan prince Antenor. After the Fall of Troy, Antenor led a group of Trojans and their Paphlagonian allies, the Eneti or Veneti, who lost their king Pylaemenes to settle the Euganean plain in Italy.
Thus, when a large ancient stone sarcophagus was exhumed in the year 1274, officials of the medieval commune declared the remains within to be those of Antenor. An inscription by the native Humanist scholar Lovato dei Lovati placed near the tomb reads: This sepulchre excavated from marble contains the body of the noble Antenor who left his country, guided the Eneti and Trojans, banished the Euganeans and founded Padua However, more recent tests suggest the sepulchre dates to the between the 4th and 3rd centuries BC. Archeological remains confirm an early date for the foundation of the center of the town to between the 11th and 10th centuries BC. By the 5th century BC, rose on the banks of the river Brenta, which in the Roman era was called Medoacus Maior and until AD 589 followed the path of the present day Bacchiglione. Padua was one of the principal centers of the Veneti; the Roman historian Livy records an attempted invasion by the Spartan king Cleonimos around 302 BC. The Spartans came up the river but were defeated by the Veneti in a naval battle and gave up the idea of conquest.
Still the Veneti of Padua repulsed invasions by the Etruscans and Gauls. According to Livy and Silius Italicus, the Veneti, including those of Padua, formed an alliance with the Romans by 226 BC against their common enemies, first the Gauls and the Carthaginians. Men from Padua died beside the Romans at Cannae. With Rome's northwards expansion, Padua was assimilated into the Roman Republic. In 175 BC, Padua requested the aid of Rome in putting down a local civil war. In 91 BC, along with other cities of the Veneti, fought with Rome against the rebels in the Social War. Around 49 BC, Padua was made a Roman municipium under the Lex Julia Municipalis and its citizens ascribed to the Roman tribe, Fabia. At that time the population of the city was 40,000; the city was reputed for the wool of its sheep. In fact, the poet Martial remarks on the thickness of the tunics made there. By the end of the first century BC, Padua seems to have been the wealthiest city in Italy outside of Rome; the city became so powerful that it was able to raise two hundred thousand fighting men.
However, despite its wealth, the city was renowned for its simple manners and strict morality. This concern with morality is reflected in Livy's Roman History wherein he portrays Rome's rise to dominance as being founded upon her moral rectitude and discipline. Still Pliny, referring to one of his Paduan protégés' Paduan grandmother, Sarrana Procula, lauds her as more upright and disciplined than any of her strict fellow citizens. Padua provided the Empire with notable intellectuals. Nearby Abano was the birthplace, after many years spent in Rome, the deathplace of Livy, whose Latin was said by the critic Asinius Pollio to betray his Patavinitas. Padua was the birthplace of Thrasea Paetus, Asconius Pedianus, Valerius Flaccus. Christianity was introduced to much of the Veneto by Saint Prosdocimus, he is venerated as the first bishop of the city. His deacon, the Jewish convert Daniel, is a
Mario Tirelli was an Italian entomologist. Tirelli was a specialist in the biology of Bombyx mori the Mulberry silkmoth, he was under director of the Stazione Bacologica Sperimentale in Padua. He wrote Atlante microfotografico della embriologia degli insetti. Col concorso della ditta G. Pasqualis di Vittorio Veneto, Regia Stazione Bacologica Sperimentale.. Osborn, H. 1946 Fragments of Entomological History Including Some Personal Recollections of Men and Events. Columbus, Published by the Author 2 1-232, 36 Taf. 149, Portr. Osborn, H. 1952 A Brief History of Entomology Including Time of Demosthenes and Aristotle to Modern Times with over Five Hundred Portraits. Columbus, The Spahr & Glenn Company: 1-303 229, Portr
Insects or Insecta are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; as used here, the term Insecta is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body, three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. Insects are the most diverse group of animals; the total number of extant species is estimated at between ten million. Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, which are dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans. Nearly all insects hatch from eggs. Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts; the immature stages differ from the adults in structure and habitat, can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo four-stage metamorphosis. Insects that undergo three-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages.
The higher level relationship of the insects is unclear. Fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm; the most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants. Adult insects move about by walking, flying, or sometimes swimming; as it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their legs touching the ground in alternating triangles, composed of the front & rear on one side with the middle on the other side. Insects are the only invertebrates to have evolved flight, all flying insects derive from one common ancestor. Many insects spend at least part of their lives under water, with larval adaptations that include gills, some adult insects are aquatic and have adaptations for swimming; some species, such as water striders, are capable of walking on the surface of water. Insects are solitary, but some, such as certain bees and termites, are social and live in large, well-organized colonies.
Some insects, such as earwigs, show maternal care, guarding their eggs and young. Insects can communicate with each other in a variety of ways. Male moths can sense the pheromones of female moths over great distances. Other species communicate with sounds: crickets stridulate, or rub their wings together, to attract a mate and repel other males. Lampyrid beetles communicate with light. Humans regard certain insects as pests, attempt to control them using insecticides, a host of other techniques; some insects damage crops by feeding on sap, fruits, or wood. Some species are parasitic, may vector diseases; some insects perform complex ecological roles. Insect pollinators are essential to the life cycle of many flowering plant species on which most organisms, including humans, are at least dependent. Many insects are considered ecologically beneficial as predators and a few provide direct economic benefit. Silkworms produce silk and honey bees produce honey and both have been domesticated by humans.
Insects are consumed as food in 80% of the world's nations, by people in 3000 ethnic groups. Human activities have effects on insect biodiversity; the word "insect" comes from the Latin word insectum, meaning "with a notched or divided body", or "cut into", from the neuter singular perfect passive participle of insectare, "to cut into, to cut up", from in- "into" and secare "to cut". A calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections", Pliny the Elder introduced the Latin designation as a loan-translation of the Greek word ἔντομος or "insect", Aristotle's term for this class of life in reference to their "notched" bodies. "Insect" first appears documented in English in 1601 in Holland's translation of Pliny. Translations of Aristotle's term form the usual word for "insect" in Welsh, Serbo-Croatian, etc; the precise definition of the taxon Insecta and the equivalent English name "insect" varies. In the broadest circumscription, Insecta sensu lato consists of all hexapods. Traditionally, insects defined in this way were divided into "Apterygota" —the wingless insects—and Pterygota—the winged insects.
However, modern phylogenetic studies have shown that "Apterygota" is not monophyletic, so does not form a good taxon. A narrower circumscription restricts insects to those hexapods with external mouthparts, comprises only the last three groups in the table. In this sense, Insecta sensu stricto is equivalent to Ectognatha. In the narrowest circumscription, insects are restricted to hexapods that are either winged or descended from winged ancestors. Insecta sensu strictissimo is equivalent to Pterygota. For the purposes of this article, the middle definition is used; the evolutionary relationship of insects to other animal groups remains unclear. Although traditionally grouped with millipedes and centiped
Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Victor Emmanuel II was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861. At that point, he assumed the title of King of Italy and became the first king of a united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878; the Italians gave him the epithet of Father of the Fatherland. The monument Altare della Patria in Rome was built in his honor. Victor Emmanuel was born as the eldest son of Charles Albert, Prince of Carignano, Maria Theresa of Austria, his father succeeded a distant cousin as King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1831. He lived for some years of his youth in Florence and showed an early interest in politics, the military, sports. In 1842, he married Adelaide of Austria, he was styled as the Duke of Savoy prior to becoming King of Sardinia-Piedmont. He took part in the First Italian War of Independence under his father, King Charles Albert, fighting in the front line at the battles of Pastrengo, Santa Lucia and Custoza, he became King of Sardinia-Piedmont in 1849 when his father abdicated the throne, after a humiliating military defeat by the Austrians at the Battle of Novara.
Victor Emmanuel was able to obtain a rather favorable armistice at Vignale by the Austrian imperial army commander, Radetzky. The treaty, was not ratified by the Piedmontese lower parliamentary house, the Chamber of Deputies, Victor Emmanuel retaliated by firing his Prime Minister, Claudio Gabriele de Launay, replacing him with Massimo D'Azeglio. After new elections, the peace with Austria was accepted by the new Chamber of Deputies. In 1849, Victor Emmanuel fiercely suppressed a revolt in Genoa, defining the rebels as a "vile and infected race of canailles." In 1852, he appointed Count Camillo Benso of Cavour as Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia. This turned out to be a wise choice, since Cavour was a political mastermind and a major player in the Italian unification in his own right. Victor Emmanuel II soon became the symbol of the "Risorgimento", the Italian unification movement of the 1850s and early 60s, he was popular in the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont because of his respect for the new constitution and his liberal reforms.
Following Victor Emmanuel's advice, Cavour joined Britain and France in the Crimean War against Russia. Cavour was reluctant to go to war due to the power of Russia at the time and the expense of doing so. Victor Emmanuel, was convinced of the rewards to be gained from the alliance created with Britain and, more France. After seeking British support and ingratiating himself with France and Napoleon III at the Congress of Paris in 1856 at the end of the war, Count Cavour arranged a secret meeting with the French emperor. In 1858, they met at Plombières-les-Bains, where they agreed that if the French were to help Piedmont combat Austria, which still occupied the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia in northern Italy, France would be awarded Nice and Savoy; the Italo-French campaign against Austria in 1859 started successfully. However, sickened by the casualties of the war and worried about the mobilisation of Prussian troops, Napoleon III secretly made a treaty with Franz Joseph of Austria at Villafranca whereby Piedmont would only gain Lombardy.
France did not as a result receive the promised Nice and Savoy, but Austria did keep Venetia, a major setback for the Piedmontese, in no small part because the treaty had been prepared without their knowledge. After several quarrels about the outcome of the war, Cavour resigned, the king had to find other advisors. France indeed only gained Nice and Savoy after the Treaty of Turin was signed in March 1860, after Cavour had been reinstalled as Prime Minister, a deal with the French was struck for plebiscites to take place in the Central Italian Duchies; that same year, Victor Emmanuel II sent his forces to fight the papal army at Castelfidardo and drove the Pope into Vatican City. His success at these goals led him to be excommunicated from the Catholic Church. Giuseppe Garibaldi conquered Sicily and Naples, Sardinia-Piedmont grew larger. On 17 March 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was established and Victor Emmanuel II became its king. Victor Emmanuel supported Giuseppe Garibaldi's Expedition of the Thousand, which resulted in the rapid fall of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in southern Italy.
However, the king halted Garibaldi when he appeared ready to attack Rome, still under the Papal States, as it was under French protection. In 1860, through local plebiscites, Modena and Romagna decided to side with Sardinia-Piedmont. Victor Emmanuel marched victoriously in the Marche and Umbria after the victorious battle of Castelfidardo over the Papal forces; the king subsequently met with Garibaldi at Teano. Another series of plebiscites in the occupied lands resulted in the proclamation of Victor Emmanuel as the first King of Italy by the new Parliament of unified Italy, on 17 March 1861, he did not renumber himself after assuming the new royal title, however. Turin became the capital of the new state. Only Rome and Trentino remained to be conquered. In 1866 Victor Emmanuel allied himself with Prussia in the Third Italian War of Independence. Although not victorious in the Italian theater, he managed anyway to receive Veneto after the Austrian defeat in Germany; the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Clarendon, visited Florence in December 1867 and reported to London after talking to various Italian politicians: "There is universal agreement that Victor Emmanuel is an imbecile.