Ghent is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of the East Flanders province, the second largest municipality in Belgium, after Antwerp; the city started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt and Leie and in the Late Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of northern Europe, with some 50,000 people in 1300. It is a university city; the municipality comprises the city of Ghent proper and the surrounding suburbs of Afsnee, Drongen, Ledeberg, Mendonk, Sint-Amandsberg, Sint-Denijs-Westrem, Sint-Kruis-Winkel and Zwijnaarde. With 260,467 inhabitants in the beginning of 2018, Ghent is Belgium's second largest municipality by number of inhabitants; the metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,205 km2 and has a total population of 594,582 as of 1 January 2008, which ranks it as the fourth most populous in Belgium. The current mayor of Ghent, Mathias De Clercq is from the liberal & democratic party Open VLD.
The ten-day-long Ghent Festival is attended by about 1 -- 1.5 million visitors. Archaeological evidence shows human presence in the region of the confluence of Scheldt and Leie going back as far as the Stone Age and the Iron Age. Most historians believe that the older name for Ghent,'Ganda', is derived from the Celtic word ganda which means confluence. Other sources connect its name with an obscure deity named Gontia. There are no written records of the Roman period, but archaeological research confirms that the region of Ghent was further inhabited; when the Franks invaded the Roman territories from the end of the 4th century and well into the 5th century, they brought their language with them and Celtic and Latin were replaced by Old Dutch. Around 650, Saint Amand founded two abbeys in Ghent: Saint Bavo's Abbey; the city grew from the abbeys and a commercial centre. Around 800, Louis the Pious, son of Charlemagne, appointed Einhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, as abbot of both abbeys. In 851 and 879, the city was however plundered twice by the Vikings.
Within the protection of the County of Flanders, the city recovered and flourished from the 11th century, growing to become a small city-state. By the 13th century, Ghent was the biggest city in Europe north of the Alps after Paris. Within the city walls lived up to 65,000 people; the belfry and the towers of the Saint Bavo Cathedral and Saint Nicholas' Church are just a few examples of the skyline of the period. The rivers flowed in an area; these rich grass'meersen' were ideally suited for herding sheep, the wool of, used for making cloth. During the Middle Ages Ghent was the leading city for cloth; the wool industry established at Bruges, created the first European industrialized zone in Ghent in the High Middle Ages. The mercantile zone was so developed that wool had to be imported from Scotland and England; this was one of the reasons for Flanders' good relationship with England. Ghent was the birthplace of John of Duke of Lancaster. Trade with England suffered during the Hundred Years' War.
The city recovered in the 15th century, when Flanders was united with neighbouring provinces under the Dukes of Burgundy. High taxes led to a rebellion and the Battle of Gavere in 1453, in which Ghent suffered a terrible defeat at the hands of Philip the Good. Around this time the centre of political and social importance in the Low Countries started to shift from Flanders to Brabant, although Ghent continued to play an important role. With Bruges, the city led two revolts against Maximilian of Austria, the first monarch of the House of Habsburg to rule Flanders. In 1500, Juana of Castile gave birth to Charles V, who became Holy Roman King of Spain. Although native to Ghent, he punished the city after the 1539 Revolt of Ghent and obliged the city's nobles to walk in front of the Emperor barefoot with a noose around the neck. Saint Bavo Abbey was abolished, torn down, replaced with a fortress for Royal Spanish troops. Only a small portion of the abbey was spared demolition; the late 16th and the 17th centuries brought devastation because of the Eighty Years' War.
The war ended the role of Ghent as a centre of international importance. In 1745, the city was captured by French forces during the War of the Austrian Succession before being returned to the Empire of Austria under the House of Habsburg following the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when this part of Flanders became known as the Austrian Netherlands until 1815, the exile of the French Emperor Napoleon I, the end of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars and the peace treaties arrived at by the Congress of Vienna. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the textile industry flourished again in Ghent. Lieven Bauwens, having smuggled the industrial and factory machine plans out of England, introduced the first mechanical weaving machine on the European continent in 1800; the Treaty of Ghent, negotiated here and adopted on Christmas Eve 1814, formally ended the War of 1812 between Great Britain and the United States. After the Battle of Waterloo and Flanders ruled from the House of Habs
Panamarenko is a prominent assemblagist in Belgian sculpture. Famous for his work with aeroplanes as theme. Panamarenko studied at the academy of Antwerp. Before 1968, his art was inspired by pop-art, but early on he became interested in aeroplanes and human powered flight; this interest is reflected in his name, an acronym for "Pan American Airlines and Company". Starting in 1970, he developed his first models of imaginary vehicles, balloons or helicopters, in original and surprising appearances. Many of his sculptures are modern variants of the myth of Icarus; the question of whether his creations can fly is part of their mystery and appeal. His airship the Aeromodeller is a major exhibit at MSK Ghent; the artists he admires include, amongst others: Joseph Beuys, Marcel Broodthaers, Bruce Nauman and Pablo Picasso. In 2003 Panamarenko married the 34 year younger Eveline Hoorens. At the opening of a large-scale overview exhibition of his work in Brussels in 2005, Panamarenko announced his retirement as an artist.
He has since promoted his own coffee brand PanamaJumbo. On 24 April 2009, VLM Airlines based in Antwerp, Belgium named one of its Fokker 50 aircraft in his honour. While retired, Panamarenko created the Waving Crabs, a series of fountains sprayed by crab figures on three stainless-steel half bowl shaped islands situated in the Zegemeer, a large pond at Knokke-Heist, he inaugurated it on 7 October 2011 stating the idea dated from 1975. Home page Panamarenko's Webshop Hoorens Koffie Art galleries with works by Panamarenko: web gallery the Mulier Mulier Gallery Galerie Jamar Galerie Dessers
Jürgen Partenheimer is a German artist. Since coming to prominence through his participation in the Paris Biennial in 1980 and the Venice Biennial in 1986, his work has been shown internationally, his practice includes painting and sculpture, draws on theory and prose. His art has been referred to as metaphysical realism. Jürgen Partenheimer spent his childhood in Munich. Since 1968 studies in philosophy and the history of art at Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich, Germany. 1970 scholarship to Brandeis University, chooses to study fine art and history of art at the University of Arizona, Tucson, USA. 1972 Artist in residence to the Museum of Spanish Abstract Art in Cuenca, Spain.1973 -graduates with MFA from UoA, Tucson, AZ. 1974 continues his studies at Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich. Dissertation- and research scholarship from the State of Bavaria for Musée d´Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, France. PhD in art history with distinction at Ludwig Maximilian University in Munich, Germany.
Moves to Düsseldorf. 1979 first solo exhibition at the Richard Demarco Gallery in Edinburgh. 1980 -1981 participates at the XI Paris Biennial, France and XVI São Paulo Biennial, Nucleus I, Brazil. 1982 National Endowment for the Arts with exhibition of workbooks and drawings at Franklin Furnace, New York. 1983–85 visiting artist to San Francisco Art Institute and distinguished visiting professor at the University of California at Davis. 1986 participates at XLII Venice Biennial. 1987–90 visiting artist to Rijksakademie van Beeldenden Kunsten in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Artist in residence to Fine Arts Work Centre, Massachusetts. 1991 writes his poetic manifesto “De coloribus - Notes on colour”, co-published by Hine Editions, San Francisco and Art-Book, Amsterdam. 1994 Partenheimer was part of'A century of Artists' Books' at MOMA, a show curated by Riva Castleman. 1995 receives art critic's award of the year for best show of the season in Spain. 1997–1998 comprehensive solo exhibitions at the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, the IVAM Valencia and Kunsthalle Karlsruhe.
1999 invited to develop an exhibition of sculpture and work on paper for the space of the Contemporary Art Museum CGAC in Santiago de Compostela, Spain. 2000 first German contemporary artist to receive a retrospective at the National Museum of Fine Arts in Beijing and the Nanjing Museum in Nanjing, China. Installs the sculpture „world axis“ in the „Forbidden City“ in Beijing. 2002 overview exhibition at the S. M. A. K. in Gent, artist in residence to Ergo Pers, Gent. Awarded the Prize for Visual Arts by the Kulturstiftung Dortmund. Receives Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. Guest of Honour at the German Academy-Villa Massimo in Rome and artist in residence to the Copan Building, São Paulo, Brazil. 2006 Artist in residence to Nietzsche-House in Sils-Maria, Switzerland. 2007 exhibits “Copan- Drawings” and “São Paulo Diary” at Pinacoteca Do Estado in São Paulo, Brazil. 2008 comprehensive survey exhibition at Ikon Gallery and Kunstmuseum Bonn. 2009 – 2011 site specific installations for Museum Chasa Jaura, Kunsthalle zu Kiel, Mies van der Rohe Haus and Nirox Project Space, Johannesburg.
2011 Artist in Residence to Nirox Foundation, South Africa. 2013 exhibition project "Schaustelle ``, Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich at Ingolstadt. 2014 receives the Audain Distinguished Residency Award, Emily Carr University of Art + Design and exhibits „Das Archiv-The Archive“ at Pinakothek der Moderne, Deichtorhallen-Sammlung Falckenberg, Gemeentemuseum Den Haag and Contemporary Art Gallery, Vancouver. Lives and works in Germany and Italy. 1980 Kunsthalle Düsseldorf, Germany. „Was sind Sie denn von Beruf?“ 1980 XI. Biennale de Paris, France. Musée d´Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris 1981 XVI. Biennial São Paulo,Brazil, Nukleus I 1981 Galeria de Arte Moderna, Lisbon, „Arte International“ 1981 Stichting De Appel, Netherlands 1982 Franklin Furnace, New York, „Drawings and Books“ 1982 Artists Space, New York 1982 Articule Gallery, Montréal, Canada, „Monument Morale“ 1983 Kunstraum München, Munich „Der Weg der Nashörner“ 1984 Kunstverein Münster, Germany „Der Ort des Bogens“ 1985 Nationalgalerie Berlin,“1945-1985 Kunst in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland“ 1985 Kunstmuseum Bern, Switzerland „Das poetische ABC“ 1986 XLII.
Venice Biennial, Settore Arte Visivi, Italy 1986 San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, USA 1988 Nationalgalerie Berlin,Germany „Verwandlung-Heimkehr“ 1988 Museum van Hedendaagse Kunst, Belgium 1989 National Gallery of Art, Washington, USA „The 1980s“ 1989 Fundació Juan Miró, Spain 1989 Museum Schloß Morsbroich.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Andy Warhol was an American artist and producer, a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture, advertising that flourished by the 1960s, span a variety of media, including painting, photography and sculpture; some of his best known works include the silkscreen paintings Campbell's Soup Cans and Marilyn Diptych, the experimental film Chelsea Girls, the multimedia events known as the Exploding Plastic Inevitable. Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol pursued a successful career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in several galleries in the late 1950s, he began to receive recognition as an influential and controversial artist, his New York studio, The Factory, became a well-known gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, Bohemian street people, Hollywood celebrities, wealthy patrons. He promoted a collection of personalities known as Warhol superstars, is credited with coining the used expression "15 minutes of fame."
In the late 1960s, he managed and produced the experimental rock band The Velvet Underground and founded Interview magazine. He authored numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Popism: The Warhol Sixties, he lived as a gay man before the gay liberation movement. After gallbladder surgery, Warhol died of cardiac arrhythmia in February 1987 at the age of 58. Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions and feature and documentary films; the Andy Warhol Museum in his native city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives, is the largest museum in the United States dedicated to a single artist. Many of his creations are collectible and valuable; the highest price paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash. A 2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market". Warhol was born on August 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he was the fourth child of Ondrej Warhola and Julia, whose first child was born in their homeland and died before their move to the U.
S. His parents were working-class Lemko emigrants from Austria-Hungary. Warhol's father emigrated to the United States in 1914, his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Warhol's grandparents. Warhol's father worked in a coal mine; the family lived at 55 Beelen Street and at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh. The family was attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church. Andy Warhol had two older brothers—Pavol, the oldest, was born before the family emigrated. Pavol's son, James Warhola, became a successful children's book illustrator. In third grade, Warhol had Sydenham's chorea, the nervous system disease that causes involuntary movements of the extremities, believed to be a complication of scarlet fever which causes skin pigmentation blotchiness. At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio and collected pictures of movie stars around his bed. Warhol described this period as important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences.
When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident. As a teenager, Warhol graduated from Schenley High School in 1945; as a teen, Warhol won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. After graduating from high school, his intentions were to study art education at the University of Pittsburgh in the hope of becoming an art teacher, but his plans changed and he enrolled in the Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, where he studied commercial art. During his time there, Warhol joined the campus Beaux Arts Society, he served as art director of the student art magazine, illustrating a cover in 1948 and a full-page interior illustration in 1949. These are believed to be his first two published artworks. Warhol earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in pictorial design in 1949; that year, he moved to New York City and began a career in magazine illustration and advertising. Warhol's early career was dedicated to commercial and advertising art, where his first commission had been to draw shoes for Glamour magazine in the late 1940s.
In the 1950s, Warhol worked as a designer for shoe manufacturer Israel Miller. American photographer John Coplans recalled, he somehow gave each shoe a temperament of its own, a sort of sly, Toulouse-Lautrec kind of sophistication, but the shape and the style came through and the buckle was always in the right place. The kids in the apartment noticed that the vamps on Andy's shoe drawings kept getting longer and longer but Miller didn't mind. Miller loved them. Warhol's "whimsical" ink drawings of shoe advertisements figured in some of his earliest showings at the Bodley Gallery in New York. Warhol was an early adopter of the silk screen printmaking process as a technique for making paintings. A young Warhol was taught silk screen printmaking techniques by Max Arthur Cohn at his graphic arts business in Manhattan. While working in the shoe industry, Warhol developed his "blotted line" technique, applying ink to paper and blotting the ink while still wet
SMAK is a popular and one of the largest beverage, natural fruit juice, fruit preserves and dairy products brand in Sri Lanka. The brand is owned by Country Style Foods Private Limited and was established in 1981; the company holds over 70% market share in non-carbonated beverages category in Sri Lanka. Country Style Foods Private Limited was established on 5 February 1981 by three brothers with ten employees in Kadawatha; the company started producing natural fruit juices and jams under the brand name "SMAK". By late 1990s, the company started exporting its products to Australia, England, Italy, Middle East and to New Zealand. By 2010, the company started producing Mineral water and Dairy products under the same brand name. Country Style Foods Private Limited produces natural fruit juices, fruit preserves, mineral water and dairy products under the brand name SMAK. Drinks are produced from 100% local fresh fruits and dairy without the use of any artificial color or flavors; the fruit juices and nectar are sold in Tetra Paks & glass bottles.
The company produces drinks in following flavors. In 1993, SMAK production process was used as benchmark by Sri Lanka Standards Institution and industry standards were defined. List of companies of Sri Lanka
Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent
The Museum of Fine Arts in Ghent, Belgium, is situated at the East side of the Citadelpark. The museum holds a large permanent collection of art from the Middle Ages until the mid 20th century; the collection focuses on Flemish Art but has several European- French- paintings. It has a large amount of sculptures. Next to its permanent collection the museum organises temporary exhibitions; the building was designed by city architect Charles van Rysselberghe around 1900. In 2007 the museum reopened after four years of restoration. Here's an overview of current exhibitions. 15.08.2002-17.11.2002 Max Ernst, the graphic work 06.10.2007-13.01.2008 British Vision - Observation and Imagination in British Art 1750-1950 20.09.2008-18.01.2009 Piranesi 21.03.2009-21.06.2009 Emile Claus 17.10.2009-07.02.2010 3 x Avant-Garde - Fernand Léger/Max Beckmann/Roar China 27.03.2010-27.06.2010 Gustave Van de Woestyne 16.10.2010-27.02.2011 James Ensor and contemporary art 08.10.2011-29.01.2012 John Constable, oil sketches from the Victoria and Albert Museum, London 25.02.2012-03.06.2012 Ford Madox Brown and innovation among the English Pre-Raphaelites 01.07.2012-01.07.2017 KMSKA on the road 02.03.2013-30.06.2013 ModernismThe museum is a member of The Flemish Art Collection.
This is a structural partnership joining the three main museums of fine arts in Flanders: Royal Museum of Fine Arts, the Groeninge Museum in Bruges and the Ghent Museum of Fine Arts. The museums’ collections have all been developed in a similar way and complement each other perfectly. Together, they offer a unique, representative overview of Flemish art from the 15th to the 20th century; as partners sharing the same responsibility in Belgian cultural heritage, the three museums exchange their expertise, they strive for a more sustainable, high quality management and international awareness of their collections, including works that are part of the world patrimony. Source: MSK Josse Sébastien van den Abeele - Self Portrait MSK Abraham van Beijeren - Still Life with Fish MSK Frits Van den Berghe - The Singing Statue MSK Pieter de Bloot - Landscape with a Farmhouse MSK Jan Boeckhorst - Apollo and Python MSK Hieronymus Bosch - St. Jerome at Prayer MSK Hieronymus Bosch - Christ Carrying the Cross MSK Ferdinand De Braekeleer the Elder - The Bat MSK Jan de Bray - Portrait of a Young Woman MSK Pieter Brueghel the Younger - Wedding Dance in the Open Air MSK Emile Claus - The Skaters MSK Gaspar de Crayer - The Judgement of Solomon MSK Paul Delvaux - The Staircase MSK Gustave Den Duyts - Panoramic View of Ghent MSK Anthony van Dyck - Jupiter and Antiope MSK Henri Evenepoel - The Spaniard in Paris /Portrait of the Painter Francisco Iturrino MSK James Ensor - Children at their Morning Toilet MSK Léon Frédéric - The Funeral Meal MSK Heinrich Funk - Landscape at Dusk in Tyrol MSK Théodore Géricault - Portrait of a Kleptomaniac MSK' Jan Pauwel Gillemans the Elder - Still Life with Vegetables and Fruits MSK James Guthrie - Schoolmates MSK Cornelis de Heem - Still Life with Flowers and Fruits MSK Maarten van Heemskerck - Man of Sorrows MSK Maarten van Heemskerck - Calvary MSK Jacob Jordaens - The Judgement of Midas MSK Fernand Khnopff - Incense MSK Urbanus Leyniers - The Glorification of Apollo MSK Léon Augustin Lhermitte - The Grandmother MSK Nicolaes Maes - Portrait of a Woman MSK Alessandro Magnasco Praying Monks MSK René Magritte - Perspective II, Manet's Balcony MSK Harrington Mann - Kathleen MSK Adolf Meckel von Hemsbach - The St Catherine Monastery in the Sinai MSK Joseph Paelinck - The Beautiful Anthia Leading her Companions into the Temple of Diana in Ephesus MSK Constant Permeke - Ostend Harbour MSK Nicolas de Plattemontagne - Portrait of a Young Man MSK Ramah - The Painter MSK Hubert van Ravesteyn - Still Life with a Pipe, Nuts, a Pitcher and a Tobacco Pouch MSK Petrus Johannes van Reysschoot - The Meet MSK Peter Paul Rubens - The Flagellation of Christ MSK Peter Paul Rubens - Saint Francis Receiving the Stigmata MSK Théo Van Rysselberghe - The Lecture by Emile Verhaeren, 1903 MSK Theodoor Rombouts - Allegory of the Five Senses MSK Theodoor Rombouts - Allegory of the Second Bench of Aldermen of ‘Gedele’ MSK Hugo Salmson - Visiting the Tenant Farmer MSK Gustave De Smet - The Good House MSK Leon De Smet - Interior or A Loving Couple MSK Léon Spilliaert - Silhouette of the Artist MSK Léon Spilliaert - The Second of November MSK Alfred Stevens - Mary-Magdalene MSK Tintoretto - Portrait of Giovanni Paolo Cornaro MSK Prosper de Troyer - With the Birds MSK Edgard Tytgat - Invitation to Paradise MSK Edgard Tytgat - The Last Doll MSK Edgard Tytgat - Four Nude Girls in a Boat MSK Lodewijk de Vadder - The Soignes Forest with Market Vendors MSK Cornelis de Vos - Family Portrait MSK Anna De Weert - My Studio in June, 1909-1910 MSK Pierre Joseph Verhaghen - The Presentation of Christ in the Temple MSK Frans Verhas - The Lion MSK Liévin De Winne - Portrait of the Sculptor Paul De Vigne MSK Gustave Van de Woestyne - Still Life MSK Anders Leonard Zorn - With Mother MSK Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst Royal Museum of Fine Arts Royal Museum