Korean Demilitarized Zone
The Korean Demilitarized Zone is a highly militarized strip of land running across the Korean Peninsula. It was established at the end of the Korean War to serve as a zone between the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea. The DMZ is a de facto border barrier that divides the Korean Peninsula roughly in half and it was created by agreement between North Korea and the United Nations in 1953. The DMZ is 250 kilometres long, and about 4 kilometres wide, within the DMZ is a meeting-point between the two nations in the small Joint Security Area near the western end of the zone, where negotiations take place. There have been incidents in and around the DMZ, with military. Several tunnels are claimed to have built as an invasion route for the North Koreans. The Korean Demilitarized Zone intersects but does not follow the 38th parallel north and it crosses the parallel on an angle, with the west end of the DMZ lying south of the parallel and the east end lying north of it. The DMZ is 250 kilometres long, approximately 4 km wide, though the zone separating both sides is demilitarized, beyond that strip the border is one of the most heavily militarized borders in the world.
The Northern Limit Line, or NLL, is the disputed maritime demarcation line between North and South Korea in the Yellow Sea, not agreed in the armistice, the coastline and islands on both sides of the NLL are heavily militarized. Upon the creation of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea in 1948, it became a de facto international border, both the North and the South remained dependent on their sponsor states from 1948 to the outbreak of the Korean War. In the Armistice Agreement of 27 July 1953, the DMZ was created as each side agreed to move their troops back 2,000 m from the front line, creating a buffer zone 4 km wide. The Military Demarcation Line goes through the center of the DMZ, the armistice agreement explains exactly how many military personnel and what kind of weapons are allowed in the DMZ. Sporadic outbreaks of violence have killed over 500 South Korean soldiers,50 US soldiers and 250 soldiers from DPRK along the DMZ between 1953 and 1999, Daeseong-dong and Kijŏng-dong are the only settlements allowed by the armistice committee to remain within the boundaries of the DMZ.
Residents of Tae Sung Dong are governed and protected by the United Nations Command and are required to spend at least 240 nights per year in the village to maintain their residency. In 2008, the village had a population of 218 people, the villagers of Tae Sung Dong are direct descendants of people who owned the land before the 1950–53 Korean War. To continue to deter North Korean incursion, in 2014 the United States government exempted the Korean DMZ from its pledge to eliminate anti-personnel landmines, inside the DMZ, near the western coast of the peninsula, Panmunjom is the home of the Joint Security Area. There are several buildings on both the north and the side of the Military Demarcation Line, and there have been some built on top of it. The JSA is the location where all negotiations since 1953 have been held, including statements of Korean solidarity, the MDL goes through the conference rooms and down the middle of the conference tables where the North Koreans and the United Nations Command meet face to face
Joshua Lucas Easy Dent Maurer, better known as Josh Lucas, is an American actor. He has appeared in films, including Glory Road, Sweet Home Alabama, A Beautiful Mind, Stealth, Poseidon, J. Edgar. Lucas was born in Fayetteville, the son of Michele, a midwife, and Don Maurer. Lucas grew up traveling the South with his parents, who were antinuclear activists, by the age of 13, he had lived in 30 different locations, including the Isle of Palms and Sullivans Island, South Carolina. His mother attended Emerson College with Jay Leno, the family eventually settled in the town of Gig Harbor, Washington. He attended Kopachuck Middle School and graduated from Gig Harbor High School in 1989 and he did not attend college so he could pursue his acting career. Lucas began his career when he was 19, having moved to Hollywood after his school graduation. Soon afterward, he made his film debut in Frank Marshalls Alive about a group of Uruguayan rugby players who, after crashing in the Andes mountains. Upon returning to the States, he was receiving offers as high school/college boyfriends.
While working with George C. Scott on a TV-movie from the Heat of the Night series, Scott told him he needed to take acting lessons, shortly thereafter, he departed Hollywood and moved to New York City, where he studied privately with various acting coaches. He followed that with small roles in the dramas Minotaur. He took his first stab at comedy in The Definite Maybe, in which he played a recent college graduate who gets fired from his job and he appeared as an American businessman in Jule Gilfillans romantic comedy-drama Restless. He appeared in a production of Terrence McNallys controversial Corpus Christi. Lucas played the role of Judas as a gay predator, right before the play was to open, Lucas was mugged and beaten on his way to the theater for dress rehearsal. He played the role of Judas with bloody bandages across his broken nose, the audience thought the bandages were part of the play. One of Lucas first feature roles was playing Jace Flash Dillon in the cinematic PC flight simulator Wing Commander III, Lucas gained mainstream exposure after his roles in Sweet Home Alabama, A Beautiful Mind, and as Glenn Talbot in Hulk.
He gained success in leading roles in such as Glory Road, Poseidon. In Glory Road, he starred as basketball coach Don Haskins and his next project was Boaz Yakin’s Death in Love
Richard Roxburgh is an Australian actor who has starred in many Australian films and television series and has appeared in supporting roles in a number of Hollywood productions, usually as villains. Roxburgh was born in Albury, New South Wales, to John and Mary Roxburgh, John Roxburgh was a successful accountant. Richard Roxburgh played Willy Loman in the Albury High School production of Death of a Salesman in 1978, Roxburgh studied economics at the Australian National University in Canberra, where he resided at Garran Hall and graduated with a B. Ec. in 1984. After graduating from ANU, he decided to become an actor and was admitted to the National Institute of Dramatic Art on his second audition attempt, Roxburgh began working with the Sydney Theatre Company as soon as he graduated from NIDA. He came to attention for his portrayal of New South Wales Police Force detective Roger Rogerson in the 1995 television miniseries Blue Murder. Through the 1990s, he appeared in several Australian film and stage productions including an acclaimed turn as Hamlet in the 1994 Company B production at the Belvoir St Theatre in Sydney.
In 2000, Roxburgh appeared in the first of several international blockbuster films when he appeared as henchman Hugh Stamp in the John Woo-directed Mission, Impossible 2, filmed in Sydney was Baz Luhrmanns Moulin Rouge. In which Roxburgh played the Duke of Monroth and he is one of only two actors to have played all three of these characters, the other being Orson Welles, who played them in separate radio programs. Roxburgh directed his first film, Romulus, My Father starring Eric Bana and this film won the AFI Award in December 2007. In 2008 and 2009, he played the role of Art Watkins in the ABC drama series East of Everything. In July 2010, Roxburgh played former Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke in a telemovie based on Hawkes life, late in 2010, Roxburgh co-created and appeared in the lead role of the ABC1 television eight-episode drama series Rake. He stars in Matching Jack, which was released in August 2010, returning to the stage, Roxburgh played Vanya opposite Cate Blanchett, Hugo Weaving and John Bell in Sydney Theatre Companys 2010 production of Anton Chekhovs Uncle Vanya.
In 2013 he again performed at the STC with Weaving as the protagonists in Samuel Becketts play Waiting for Godot, Weaving as Vladimir, in 2014, Roxburgh played the title role in Edmond Rostands 1897 play Cyrano de Bergerac at the STC. That production moved in 2016/17 to the Ethel Barrymore Theatre in Manhattan for the Broadway debut of Roxburgh, Roxburgh was in a relationship with fellow actor and NIDA graduate Miranda Otto whom he met on the set of the film Doing Time for Patsy Cline in 1997. During production of the film Van Helsing, Roxburgh met Italian actress Silvia Colloca whom he married on 25 September 2004, they have two sons. Australian Film Institute/AACTA1997 – won, Doing Time for Patsy Cline 1999 – nominated, Passion 2001 – nominated, Moulin Rouge. co. uk – Interview with Richard Roxburgh about Romulus, My Father
Korean People's Army
The Korean Peoples Army constitutes the military force of North Korea and, under the Songun policy, the central institution of North Korean society. Kim Jong-un is the Supreme Commander of the Korean Peoples Army, the KPA defence force consists of five branches, Ground Force, the Navy, the Air Force, the Strategic Rocket Forces, and the Special Operation Force. The Worker-Peasant Red Guards come under control of the KPA, the KPA faces its primary adversaries, the Republic of Korea Armed Forces and United States Forces Korea, across the Korean Demilitarized Zone, as it has since the Armistice Agreement of July 1953. As of 2016, with 5,889,000 paramilitary personnel and this number represents 25% of the population. North Korea officially dates the foundation of the KPA back to the establishment of Kim Il-sungs anti-Japanese guerrilla army, in 1978, Military Foundation Day was changed from 8 February to 25 April, the nominal day of establishment of this army in 1932. In 1939, the Korean Volunteer Army, was formed in Yanan, the two individuals responsible for the army were Kim Tu-bong and Mu Chong.
At the same time, a school was established near Yanan for training military, by 1945, the KVA had grown to approximately 1,000 men, mostly Korean deserters from the Imperial Japanese Army. During this period, the KVA fought alongside the Chinese communist forces from which it drew its arms, by September 1945, the KVA had a 2,500 strong force at its disposal. The headquarters felt a need for a unit for security around railways. That unit was activated on 15 August of the year to supervise existing security forces. Military institutes such as the Pyongyang Academy and the Central Constabulary Academy soon followed for education of political, after the military was organized and facilities to educate its new recruits were constructed, the Constabulary Discipline Corps was reorganized into the Korean Peoples Army General Headquarters. The previously semi-official units became military regulars with distribution of Soviet uniforms, the State Security Department, a forerunner to the Ministry of Peoples Defense, was created as part of the Interim Peoples Committee on 4 February 1948.
In addition, the Ministry of State for the Peoples Armed Forces was established, before the outbreak of the Korean War, Joseph Stalin equipped the KPA with modern tanks, trucks and small arms. On 4 November, China openly staged a military intervention, on 7 December, Kim Il-sung was deprived of the right of command of KPA by China. The KPA subsequently played a minor role to Chinese forces in the remainder of the conflict. By the time of the Armistice in 1953, the KPA had sustained 290,000 casualties, in 1953, the Military Armistice Commission was able to oversee and enforce the terms of the armistice. Soviet thinking on the scale was replaced since December 1962 with a peoples war concept. The Soviet idea of warfare was replaced with a Maoist war of attrition strategy
Eric Marlon Bishop, known professionally by his stage name Jamie Foxx, is an American actor, songwriter, record producer and comedian. The same year, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in the crime film Collateral, eric Marlon Bishop was born in Terrell, Texas on December 13,1967. He is the son of Darrell Bishop, who worked as a stockbroker. Shortly after his birth, Foxx was adopted and raised by his mothers parents, Esther Marie, a domestic worker and nursery operator, and Mark Talley. He has had contact with his birth parents, who were not part of his upbringing. Foxx was raised in the quarter of Terrell, which at the time was a racially segregated community. He has often acknowledged his grandmothers influence in his life as one of the greatest reasons for his success, Foxx began playing the piano when he was five years old. He had a strict Baptist upbringing, and as a teenager he was a part-time pianist and choir leader in Terrells New Hope Baptist Church.
His natural talent for telling jokes was already in evidence as a third grader, Foxx attended Terrell High School, where he received top grades and played basketball and football. His ambition was to play for the Dallas Cowboys, and he was the first player in the history to pass for more than 1,000 yards. He sang in a band called Leather and Lace, after completing high school, Foxx received a scholarship to United States International University, where he studied classical music and composition. Foxx first told jokes at a comedy clubs open mic night in 1989, when he found that female comedians were often called first to perform, he changed his name to Jamie Foxx, feeling that it was a name ambiguous enough to disallow any biases. He chose his surname as a tribute to the black comedian Redd Foxx, Foxx joined the cast of In Living Color in 1991, where his recurrent character Wanda shared a name with Redds friend and co-worker, LaWanda Page. Following a recurring role in the comedy-drama sitcom Roc, Foxx went on to star in his own sitcom The Jamie Foxx Show, Foxx made his film debut in the 1992 comedy Toys.
His first dramatic role came in Oliver Stones 1999 film Any Given Sunday, in 1994, Foxx released an album entitled Peep This, which was not successful due to low album sales. In 2003, Foxx made a cameo in Benzinos music video for Would You, which features LisaRaye McCoy and Mario Winans. In 2003, Foxx featured on the rapper Twistas song, Slow Jamz, together with Kanye West, in 2005, Foxx featured on the single Georgia by Atlanta rappers Ludacris and Field Mob, which sampled Ray Charles hit Georgia on My Mind. Foxx would portray Ray Charles in the biographical film Ray, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor, Foxx is the second male in history to receive two acting Oscar nominations in the same year for two different movies and Ray
Joseph Thomas Joe Morton, Jr. is an American stage and film actor. He worked with film director John Sayles in The Brother from Another Planet, City of Hope and Lone Star. Other films he appeared in include Terminator 2, Judgment Day, Of Mice and Men, Apt Pupil, What Lies Beneath, Paycheck and American Gangster. Morton was born in Harlem, New York City, the son of Evelyn, a secretary, because of his fathers military service, he spent parts of his childhood in West Germany and Okinawa. When Joe Morton was 10 years old, his father died, Morton graduated from Andrew Jackson High Schooland Hofstra University with a degree in drama. Morton made his Broadway debut in Hair, appeared in Salvation and he has appeared in over 70 movies, including John Sayles The Brother from Another Planet, Terminator 2, Judgment Day and Blues Brothers 2000. On daytime, Morton has had roles on Search for Tomorrow, Another World, in 2002, he appeared on the London stage in the play Art. Morton has made many notable TV guest appearances, including his appearances as Dr.
Steven Hamilton in the first two seasons of Smallville and he starred in the Sanford and Son spin-off Grady, M*A*S*H*, Under One Roof and E-Ring. He portrayed the jack-of-all-trades scientist Henry Deacon as a regular on Syfy Channels Eureka, Morton is currently playing the role of Eli Pope on the hit drama Scandal, a role for which he has received the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actor in a Drama Series. In 2016, Morton portrayed the activist and comedian Dick Gregory in the play Turn Me Loose at the Westside Theatre in Manhattan, Joe Morton at the Internet Movie Database Joe Morton at TVGuide. com Joe Morton sings The Devils Lonely Fire from Badland
Unmanned combat aerial vehicle
An unmanned combat aerial vehicle, known as a combat drone or simply a drone, is an unmanned aerial vehicle that usually carries aircraft ordnance such as missiles. Aircraft of this type have no human pilot. These drones are usually under real-time human control, with varying levels of autonomy and they are used in drone strikes. Equipment necessary for a pilot are not needed, as the operator runs the vehicle from a remote terminal, resulting in a lower weight. One of the earliest explorations of the concept of the drone was by Lee De Forest, an early inventor of radio devices, and U. A. Sanabria. They presented their idea in an article in a 1940 publication of Popular Mechanics, the modern military drone as known today was the brainchild of John Stuart Foster Jr. a nuclear physicist and former head of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In 1971, Foster was a model airplane hobbyist and had the idea this hobby could be applied to building weapons and he drew up plans and by 1973 DARPA built two prototypes called Praeire and Calere.
They were powered by a modified engine and could stay aloft for two hours while carrying 28-pounds of load. In the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israel used unarmed U. S. Ryan Firebee target drones to spur Egypt into firing its entire arsenal of anti-aircraft missiles and this mission was accomplished with no injuries to Israeli pilots, who soon exploited the depleted Egyptian defenses. In the late 1970s and 80s, Israel developed the Scout and the Pioneer, Israel pioneered the use of Unmanned aerial vehicles for real-time surveillance, electronic warfare, and decoys. In the late 1980s, Iran deployed a drone armed with six RPG-7 rounds in the Iran–Iraq War, impressed by Israels success, the US quickly acquired a number of UAVs, and its Hunter and Pioneer systems are direct derivatives of Israeli models. The first UAV war was the first Gulf War, according to a May 1991 Department of the Navy report, after the Gulf War successfully demonstrated their utility, global militaries invested widely in the domestic development of combat UAVs.
The first kill by an American UAV was on October 7,2001 in Kandahar, in recent years the U. S. has increased its use of drone strikes against targets in foreign countries and elsewhere as part of the War on Terror. In January 2014, it was estimated that 2,400 people have died from U. S. drone strikes in five years, in June 2015 the total death toll of U. S. drone strikes was estimated to exceed 6,000. Note, Some of these are not aircraft prototypes but technology demonstrators that are not expected to enter service, various Chinese UCAV concepts have materialized. WZ-2000, UCAV versions of the Xianglong high altitude are long endurance UAV, Taranis is a British demonstrator programme for unmanned combat air vehicle technology. It is part of the UKs Strategic Unmanned Air Vehicle programme, the Taranis demonstrator will have an MTOW of about 8000 kilograms and be of comparable size to the BAE Hawk – making it one of the worlds largest UAVs. It will be stealthy and able to deploy a range of munitions over a number of targets, as well as being capable of defending itself against manned, the first steel was cut in September 2007 and ground testing started in early 2009
Neal H. Moritz
Neal H. Moritz is an American film producer. He is the founder of Original Film, Moritz was born in Los Angeles, California. He has over 70 films to his credit, among them include I Know What You Did Last Summer, Urban Legend, Cruel Intentions, The Skulls, The Fast and the Furious franchise, Not Another Teen Movie, XXX, S. W. A. T. Evan Almighty, I Am Legend and Made of Honor, Moritz is credited for Prison Break, and he produced Cabin by the Lake, its sequel Return to Cabin by the Lake and The Glass House. Neal H. Moritz at the Internet Movie Database
The Republic of Buryatia is a federal subject of Russia, located in Asia in Siberia. Its capital is the city of Ulan-Ude and its area is 351,300 square kilometers with a population of 972,021. The republic is located in the region of Siberia along the eastern shore of Lake Baikal. The republics natural resources include gold, zinc and more. Average annual temperature, −1.6 °C Average January temperature, −22 °C Average July temperature, +18 °C Average annual precipitation,244 millimeters Population,972, 021 ,981, 238 ,1,041, 119 . Source, Russian Federal State Statistics Service Source, According to the 2010 Census, other groups include Ukrainians, and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0. 5% of the total population. Mongolic-related Slab Grave cultural monuments are found in Baikal territory, the territory of Buryatia has been governed by the Xiongnu Empire and Mongolian Xianbei state, Rouran Khaganate, Mongol Empire and Northern Yuan. Medieval Mongol tribes like Merkit, Barga Mongols and Tümeds inhabited in Buryatia, today Buryat-Mongols populate the territory of Buryatia.
The area of the present-day Buryatia was first colonized in the 17th century by Russians in search of wealth, furs, in 1923, the Buryat-Mongolian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created as a result of the merger of State of Buryat-Mongolia and Mongol-Buryat Oblasts. In 1937, Aga Buryatia and Ust-Orda Buryatia were detached from the Buryat-Mongolian ASSR and merged with Chita and Irkutsk Oblasts, in 1958, the name Mongol was removed from the name of the republic. The Buryat ASSR declared its sovereignty in 1990 and adopted the name Republic of Buryatia in 1992, however, it remained an autonomous republic within the Russian Federation. The head of the Republic is the Head, who is appointed by the President of Russia for a four-year term. Between 1991-2007, the President was Leonid Vasilyevich Potapov, who was elected on July 1,1994, re-elected in 1998, prior to the elections, Potapov was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the Republic—the highest post at that time. The current Head of the Republic is Vyacheslav Nagovitsyn, who was appointed by Vladimir Putin in 2007, the Republics parliament is the Peoples Khural, popularly elected every five years.
The Peoples Khural has 65 deputies, matvei Gershevich is the current Chairman of the Peoples Khural since 2007. The Republics Constitution was adopted on February 22,1994, the republics economy is composed of agricultural and commercial products including wheat, potatoes, leather and textiles. Fishing, fur farming and cattle farming, stock raising, traditionally, Buryats adhered to belief systems which were based on the deification of nature, belief in spirits and the possibility of their magic influence on the surroundings. They were led by shamans, who systematised tribal beliefs and cults, from the second half of the 17th century and cults in the shamanic form were displaced by Buddhism, which became widespread in ethnic Buryatia
Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated 8 million people in 2013, and an area of 143,100 km2. It is bordered by Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the south, the Republic of Uzbekistan to the west, the Kyrgyz Republic to the north, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan lies to the south, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Traditional homelands of Tajik people included present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, a civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability, Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistans 8 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, many Tajiks speak Russian as their second language. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country and it has a transition economy that is highly dependent on remittances and cotton production. Tajikistan means the Land of the Tajiks, the suffix -stan is Persian for place of or country and Tajik is, most likely, the name of a pre-Islamic tribe.
Tajikistan appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English prior to 1991 and this is due to a transliteration from the Russian, Таджикистан. In Russian, there is no single letter j to represent the phoneme /ʤ/ and дж, Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is widely used in English literature derived from Russian sources. Tadjikistan is the spelling in French and can occasionally be found in English language texts, the way of writing Tajikistan in the Perso-Arabic script is. The earliest recorded history of the dates back to about 500 BCE when much, if not all. After the regions conquest by Alexander the Great it became part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, northern Tajikistan was part of Sogdia, a collection of city-states which was overrun by Scythians and Yuezhi nomadic tribes around 150 BCE. The Silk Road passed through the region and following the expedition of Chinese explorer Zhang Qian during the reign of Wudi commercial relations between Han China and Sogdiana flourished.
Sogdians played a role in facilitating trade and worked in other capacities, as farmers, glassmakers. Later the Hephthalite Empire, a collection of tribes, moved into the region. Central Asia continued in its role as a crossroads, linking China, the steppes to the north. It was temporarily under the control of the Tibetan empire and Chinese from 650–680, the Samanid Empire,819 to 999, restored Persian control of the region and enlarged the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara which became the cultural centres of Iran and the region was known as Khorasan. The Kara-Khanid Khanate conquered Transoxania and ruled between 999–1211, during Genghis Khans invasion of Khwarezmia in the early 13th century the Mongol Empire took control over nearly all of Central Asia
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry, firing torpedoes or deploying air-launched cruise missiles. In 1912, during the First Balkan War, Bulgarian Air Force pilot Christo Toprakchiev suggested the use of aircraft to drop bombs on Turkish positions, captain Simeon Petrov developed the idea and created several prototypes by adapting different types of grenades and increasing their payload. This is deemed to be the first use of an aircraft as a bomber, the first heavier-than-air aircraft purposely designed for bombing were the Italian Caproni Ca 30 and British Bristol T. B.8, both of 1913. The Bristol T. B.8 was an early British single engined biplane built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company, under the command of Charles Rumney Samson, a bombing attack on German gun batteries at Middelkerke, Belgium was executed on 25 November 1914. The dirigible, or airship, was developed in the early 20th century, early airships were prone to disaster, but slowly the airship became more dependable, with a more rigid structure and stronger skin.
Prior to the outbreak of war, Zeppelins, a larger and these were the first long range, strategic bombers. Although the German air arm was strong, with a total of 123 airships by the end of the war, they were vulnerable to attack and engine failure, German airships inflicted little damage on all 51 raids, with 557 Britons killed and 1,358 injured. The German Navy lost 53 of its 73 airships, and the German Army lost 26 of its 50 ships, the Caproni Ca 30 was built by Gianni Caproni in Italy. It was a biplane with three 67 kW Gnome rotary engines and first flew in October 1914. Test flights revealed power to be insufficient and the engine layout unworkable, the improved design was bought by the Italian Army and it was delivered in quantity from August 1915. Bombing raids and interdiction operations were carried out by French. Sustained attacks with a view to interrupting the enemys railway communications, in conjunction with the main operations of the Allied Armies. The most important bombers used in World War I were the French Breguet 14, British de Havilland DH-4, German Albatros C.
III, the Russian Sikorsky Ilya Muromets, was the first four-engine bomber to equip a dedicated strategic bombing unit during World War I. This heavy bomber was unrivaled in the stages of the war. With engine power as a limitation, combined with the desire for accuracy and other operational factors. By the start of the war included, dive bomber — specially strengthened for vertical diving attacks for greater accuracy. Light bomber, medium bomber and heavy bomber — subjective definitions based on size, torpedo bomber — specialized aircraft armed with torpedoes. Ground attack aircraft — aircraft used against targets on a such as troop or tank concentrations
USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72)
USS Abraham Lincoln is the fifth Nimitz-class aircraft carrier in the United States Navy. It is the second Navy ship to have named after former President Abraham Lincoln. Its home port is Norfolk, and it is a member of the United States Atlantic Fleet. It is administratively responsible to Commander, Naval Air Forces Atlantic and it is currently undergoing a four-year Refueling and Complex Overhaul process. Abraham Lincolns contract was awarded to Newport News Shipbuilding on 27 December 1982, its keel was laid 3 November 1984 at Newport News, the ship was launched on 13 February 1988 and commissioned on 11 November 1989. It cost $4.726 billion in 2010 dollars, Abraham Lincoln was transferred to the Pacific in September 1990 performing Gringo-Gaucho with the Argentine Naval Aviation during its transit. From 4 October, Abraham Lincoln formed CTG24.8 in company with USS Doyle,6 October transit with USS Pawcatuck and its maiden Western Pacific deployment came unexpectedly on 28 May 1991 in response to Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm.
The ship had the staffs of Commander, Carrier Group Three, Rear Admiral Timothy W. Wright and it was accompanied by a seven-ship battle group. While heading towards the Indian Ocean, the ship was diverted to support operations after Mount Pinatubo erupted on Luzon Island in the Philippines. In support of Operation Fiery Vigil, Abraham Lincoln led a 23-ship armada that moved over 45,000 people from the Subic Bay Naval Station to the port of Cebu in the Visayas and it was the largest peacetime evacuation of active military personnel and their families in history. After Fiery Vigil, Abraham Lincoln steamed toward the Persian Gulf, to run reconnaissance and combat air patrols in Iraq and Kuwait, assisting allied, in early 1992, the ship was at Naval Air Station Alameda on Ships Restricted Availability for minor maintenance and refitting. From June 1993 Abraham Lincoln was the flagship of Commander, Carrier Group Three, in October 1993, the carrier was ordered to the coast of Somalia to assist UN humanitarian operations.
For four weeks, Abraham Lincoln flew air patrols over Mogadishu in support of Operation Restore Hope, Abraham Lincoln was to be the first Pacific Fleet carrier to integrate female aviators into the crew after the Combat Exclusion Laws were lifted on 28 April 1993. The ship left San Diego on 24 October 1994, to begin refresher training, the next day, Lieutenant Kara Spears Hultgreen, first female F-14 Tomcat pilot, died when her plane crashed into the sea. Her plane lost hydraulic control as she made her final approach and she aborted her landing to the best of her ability in an effort to prevent a collision into the aft end of the ship and the plane inverted and went into the ocean. Radar intercept officer Lieutenant Matthew Klemish ejected safely from the plane and was rescued from the water minutes later, but Hultgreen, who ejected seconds after Klemish, fell straight into the ocean and was killed. Her body, still strapped in the seat, was discovered 19 days later. Abraham Lincolns third deployment began in April 1995 when Abraham Lincoln was sent to the Persian Gulf, Abraham Lincoln was able to continue on with its mission while Sacramento had to dock at Jebel Ali, U. A. E. for several weeks for repair