San Francisquito Creek
San Francisquito Creek is a creek that flows into southwest San Francisco Bay in California, United States. It was called the Arroyo de San Francisco by Juan Bautista de Anza in 1776. San Francisquito Creek courses through the towns of Portola Valley and Woodside, as well as the cities of Menlo Park, Palo Alto, East Palo Alto; the creek and its Los Trancos Creek tributary define the boundary between San Mateo and Santa Clara counties. The original inhabitants of the area were the Ohlone people, called by the Spaniards "Coastanoans", or Coast-dwellers; these local residents lived off the land, gathering nuts and fish from both the ocean and the bay. Because of the abundance of food there was no need for them to practice agriculture. Evidences of their civilization are still being unearthed on the Filoli estate in Woodside, along San Francisquito Creek. In 1769, the Spanish exploration party led by Don Gaspar de Portolà camped by the creek for five nights, November 6–11, after their momentous discovery of San Francisco Bay.
The Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, a member of the expedition, noted in his diary that, "The commander decided that we should stop in this valley while the explorers went out again to acquire certain information... They were given four days to be gone"; when the scouts returned, the expedition leaders met and decided to turn around and return to Monterey Bay, which they had passed but failed to recognize as the place described by earlier maritime explorers. In 1774 Father Francisco Palou, on Captain Rivera's expedition, erected a cross near the giant creekside redwood they called "El Palo Alto", to mark the site of a proposed mission; the colonizing of the Peninsula began after the 1776 expedition of Juan Bautista De Anza left Monterey on the first overland expedition to San Francisco Bay, passed across the creek on its way to establishing Mission Dolores and the Presidio of San Francisco in 1776. Although de Anza discovered Padre Palou's 1774 wooden cross, the creek's summer flow was deemed too low to support a mission.
The headwaters of the San Francisquito watershed are in the Santa Cruz Mountains above Menlo Park, around 667 meters above the Bay. The upper watershed consists of at least 22 named creeks; the creek mainstem originates at the confluence of Bear Creek and Corte Madera Creek just below Searsville Lake in the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve on lands purchased by Stanford University in 1892. The lake is formed by Searsville Dam, built in 1892, one year after the founding of the university itself; the 65-foot-tall and 275-foot-wide Searsville Dam consists of a series of interlocking concrete boulders that resemble a massively steep staircase. After leasing the lake for recreational use for 50 years, the Stanford Board of Trustees closed public access to Searsville Lake in 1975; the reservoir has lost over 90% of its original water storage capacity as 1.5×106 cubic yards of sediment has filled it in. Searsville Dam does not provide flood control, or hydropower. Although removal of the dam would double available spawning habitat on this important steelhead trout stream, Stanford's Jasper Ridge Advisory Committee in 2007 recommended that the dam not be removed and the lake dredged to maintain open water.
Stanford University uses water from the lake to irrigate its golf course and other athletic facilities on its campus. Anti-dam proponents point to a growing trend in habitat restoration nationally with over 500 dams removed in recent years. San Francisquito Creek's mainstem begins below Searsville Lake at the confluence of Corte Madera Creek and Bear Creek, it is joined by Los Trancos Creek just north of I-280. The creek runs for a length described by different authorities as from 13 to 22 kilometers, most 12.5 miles, after exiting the foothills near Junipero Serra Boulevard and Alpine Road, runs in an incised channel in a broad alluvial fan, before draining into the Bay south of the Dumbarton Bridge and north of the Palo Alto Flood Basin. Its watershed is about 110 square kilometers in extent, including areas of San Mateo and Santa Clara counties. In one stretch it forms the boundary between the city of Palo Alto and the cities of East Palo Alto and Menlo Park, thus between San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, reflecting the fact that it was used as the boundary between the lands of the Spanish Missions at San Francisco and Santa Clara.
The tree from which Palo Alto takes its name, El Palo Alto, stands on the banks of the creek. In 1857, the U. S. Coast Survey identified 1,142 acres of tidal marsh at the mouth of the creek. There were two large willow groves adjacent to the tidal marsh associated with high groundwater tables and seasonal flooding. In the late 1920s levees were constructed to re-route the creek through a new engineered channel from its former mouth, to a sharp north turn for about half a mile to the northeast, before exiting to the Bay. By 2004, filled areas such as the Palo Alto golf course and the Palo Alto Airport have reduced the tidal marsh to 352 acres. San Francisquito Creek hosts the most viable remaining anadromous steelhead population in southern San Francisco Bay streams; because the San Francisquito Creek mainstem forms the boundary of Santa Clara County and San Mateo County, the respective county water districts were unable to agree on paying to channelize and concretize the creek, leaving it in a natural state.
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Richardson Bay is a shallow, ecologically rich arm of San Francisco Bay, managed under a Joint Powers Agency of four northern California cities. The 911-acre Richardson Bay Sanctuary was acquired in the early 1960s by the National Audubon Society; the bay was named for William A. Richardson, early 19th century sea captain and builder in San Francisco. Richardson Bay is one of the most pristine estuaries on the Pacific Coast in spite of its urbanized periphery, since it supports extensive eelgrass areas and sizable undisturbed intertidal habitats, it is a feeding and resting area for a panoply of estuarine and pelagic birds, while its associated marshes and littoral zones support a variety of animal and plant life. Richardson Bay has been designated as an Important Bird Area, based upon its large number of annual bird visitors and residents, its sightings of California clapper rail and its strategic location in the flyway; the bay's waters are subject to a "no discharge" rule to protect the elaborate and fragile ecosystems present, including a complex fishery, diverse mollusk populations and marine mammals such as the harbor seal.
Owing to its lack of depth and complicated channel structure, Richardson Bay is limited in boating uses to kayaking and small sailing craft. There are extensive hiking and bicycling paths at the bay perimeter in the shore areas of Mill Valley and the town of Tiburon. On August 22, 1822, an English whaler, the Orion, put into Yerba Buena Cove in San Francisco for supplies. Martinez, for whom the town of Martinez is named, decided to invite the Captain to reside with their family. Maria married the captain after he joined the Catholic Church, being baptized "Guillermo Antonio Richardson." This wedding, held at Mission Dolores on May 12, 1826 was the first great Spanish-Anglo Saxon wedding in North America. Richardson taught carpentry, boat building and navigation at Mission Dolores, served as Captain of the Port of San Francisco, built the first significant residence in San Francisco, although it was meant to be a trading post, he had charge of several schooners belonging to the Mission Dolores and Mission Santa Clara.
Richardson received a 19,500-acre Mexican land grant in 1838, Rancho Saucelito, all of the land north of the Golden Gate extending from bay to ocean and ranging north to Mount Tamalpais The grant contained all the land southeast of Mount Tamalpais, included Redwood Canyon and the lands now within Muir Woods National Monument. Richardson Bay was thus named in the honor of builder; the Tiburon Peninsula on the northeast side of the bay was part of Rancho Corte Madera del Presidio granted to John Thomas Reed in 1834. According to local sources and period maps, the Bay's original given name was possessive: Richardson's Bay. However, the United States Board on Geographic Names discourages the use of apostrophes in United States place names, why the name appears as Richardson Bay in government databases and maps. Richardson Bay is developed on surficial sediments of clays and minor sands and gravels deposited in a marine and estuarine environment during periods of previous high stands of water relative to the present shoreline.
The bay muds are widespread in San Francisco Bay and, at Richardson Bay, are 80 to 95 feet deep. The Bay Muds are of Holocene Age, they overlie firm alluvial soils which contain two sand layers at 110 feet, respectively. This section, in turn, overlies shale of the Franciscan Complex, a heterogeneous mixture of sedimentary and metamorphic rock gathered together in the course of the tectonic evolution of the region from the Late Jurassic to the Middle Miocene; these assemblages of Franciscan rocks are referred to as tectonostratigraphic terrains and two of them, the Central Belt and the Coastal Belt, are in fault contact near Richardson Bay. Richardson Bay is an important ecological area being managed by Audubon California as the Richardson Bay Audubon Center & Sanctuary. There are marsh birdlife, mammalian species and marsh plants. Birds are abundant in Richardson Bay, with over one million migratory visitors each winter, many of whom utilizing the upper mudflats and Bothin Marsh associated with the area west of the U.
S. Route 101. In addition to being designated a high score IBA, Richardson's Bay has been dedicated as a Hemispheric Reserve of the Western Shorebird Network. Migrating birds that winter at Richardson's Bay include least sandpiper, western sandpiper, spotted sandpiper, American avocet, marbled godwit, greater yellowlegs, long-billed curlew and dowitchers. A special resident of Bothin Marsh, Blackies' Creek mouth and DeSilva Island is the California clapper rail, a non-migratory endangered species. Beginning in 2014, endangered black oystercatchers have been observed nesting on Aramburu Island. Common year around residents of the Richardson Bay Sanctuary include great blue heron, snowy egret, great egret. Common residents Passeriformes include scrub jay, American crow, chestnut-backed chickadee, Bewick's wren, house sparrow, red-winged blackbird, house finch, California towhee and song sparrow. Fishery characteristics of Richardson Bay include a Pacific herring oyster beds; the herring fishing fleet serving all of San Francisco Bay is based in Ri
A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, sometimes vehicles and cargo, across a body of water. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi. Ferries form a part of the public transport systems of many waterside cities and islands, allowing direct transit between points at a capital cost much lower than bridges or tunnels. Ship connections of much larger distances may be called ferry services if they carry vehicles; the profession of the ferryman is embodied in Greek mythology in Charon, the boatman who transported souls across the River Styx to the Underworld. Speculation that a pair of oxen propelled a ship having a water wheel can be found in 4th century Roman literature "Anonymus De Rebus Bellicis". Though impractical, there is no reason why it could not work and such a ferry, modified by using horses, was used in Lake Champlain in 19th-century America. See "When Horses Walked on Water: Horse-Powered Ferries in Nineteenth-Century America".
See Experiment. The Marine Services Company of Tanzania offers passenger and cargo services in Lakes Victoria and Malawi, it operates one of the oldest ferries in the region, the MV Liemba, built in 1913 during the German colonial rule. The busiest seaway in the world, the English Channel, connects Great Britain and mainland Europe, with ships sailing to French ports, such as Calais, Dieppe, Cherbourg-Octeville, Caen, St Malo and Le Havre. Ferries from Great Britain sail to Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Ireland; some ferries carry tourist traffic, but most carry freight, some are for the use of freight lorries. In Britain, car-carrying ferries are sometimes referred to as RORO for the ease by which vehicles can board and leave; the busiest single ferry route is across the northern part of Øresund, between Helsingborg, Scania and Elsinore, Denmark. Before the Øresund bridge was opened in July 2000, car and "car & train" ferries departed up to seven times every hour. In 2013, this has been reduced, but a car ferry still departs from each harbor every 15 minutes during daytime.
The route is around 2.2 nautical miles and the crossing takes 22 minutes. Today, all ferries on this route are constructed so that they do not need to turn around in the harbors; this means that the ferries lack stems and sterns, since the vessels sail in both directions. Starboard and port-side are dynamic, depending on the direction the ferry sails. Despite the short crossing, the ferries are equipped with restaurants and kiosks. Passengers without cars make a "double or triple return" journey in the restaurants. Passenger and bicycle passenger tickets are inexpensive compared with longer routes. Large cruiseferries sail in the Baltic Sea between Finland, Åland, Estonia and Saint Petersburg and from Italy to Sardinia, Corsica and Greece. In many ways, these ferries are like cruise ships, but they can carry hundreds of cars on car decks. Besides providing passenger and car transport across the sea, Baltic Sea cruise-ferries are a popular tourist destination unto themselves, with multiple restaurants, bars and entertainment on board.
Many smaller ferries operate on domestic routes in Finland and Estonia. The south-west and southern parts of the Baltic Sea has several routes for heavy traffic and cars; the ferry routes of Trelleborg-Rostock, Trelleborg-Travemünde, Trelleborg-Świnoujście, Gedser-Rostock, Gdynia-Karlskrona, Ystad-Świnoujście are all typical transports ferries. On the longer of these routes, simple cabins are available; the Rødby-Puttgarden route transports day passenger trains between Copenhagen and Hamburg, on the Trelleborg-Sassnitz route, it has capacities for the daily night trains between Berlin and Malmö. In Istanbul, ferries connect the European and Asian shores of Bosphorus, as well as Princes Islands and nearby coastal towns. In 2014 İDO transported the largest ferry system in the world. Due to the numbers of large freshwater lakes and length of shoreline in Canada, various provinces and territories have ferry services. BC Ferries operates the third largest ferry service in the world which carries travellers between Vancouver Island and the British Columbia mainland on the country's west coast.
This ferry service operates to other islands including the Gulf Islands and Haida Gwaii. In 2015, BC Ferries carried 20 million passengers. Canada's east coast has been home to numerous inter- and intra-provincial ferry and coastal services, including a large network operated by the federal government under CN Marine and Marine Atlantic. Private and publicly owned ferry operations in eastern Canada include Marine Atlantic, serving the island of Newfoundland, as well as Bay, NFL, CTMA, Coastal Transport, STQ. Canadian waters in the Great Lakes once hosted numerous ferry services, but these have been reduced to those offered by Owen Sound Transportation and several smaller operations. There are several commuter passenger ferry services operated in major cities, such as Metro Transit in Halifax, Toronto Island ferries in Toronto and SeaBus in Vancouver. Washington State Ferries operates the most extensive ferry system in the continental United States and the second largest in t