Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. It is located 55.5 kilometres south-southeast of the centre of Paris. Fontainebleau is a sub-prefecture of the Seine-et-Marne department, it is the seat of the arrondissement of Fontainebleau; the commune has the largest land area in the Île-de-France region. Fontainebleau, together with the neighbouring commune of Avon and three other smaller communes, form an urban area of 39,713 inhabitants; this urban area is a satellite of Paris. Fontainebleau is renowned for the large and scenic forest of Fontainebleau, a favourite weekend getaway for Parisians, as well as for the historic Château de Fontainebleau, which once belonged to the kings of France, it is the home of INSEAD, one of the world's most elite business schools. Inhabitants of Fontainebleau are sometimes called Bellifontains. Fontainebleau has been recorded in different Latinised forms, such as, Fons Bleaudi, Fons Bliaudi, Fons Blaadi in the 12th and 13th centuries, with Fontem blahaud being recorded in 1137.
It became Fons Bellaqueus in the 17th century, which gave rise to the name of the inhabitants as Bellifontains. The name originates as a medieval composite of two words: Fontaine– meaning spring, or fountainhead, followed by a person’s Germanic name Blizwald; this hamlet was endowed with a royal hunting lodge and a chapel by Louis VII in the middle of the twelfth century. A century Louis IX called Saint Louis, who held Fontainebleau in high esteem and referred to it as "his wilderness", had a country house and a hospital constructed there. Philip the Fair was born there in 1268 and died there in 1314. In all, thirty-four sovereigns, from Louis VI, the Fat, to Napoleon III, spent time at Fontainebleau; the connection between the town of Fontainebleau and the French monarchy was reinforced with the transformation of the royal country house into a true royal palace, the Palace of Fontainebleau. This was accomplished by the great builder-king, Francis I, who, in the largest of his many construction projects, reconstructed and transformed the royal château at Fontainebleau into a residence that became his favourite, as well as the residence of his mistress, duchess of Étampes.
From the sixteenth to the eighteenth century, every monarch, from Francis I to Louis XV, made important renovations at the Palace of Fontainebleau, including demolitions, reconstructions and embellishments of various descriptions, all of which endowed it with a character, a bit heterogeneous, but harmonious nonetheless. On 18 October 1685, Louis XIV signed the Edict of Fontainebleau there. Known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, this royal fiat reversed the permission granted to the Huguenots in 1598 to worship publicly in specified locations and hold certain other privileges; the result was that a large number of Protestants were forced to convert to the Catholic faith, killed, or forced into exile in the Low Countries, Prussia and in England. The 1762 Treaty of Fontainebleau, a secret agreement between France and Spain concerning the Louisiana territory in North America, was concluded here. Preliminary negotiations, held before the 1763 Treaty of Paris was signed, ending the Seven Years' War, were at Fontainebleau.
During the French Revolution, Fontainebleau was temporarily renamed Fontaine-la-Montagne, meaning "Fountain by the Mountain". On 29 October 1807, Manuel Godoy, chancellor to the Spanish king, Charles IV and Napoleon signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau, which authorized the passage of French troops through Spanish territories so that they might invade Portugal. On 20 June 1812, Pope Pius VII arrived at the château of Fontainebleau, after a secret transfer from Savona, accompanied by his personal physician, Balthazard Claraz. In poor health, the Pope was the prisoner of Napoleon, he remained in his genteel prison at Fontainebleau for nineteen months. From June 1812 until 23 January 1814, the Pope never left his apartments. On 20 April 1814, Napoleon Bonaparte, shortly before his first abdication, bid farewell to the Old Guard, the renowned grognards who had served with him since his first campaigns, in the "White Horse Courtyard" at the Palace of Fontainebleau. According to contemporary sources, the occasion was moving.
The 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau sent him into exile on Elba. Until the 19th century, Fontainebleau was a suburb of Avon, it developed as an independent residential city. For the 1924 Summer Olympics, the town played host to the riding portion of the modern pentathlon event; this event took place near a golf course. In July and August 1946, the town hosted the Franco-Vietnamese Conference, intended to find a solution to the long-contested struggle for Vietnam’s independence from France, but the conference ended in failure. Fontainebleau hosted the general staff of the Allied Forces in Central Europe and the land forces command; these facilities were in place from the inception of NATO until France’s partial withdrawal from NATO in 1967 when the United States returned those bases to French control. NATO moved AFCENT to Brunssum in the AIRCENT to Ramstein in West Germany. (Note that the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe known as SHAPE, was located
French fries, or fries. French fries are served hot, either soft or crispy, are eaten as part of lunch or dinner or by themselves as a snack, they appear on the menus of diners, fast food restaurants and bars, they are salted and, depending on the country, may be served with ketchup, mayonnaise, tomato sauce, or other local specialties. Fries can be topped more as in the dishes of poutine or chili cheese fries. Chips can be made from other sweet potatoes instead of potatoes. A baked variant, oven chips, uses no oil. One common fast food dish is fish and chips. French fries are prepared by first cutting the potato into strips, which are wiped off or soaked in cold water to remove the surface starch, dried, they may be fried in one or two stages. Chefs agree that the two-bath technique produces better results. Potatoes fresh out of the ground can have too high a water content—resulting in soggy fries—so preference is for those that have been stored for a while. In the two-stage or two-bath method, the first bath, sometimes called blanching, is in hot fat to cook them through.
This step can be done in advance. They are more fried in hot fat to crisp the exterior, they are placed in a colander or on a cloth to drain and served. The exact times of the two baths depend on the size of the potatoes. For example, for 2–3 mm strips, the first bath takes about 3 minutes, the second bath takes only seconds. One can cook french fries using several techniques. Deep frying submerges food in hot fat, most oil. Vacuum fryers are suitable to process low-quality potatoes with higher sugar levels than normal, as they have to be processed in spring and early summer before the potatoes from the new harvest become available. In the UK, a chip pan is a deep-sided cooking pan used for deep-frying. Chip pans are named for their traditional use in frying chips. Most french fries are produced from frozen potatoes which have been blanched or at least air-dried industrially. Most chains that sell fresh cut fries use the Idaho Russet Burbank variety of potatoes, it has been the standard for french fries in the United States.
The usual fat for making french fries is vegetable oil. In the past, beef suet was recommended with vegetable shortening as an alternative. In fact, McDonald's used a mixture of 93% beef tallow and 7% cottonseed oil until 1990, when they switched to vegetable oil with beef flavoring. Starting in the 1960s, more fast food restaurants have been using frozen french fries. In the United States and most of Canada, the term french fries, sometimes capitalized as French fries, or shortened to fries, refers to all dishes of fried elongated pieces of potatoes. Variations in shape and size may have names such as curly fries, shoestring fries, etc.. In the United Kingdom, South Africa and New Zealand, the term chips is used instead, though thinly cut fried potatoes are sometimes called french fries, skinny fries, or pommes frites, to distinguish them from chips, which are cut thicker. A person from the US or Canada might instead refer to these more thickly-cut chips as steak fries or potato wedges, depending on the shape, as the word chips is more used to refer to potato chips, known in the UK and Ireland as crisps.
Thomas Jefferson had "potatoes served in the French manner" at a White House dinner in 1802. The expression "french fried potatoes" first occurred in print in English in the 1856 work Cookery for Maids of All Work by E. Warren: "French Fried Potatoes. – Cut new potatoes in thin slices, put them in boiling fat, a little salt. This account referred to thin, shallow-fried slices of potato – it is not clear where or when the now familiar deep-fried batons or fingers of potato were first prepared. In the early 20th century, the term "french fried" was being used in the sense of "deep-fried" for foods like onion rings or chicken; the French and Belgians have an ongoing dispute about where fries were invented, with both countries claiming ownership. From the Belgian standpoint the popularity of the term "french fries" is explained as a "French gastronomic hegemony" into which the cuisine of Belgium was assimilated because of a lack of understanding coupled with a shared language and geographic proximity of the countries.
Belgian journalist Jo Gérard claims that a 1781 family manuscript recounts that potatoes were deep-fried prior to 1680 in the Meuse valley, in what was the Spanish Netherlands: "The inhabitants of Namur and Dinant had the custom of fishing in the Meuse for small fish and frying among the poor, but when the river was frozen and fishing became hazardous, they cut potatoes in the form of small fish and put them in a fryer like those here." Gérard has not produced the manuscript that supports this claim due to the fact that it is unrelated to the history of the French fry, as the potato did not arrive in the region until around 1735. Given 18th century economic conditions: "It is unthinkable that a peasant could have dedicated large quantities of fat for cooking potatoes. At most they were sautéed in a pan...". At least one source says that "french fries" for deep-fried potato batons was introduced when American and British soldiers arrived in Belgium during World War I; the Belgians had been catering to the British soldiers'
Roland Gérard Barthes was a French literary theorist, philosopher and semiotician. Barthes' ideas explored a diverse range of fields and he influenced the development of many schools of theory, including structuralism, social theory, design theory and post-structuralism. Roland Barthes was born on 12 November in the town of Cherbourg in Normandy, his father, naval officer Louis Barthes, was killed in a battle during World War I in the North Sea before Barthes' first birthday. His mother, Henriette Barthes, his aunt and grandmother raised him in the village of Urt and the city of Bayonne; when Barthes was eleven, his family moved to Paris, though his attachment to his provincial roots would remain strong throughout his life. Barthes showed great promise as a student and spent the period from 1935 to 1939 at the Sorbonne, where he earned a licence in classical literature, he was plagued by ill health throughout this period, suffering from tuberculosis, which had to be treated in the isolation of sanatoria.
His repeated physical breakdowns disrupted his academic career, affecting his studies and his ability to take qualifying examinations. They exempted him from military service during World War II, his life from 1939 to 1948 was spent obtaining a licence in grammar and philology, publishing his first papers, taking part in a medical study, continuing to struggle with his health. He received a diplôme d'études supérieures from the University of Paris in 1941 for his work in Greek tragedy. In 1948, he returned to purely academic work, gaining numerous short-term positions at institutes in France and Egypt. During this time, he contributed to the leftist Parisian paper Combat, out of which grew his first full-length work, Writing Degree Zero. In 1952, Barthes settled at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, where he studied lexicology and sociology. During his seven-year period there, he began to write a popular series of bi-monthly essays for the magazine Les Lettres Nouvelles, in which he dismantled myths of popular culture.
Consisting of fifty-four short essays written between 1954–1956, Mythologies were acute reflections of French popular culture ranging from an analysis on soap detergents to a dissection of popular wrestling. Knowing little English, Barthes taught at Middlebury College in 1957 and befriended the future English translator of much of his work, Richard Howard, that summer in New York City. Barthes spent the early 1960s exploring the fields of semiology and structuralism, chairing various faculty positions around France, continuing to produce more full-length studies. Many of his works challenged traditional academic views of literary criticism and of renowned figures of literature, his unorthodox thinking led to a conflict with a well-known Sorbonne professor of literature, Raymond Picard, who attacked the French New Criticism for its obscurity and lack of respect towards France's literary roots. Barthes' rebuttal in Criticism and Truth accused the old, bourgeois criticism of a lack of concern with the finer points of language and of selective ignorance towards challenging theories, such as Marxism.
By the late 1960s, Barthes had established a reputation for himself. He traveled to the Japan, delivering a presentation at Johns Hopkins University. During this time, he wrote his best-known work, the 1967 essay "The Death of the Author," which, in light of the growing influence of Jacques Derrida's deconstruction, would prove to be a transitional piece in its investigation of the logical ends of structuralist thought. Barthes continued to contribute with Philippe Sollers to the avant-garde literary magazine Tel Quel, developing similar kinds of theoretical inquiry to that pursued in Barthes' writings. In 1970, Barthes produced what many consider to be his most prodigious work, the dense, critical reading of Balzac's Sarrasine entitled S/Z. Throughout the 1970s, Barthes continued to develop his literary criticism. In 1971, he served as visiting professor at the University of Geneva. In 1975 he wrote an autobiography titled Roland Barthes and in 1977 he was elected to the chair of Sémiologie Littéraire at the Collège de France.
In the same year, his mother, Henriette Barthes, to whom he had been devoted, aged 85. They had lived together for 60 years; the loss of the woman who had raised and cared for him was a serious blow to Barthes. His last major work, Camera Lucida, is an essay about the nature of photography and a meditation on photographs of his mother; the book contains many reproductions of photographs. On 25 February 1980, Roland Barthes was knocked down by a laundry van while walking home through the streets of Paris. One month on March 26, he died from the chest injuries he sustained in that collision. Barthes' earliest ideas reacted to the trend of existentialist philosophy, prominent in France during the 1940s to the figurehead of existentialism, Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartre's What Is Literature? Expresses a disenchantment both with established forms of writing and more experimental, avant-garde forms, which he feels alienate readers. Barthes’ response was to try to discover that which may be considered unique and original in writing.
In Writing Degree Zero, Barthes argues that conventions inform both language and style, rendering neither purely creative. Instead, form, or what Barthes calls "writing" (the specific way an individual chooses to manipulate conventions of
A Francophile is a person who has a strong affinity towards any or all of the French language, French history, French culture or French people. That affinity may include France itself or its history, cuisine, etc; the term "Francophile" can be contrasted with Francophobe, someone who dislikes all, French. Francophilia arises in former French colonies, where the elite spoke French and adopted many French habits. In other European countries such as Romania and Russia, French culture has long been popular among the upper class. Francophilia has been associated with supporters of the philosophy of Enlightenment during and after the French Revolution, where democratic uprisings challenged the autocratic regimes of Europe. Romania has a long and entrenched tradition of Francophilia beginning after the Enlightenment and Revolutionary periods. No doubt the most famous contemporary Romanian Francophile is Eugen Weber, a prodigious author and lecturer in both English and French on French history. In his book "My France: politics, myth", he writes: "Social relations, attitudes that others had to learn from books, I lived in my early years.
Romanian francophilia, Romanian francophony.... Many Romanians, in my day, dreamed of France. With the efforts to build Romania into a modern nation-state, with a national language and common national heritage, in the 19th century, the Romanian language was deliberately reoriented to its Latin heritage by a steady import of French neologisms suited to contemporary civilization and culture. "For ordinary Romanians, keen on the idea of the Latin roots of their language,'Romance' meant'French.'" An estimated 39% of Romanian vocabulary consists of borrowings from French, with an estimated 20% of "everyday" Romanian vocabulary. Boia writes: "Once launched on the road of Westernization, the Romanian elite threw itself into the arms of France, the great Latin sister in the West; when we speak of the Western model, what is to be understood is first and foremost the French model, which comes far ahead of the other Western reference points." He quotes no less than the leading Romanian politician Dimitrie Drăghicescu, writing in 1907: "As the nations of Europe acquire their definitive borders and their social life becomes elaborated and crystallized within the precise limits of these borders, so their spiritual accomplishments will approach those of the French, the immaterial substance of their souls will take on the luminous clarity, the smoothness and brilliance of the French mentality."
Bucharest was rebuilt in the style of Paris in the 19th century, giving the city the nickname the "Paris of the East". Other notable Romanian Francophiles include Georges Enesco, Constantin Brâncuși, Emil Cioran, Mircea Eliade, Eugène Ionesco and Nobel Peace Prize winner Elie Wiesel. 18th and 19th century Russian Francophilia is familiar to many from Tolstoy's War and Peace and Anna Karenina, his characters from the Russian aristocracy converse in French and give themselves French names. At the time, the language of diplomacy and higher education across much of Europe was French. Russia "modernized", or "Westernized", by the rule of sovereigns from Peter the Great to Catherine the Great was no exception; the Russian elite, in the early 18th century, were educated in the French tradition and made a conscious effort to imitate the manners of France. Their descendants, a generation or two were no longer "imitating" French customs but grew up with them, the strong impact of the French culture on Russian upper and middle classes was evident, on a smaller scale than in the 18th century, until the Revolution of 1917.
"Afrancesado" was the term used for Spanish and Portuguese partisans of Enlightenment ideas, liberalism or the French Revolution. It denoted supporters of the French occupation of Iberia and of the First French Empire. In the 18th century, French was the language of German elites. A notable Francophile was King Frederick the Great of Prussia or Frédéric as he preferred to call himself. Frederick spoke and wrote notably better French than he did German, all of his books were written in French, a choice of language, of considerable embarrassment to German nationalists in the 19th and 20th centuries when Frederick became the preeminent German national hero. One source noted: "Nor did; as an ardent Francophile in matters literary and artistic, he took a low view of the German language, spoke it imperfectly himself, once boasted that he had not read a book in German since his early youth. His preferences in music and architecture were overwhelmingly Italian and French"; the French philosophe Voltaire when he visited Berlin to meet his admirer Frederick noted that everyone at the Prussian Court spoke the most exquisite French and German was only used when addressing servants and soldiers.
Another German Francophile was King Ludwig II of Bavaria, a.k.a. "Mad King Ludwig". Ludwig felt a great deal of affinity for King Louis XIV of France, the "Sun King" and liked to call himself the "Moon King" to suggest a parallel between himself and his hero. Ludwig loved to collect memorabilia relating to Louis and his Linderhof Palace was modeled after the Palace of Trianon. An more strikingly example of Ludwig's architectural Francophila was the Palace of Herrenchiemsee, a copy of the Palace of Versailles. Francophilia or Rattachism is a marginal political ideology in some parts of Belgium. Rattachism would mean the incorporation of French speaking Wallonia into France; this movement has existed since the Belgian state came into existence in 1830
Semiotics is the study of sign process. It includes the study of signs and sign processes, designation, analogy, metonymy, symbolism and communication, it is not to be confused with the Saussurean tradition called semiology, a subset of semiotics. The semiotic tradition explores the study of signs and symbols as a significant part of communications. Different from linguistics, semiotics studies non-linguistic sign systems. Semiotics is seen as having important anthropological and sociological dimensions; some semioticians focus on the logical dimensions of the science, however. They examine areas belonging to the life sciences—such as how organisms make predictions about, adapt to, their semiotic niche in the world. In general, semiotic theories take signs or sign systems as their object of study: the communication of information in living organisms is covered in biosemiotics; the term derives from the Greek σημειωτικός sēmeiōtikos, "observant of signs" and it was first used in English prior to 1676 by Henry Stubbes in a precise sense to denote the branch of medical science relating to the interpretation of signs.
John Locke used the term semiotike in book four, chapter 21 of An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Here he explains how science may be divided into three parts: All that can fall within the compass of human understanding, being either, the nature of things, as they are in themselves, their relations, their manner of operation: or, that which man himself ought to do, as a rational and voluntary agent, for the attainment of any end happiness: or, the ways and means whereby the knowledge of both the one and the other of these is attained and communicated. Locke elaborates on the nature of this third category, naming it Σημειωτική and explaining it as "the doctrine of signs" in the following terms: Nor is there any thing to be relied upon in Physick, but an exact knowledge of medicinal physiology, method of curing, tried medicines. In the nineteenth century, Charles Sanders Peirce defined what he termed "semiotic" as the "quasi-necessary, or formal doctrine of signs", which abstracts "what must be the characters of all signs used by... an intelligence capable of learning by experience", and, philosophical logic pursued in terms of signs and sign processes.
The Peirce scholar and editor Max H. Fisch claimed in 1978 that "semeiotic" was Peirce's own preferred rendering of Locke's σημιωτική. Charles W. Morris followed Peirce in using the term "semiotic" and in extending the discipline beyond human communication to animal learning and use of signals. Ferdinand de Saussure, founded his semiotics, which he called semiology, in the social sciences: It is... possible to conceive of a science which studies the role of signs as part of social life. It would form part of social psychology, hence of general psychology. We shall call it semiology, it would investigate the nature of the laws governing them. Since it does not yet exist, one can not say for certain, but it has a right to exist, a place ready for it in advance. Linguistics is only one branch of this general science; the laws which semiology will discover will be laws applicable in linguistics, linguistics will thus be assigned to a defined place in the field of human knowledge. While the Saussurean semiotic is dyadic, the Peircean semiotic is triadic, being conceived as philosophical logic studied in terms of signs that are not always linguistic or artificial.
The Peircean semiotic addresses not only the external communication mechanism, as per Saussure, but the internal representation machine, investigating not just sign processes, or modes of inference, but the whole inquiry process in general. Peircean semiotics further subdivides each of the three triadic elements into three sub-types. For example, signs can be icons and symbols. Yuri Lotman introduced Eastern Europe to semiotics and adopted Locke's coinage as the name to subtitle his founding at the University of Tartu in Estonia in 1964 of the first semiotics journal, Sign Systems Studies. Thomas Sebeok assimilated "semiology" to "semiotics" as a part to a whole, was involved in choosing the name Semiotica for the first international journal devoted to the study of signs. Saussurean semiotics have been challenged with serious criticism, for example by Jacques Derrida's assertion that signifier and signified are not fixed, coining the expression différance, relating to the endless deferral of meaning, to the absence of a'transcendent signified'.
For Derrida,'il n'y a pas de hors-texte'. He was in obvious opposition to materialists and marxists who argued that a sign has to point towards a real meaning, cannot be controlled by the referent's closed-loop references; the importance of signs and signification has been recognized throughout much of the history of philosophy, in psychology as well. Plato and Aristotle both explored the relationship between signs and the world, Augustine considered the nature of the sign within a conventional system; these theories have had a lasting effect in We
Belgium the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, the North Sea to the northwest, it has a population of more than 11.4 million. The capital and largest city is Brussels; the sovereign state is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organisation is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds, it is divided into three autonomous regions: Flanders in the north, Wallonia in the south, the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita. Belgium is home to two main linguistic groups or Communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 59 percent of the population, the French-speaking Community, which comprises about 40 percent of all Belgians. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons.
The Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual, although French is the dominant language. Belgium's linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments. Belgium was part of an area known as the Low Countries, a somewhat larger region than the current Benelux group of states that included parts of northern France and western Germany, its name is derived after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, the area of Belgium was a prosperous and cosmopolitan centre of commerce and culture. Between the 16th and early 19th centuries, Belgium served as the battleground between many European powers, earning the moniker the "Battlefield of Europe", a reputation strengthened by both world wars; the country emerged in 1830 following the Belgian Revolution. Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fueled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders. Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, as well as a seat of the European Parliament in the country's capital, Brussels. Belgium is a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, WTO, a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts several of the EU's official seats as well as the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has high standards of living, quality of life, education, is categorized as "very high" in the Human Development Index, it ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world. The name "Belgium" is derived from Gallia Belgica, a Roman province in the northernmost part of Gaul that before Roman invasion in 100 BC, was inhabited by the Belgae, a mix of Celtic and Germanic peoples. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings. A gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire; the Treaty of Verdun in 843 divided the region into Middle and West Francia and therefore into a set of more or less independent fiefdoms which, during the Middle Ages, were vassals either of the King of France or of the Holy Roman Emperor. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 15th centuries.
Emperor Charles V extended the personal union of the Seventeen Provinces in the 1540s, making it far more than a personal union by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 and increased his influence over the Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The Eighty Years' War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands; the latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and comprised most of modern Belgium. This was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. Following the campaigns of 1794 in the French Revolutionary Wars, the Low Countries—including territories that were never nominally under Habsburg rule, such as the Prince-Bishopric of Liège—were annexed by the French First Republic, ending Austrian rule in the region; the reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, after the defeat of Napo
Béarnaise sauce is a sauce made of clarified butter emulsified in egg yolks and white wine vinegar and flavored with herbs. It is considered to be a "child" of the mother Hollandaise sauce, one of the five mother sauces in the French haute cuisine repertoire; the difference is only in the flavoring: Béarnaise uses shallot, chervil and tarragon in a reduction of vinegar and wine, while Hollandaise is more stripped down, using a reduction of lemon juice or white wine. Its name is related to the province of France. In appearance, it is light yellow and opaque and creamy. Béarnaise is a traditional sauce for steak; the sauce was accidentally invented by the chef Jean-Louis Françoise-Collinet, the accidental inventor of puffed potatoes, served at the 1836 opening of Le Pavillon Henri IV, a restaurant at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, not far from Paris. This assumption is supported by the fact that the restaurant was in the former residence of Henry IV of France, a gourmet himself, from Béarn, a former province now in the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in southwestern France.
Like Hollandaise sauce, there are several methods for the preparation of Béarnaise sauce. The most common preparation is a bain-marie method where a reduction of vinegar is used to acidulate the yolks. Escoffier calls for a reduction of wine, shallots, fresh chervil, fresh tarragon and crushed peppercorns, with fresh tarragon and chervil to finish instead of lemon juice. Others are similar. Alternatively, the flavorings may be added to a finished Hollandaise. Joy of Cooking describes a blender preparation with the same ingredients. A faux Béarnaise can be produced by adding capers and tarragon to a Hollandaise. Sauce Choron or Sauce Béarnaise Tomatée is a variation of béarnaise without tarragon or chervil, plus added tomato purée, it is named after Alexandre Étienne Choron. Sauce Foyot is béarnaise. Sauce Colbert is Sauce Foyot with the addition of reduced white wine. Sauce Paloise is a version of béarnaise with mint substituted for tarragon. List of sauces Steak sauce SourcesChild, Julia. Mastering the Art of French Cooking.
New York: Knopf. Corriher, Shirley. "Ch. 4: sauce sense". Cookwise, the Hows and Whys of Successful Cooking. New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc. ISBN 0688102298. David, Elizabeth. French Provincial Cooking. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-14-118153-0. Escoffier, Auguste. "Ch. 1: Sauces". La Guide Culinaire. English translation by H. L. Cracknell and R. J. Kaufmann. New York: Mayflower Books. ISBN 0-8317-5478-8. Rombauer, Irma S.. Joy of Cooking. New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc.. ISBN 0-02-604570-2. Béarnaise sauce from the British Good Food TV channel