Nothofagus cunninghamii, the myrtle beech, is an evergreen tree native to Tasmania and Victoria, Australia. It grows in the temperate rainforests, but grows in alpine areas, it is not related to the Myrtle family. It is referred to as Tasmanian myrtle within the timber industry. N. cunninghamii was proposed to be renamed Lophozonia cunninghamii in 2013. There has been some controversy over the change in name from Nothofagus to Lophozonia; these plants range from trees 30–40 m tall with large trunks to low-growing alpine shrubs less than 1 m tall. Maximum height is about 55 m; the leaves are simple and alternate, growing 0.5–1.5 cm long, in Victoria up to 2 cm long. The leaf color is with new growth brilliant red, pink or orange in spring, they are triangular with irregular minute teeth. The plants have separate female flowers on the same tree; these flower form inconspicuous clusters beside leaves near the tips of the branches. The fruit contains three small winged nuts. One may see round, orange-like fruiting bodies of a fungus protruding from the trunk.
It is an excellent cabinetry timber, hard with strong, close grain. It is a soft pink to reddish brown figured and can be polished to a fine sheen, it is used for flooring, cogs of wheels, furniture, is good for steam bending and carving. It is harvested from old growth forest but the vast majority of the timber is left on the ground as it grows with the harvested mountain ash. Dry Density 700 kg/m³. Nothofagus cunninghamii is a robust species, requiring around 900 mm of rain spread throughout the year, it is most common in Tasmania, where it occurs in most regions except the drier Midlands and east coast. It occurs in some moderately large patches in Victoria, it grows best in the deep red mountain soils of Victoria, or in organic soils. It can grow in full shade, albeit through to full sun, given enough water, it is grown from fresh seed, germinating in a few weeks. Cuttings can be struck. Cultivated specimens survive temperatures of 45 °C down to −7 °C. Trees cultivated in western Scotland are hardy.
Both N. cunninghamii and the related N. moorei are excellent hosts for epiphytes. Myrtle wilt, a parasitic fungus, attacks myrtle beech when the air-borne spores settle on open wounds, it is a natural disease of N. cunninghamii, but in recent years it has become a serious problem due to poor logging practices. Myrtle beech forests cannot survive strong fire, must re-establish from neighbouring areas, they can, survive light fires, by regenerating from seed, or sometimes vegetatively from basal epicormic shoots. Myrtle beech forests only form once a wet sclerophyll forest reaches maturity, taking several hundred years to do so. Wrigley, J. W.. Australian Native Plants. Collins. ISBN 0-7322-0021-0. Myrtle wilt
Acacia dealbata is a species of Acacia, native to southeastern Australia in New South Wales, Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory and introduced in Mediterranean, warm temperate, highland tropical landscapes. Along with other bipinnate wattles, Acacia dealbata is classified in the section Botrycephalae within the subgenus Phyllodineae in the genus Acacia. An analysis of genomic and chloroplast DNA along with morphological characters found that the section is polyphyletic, though the close relationships of many species were unable to be resolved. Acacia dealbata appears to be most related to A. mearnsii, A. nanodealbata and A. baileyana. It is a fast-growing evergreen tree or shrub growing up to 30 m tall a pioneer species after fire; the leaves are bipinnate, glaucous blue-green to silvery grey, 1–12 cm long and 1–11 cm broad, with 6–30 pairs of pinnae, each pinna divided into 10–68 pairs of leaflets. The flowers are produced in large racemose inflorescences made up of numerous smaller globose bright yellow flowerheads of 13–42 individual flowers.
The fruit is a flattened pod 2 -- 6 -- 14 mm broad, containing several seeds. Trees do not live longer than 30 to 40 years, after which in the wild they are succeeded by other species where bushfires are excluded. In moist mountain areas, a white lichen can cover the bark, which may contribute to the descriptor "silver"; the Latin specific epithet dealbata means "covered in a white powder". There are two subspecies: A. dealbata dealbata. Low to moderate altitudes. Tree to 30 m. A. dealbata subalpina Tindale & Kodela. High altitudes in the Snowy Mountains. Shrub to 5 m tall; some authorities consider A. dealbata to be a variant of Acacia decurrens. The Ngunnawal people of the ACT used the bark to make coarse rope and string, the resinous sap for glue or to mix with ash to make poultices, the timber for tools, the seeds to make flour. Acacia dealbata is cultivated as an ornamental plant in warm temperate regions of the world, is naturalised in some areas, including Sochi, southwestern Western Australia, southeastern South Australia, Norfolk Island, the Mediterranean region from Portugal to Greece and Morocco to Israel, California, southern Africa, the highlands of southern India, south-western China and Chile It does not survive prolonged frost.
It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. The timber is useful for furniture and indoor work, but has limited uses in craft furniture and turning, it has a honey colour with distinctive figures like birdseye and tiger stripes. It has a medium weight, is similar to its close relative blackwood, but of lighter tone without the dark heartwood; the flowers and tip shoots are harvested for use as cut flowers, when it is known by the florist trade as "mimosa". In Italy, Albania and Georgia the flowers are frequently given to women on International Women's Day; the essence of the flowers, called ` mimosa,' or in older texts, is used in perfumes. The leaves are sometimes used in Indian chutney. In South Africa, the species is a Category 1 weed in the Western Category 2 weed elsewhere. In New Zealand the Department of Conservation class it as an environmental weed, it has been analyzed as containing less than 0.02% alkaloids. It is known to contain enanthic acid, palmic aldehyde, anisic acid, acetic acid, phenols.
List of Acacia species
The Belmore Falls is a plunge waterfall with three drops on the Barrengarry Creek in the Southern Highlands and Illawarra regions of New South Wales, Australia. Located 6.5 kilometres south of the town of Robertson, the falls descend from the Illawarra escarpment at an elevation of 552 metres above sea level into the northern end of Kangaroo Valley within the Morton National Park. Descending over three drops, the waterfalls range in height between 77–130 metres and are best viewed from the Hindmarsh Lookout, accessible via a short walk from a road heading south east from Burrawang; the falls were named after Somerset Lowry-Corry, 4th Earl Belmore the then-Governor of New South Wales. List of waterfalls of New South Wales
Tin Mine Falls
The Tin Mine Falls is a cascade waterfall located in the remote Pilot Wilderness Area within the Kosciuszko National Park in the Snowy Mountains region of New South Wales, Australia. Described from top to bottom, the falls consist of non-segmented tiered cascades over bedrock with a few smaller plunges, followed by a single large plunge into a pool; the falls are recessed into a punchbowl feature making it impossible to view the entire waterfall from a single location on the ground. The falls are located in remote country within the Kosciuszko National Park; the closest access point is the Cascade Fire Trail, a hiking trail that runs south from the Alpine Way, west of Thredbo Village. The height of Tin Mine Falls is listed as 459 metres or 360 metres, quote a story concerning the origin of this figure: "The falls were measured in 1990 by a Dr. John Pease... using a plumb line". According to the World Waterfall Database, Tin Mine Falls is the 462nd tallest waterfall in the world, with a total height of 213 metres.
Official data from Geoscience Australia list the most significant waterfalls in Australia as: Wallaman Falls - Queensland, 305m Wollomombi Falls - New South Wales, 220 metres with a 100-metre single drop Ellenborough Falls - New South Wales 160 metres in a single drop The estimated height of 160–180 metres corresponds with topography but contradicts Geoscience Australia's list of the tallest waterfalls in Australia. Unless the upper limit of the falls is fixed well upstream, to include a long section of shallow-slope non-bedrock streambed, the rumoured height of 360–459 metres cannot be substantiated. List of waterfalls of New South Wales
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
The Gibraltar Falls are a cascade waterfall on the Gibraltar Creek, in the Australian Capital Territory 50 kilometres from Canberra's city centre. The falls have a 50-metre drop. In Namadgi National Park, the falls are near Corin Road in the Gibraltar Creek Pine Forest. A gravel track from a nearby car park provides access to a lookout to view the falls. There are a number of walking trails near the falls. Near the falls is a car park, public toilets, a picnic shelter with a gas barbecue; the falls have a 50-metre drop. There is not much drainage on Gibraltar Falls, though water will still fall from the falls during drought conditions. Three Glossy Black-Cockatoos were spotted at the falls in November 2000; these birds are not found in the territory. The falls were depicted in the 1966 oil painting titled Rescue at Gibraltar Falls, by John Perceval, with Australian National University landscape architect serving as a model for the figure found in the painting. Bushwalks used to take place to get to the falls.
The Australian Heritage Commission commissioned a report on the falls called "An archaeological investigation of the Gibraltar Falls recreation area, A. C. T." Axe grinding grooves have been found at the falls. The falls is a habitat of the ACT rare Austral pillwort, a fern with thread-like leaves, the vulnerable Alpine Redspot Dragonfly; the falls is part of the Gilbralter Falls / Woods Reserve Area, listed on the Register of the National Estate and the ACT National Heritage of Australia list. It is located about 12 km West North-west of Tharwa. List of waterfalls of Australia Media related to Gibraltar Falls at Wikimedia Commons
Ebor Falls is a tiered waterfall on the Guy Fawkes River, located near Ebor and about 37 kilometres north-east of Wollomombi on Waterfall Way in the New England region of New South Wales, Australia. The first lookout is on a sealed road 200 metres off the Waterfall Way; this viewing platform shows the upper falls tumbling 115 metres over 4 layers of columned basalt rock in two falls. The lower Ebor falls, 600 metres further on, plunge over Permian sedimentary rocks into a steep forested gorge below; the falls are a well known tourist attraction within Guy Fawkes River National Park, with viewing platforms of the falls and walking tracks, a rest area with barbecues, an information display, picnic tables and toilet. In 2008 the waterfalls were attracting up to 80,000 visitors each year. Camping is not permitted at Ebor Falls, however camping is available at nearby Cathedral Rock National Park; the falls were first protected in a recreation reserve in 1895. In September 2008 new lookout platforms were opened.
These replaced platforms that were destroyed by fire in 2007. List of waterfalls of Australia