A keyboard instrument is a musical instrument played using a keyboard, a row of levers which are pressed by the fingers. The most common of these are the piano and various electronic keyboards, including synthesizers and digital pianos. Other keyboard instruments include celestas, which are struck idiophones operated by a keyboard, carillons, which are housed in bell towers or belfries of churches or municipal buildings. Today, the term keyboard refers to keyboard-style synthesizers. Under the fingers of a sensitive performer, the keyboard may be used to control dynamics, shading and other elements of expression—depending on the design and inherent capabilities of the instrument. Another important use of the word keyboard is in historical musicology, where it means an instrument whose identity cannot be established. In the 18th century, the harpsichord, the clavichord, the early piano were in competition, the same piece might be played on more than one. Hence, in a phrase such as "Mozart excelled as a keyboard player," the word keyboard is all-inclusive.
The earliest known keyboard instrument was the Ancient Greek hydraulis, a type of pipe organ, invented in the third century BC. The keys were balanced and could be played with a light touch, as is clear from the reference in a Latin poem by Claudian, who says magna levi detrudens murmura tactu... intent, “let him thunder forth as he presses out mighty roarings with a light touch”. From its invention until the fourteenth century, the organ remained the only keyboard instrument; the organ did not feature a keyboard at all, but rather buttons or large levers operated by a whole hand. Every keyboard until the fifteenth century had seven naturals to each octave; the clavichord and the harpsichord appeared during the fourteenth century—the clavichord being earlier. The harpsichord and clavichord were both common until widespread adoption of the piano in the eighteenth century, after which their popularity decreased; the piano was revolutionary because a pianist could vary the volume of the sound by varying the vigor with which each key was struck.
The piano's full name is gravicèmbalo con piano e forte meaning harpsichord with soft and loud but can be shortened to piano-forte, which means soft-loud in Italian. In its current form, the piano is a product of the late nineteenth century, is far removed in both sound and appearance from the "pianos" known to Mozart and Beethoven. In fact, the modern piano is different from the 19th-century pianos used by Liszt and Brahms. See Piano history and musical performance. Keyboard instruments were further developed in the early twentieth century. Early electromechanical instruments, such as the Ondes Martenot, appeared early in the century; this was a important contribution to the keyboard's history. Much effort has gone into creating an instrument that sounds like the piano but lacks its size and weight; the electric piano and electronic piano were early efforts that, while useful instruments in their own right, did not convincingly reproduce the timbre of the piano. Electric and electronic organs were developed during the same period.
More recent electronic keyboard designs strive to emulate the sound of specific make and model pianos using digital samples and computer models. Each acoustic keyboard contains 88 keys. Weighted keys, found on electronic keyboards, are designed to simulate the resistance of a key on an acoustic keyboard, via pressurization. There are 4 types of weighted keys. Keybeds, or non-weighted keys place the weights within the base of the keyboard; the second type, Semi-weighted uses springs, the third type is hammer keys. Most electronic keyboards use the fourth type: graded simulate keys. Weighted keys are made of wood, or metal/wood substitute. Enharmonic keyboard Musical instrument Orchestrina di camera Piano Symphony Young, Percy M. Keyboard Musicians of the World. London: Abelard-Schuman, 1967. N. B.: Concerns celebrated keyboard players and the various such instruments used over the centuries. ISBN 0-200-71497-X The general keyboard in the age of MIDI Renaissance Keyboards on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art The Pianofortes of Bartolomeo Cristofori on the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
American Top 40
American Top 40 is an internationally syndicated, independent song countdown radio program created by Casey Kasem, Don Bustany, Tom Rounds and Ron Jacobs. The program is hosted by Ryan Seacrest and presented as an adjunct to his weekday radio program, On Air with Ryan Seacrest. A production of Watermark Inc. AT40 is now distributed by Premiere Networks in the United States, Australia, the United Arab Emirates, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia and several other territories worldwide, it can be heard on iHeartRadio, TuneIn and the official AT40 applications on mobile smartphones and tablets as well as on Xbox 360, Xbox One, PlayStation 4 consoles and the Armed Forces Network. Chevrolet is the main sponsor for the show. Co-creator Casey Kasem hosted the original AT40 from its inauguration on July 4, 1970 until August 6, 1988. Shadoe Stevens took over the program on August 13, 1988 and hosted until January 28, 1995 when the original program came to an end. Three years Kasem teamed up with Premiere's predecessor AMFM Radio Networks to relaunch AT40.
Kasem, who spent nine years hosting his own countdown for Westwood One, returned to hosting his creation on March 28, 1998. Seacrest took over AT40 on January 2004 following Kasem's retirement from the series. AT40 with Seacrest airs in two different formats, with one distributed to Contemporary Hit Radio stations and the other to Hot Adult Contemporary stations. However, there is no distinction made between the two shows on air. There are two classic editions of the original AT40 distributed every weekend, featuring past Kasem-hosted shows from the 1970s and 1980s. In its early years, the AT40 used the Billboard charts to compile the countdown, touting it as "the only source"; the program subsequently switched to being based on Radio and Records airplay data upon its late 1990s return. The current source for the AT40 charts are unpublished mainstream Top 40 and hot adult contemporary charts compiled by Mediabase; as of 2017, the home station for the show is WHTZ in New York City. AT40 was hosted from KIIS-FM, where guest hosts remain.
Here we go with the Top 40 hits of the nation this week on American Top 40, the best-selling and most-played songs from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from Canada to Mexico. This is Casey Kasem in Hollywood, in the next three hours, we'll count down the 40 most popular hits in the United States this week, hot off the record charts of Billboard magazine for the week ending July 11, 1970. In this hour at #32 in the countdown, a song that's been a hit 4 different times in 19 years! And we're just one tune away from the singer with the $10,000 gold hubcaps on his car! Now, on with the countdown! American Top 40 fittingly began on the Independence Day weekend in 1970, on seven radio stations, the first being KDEO in El Cajon, which broadcast the inaugural show the evening of July 3, 1970; the chart data broadcast included the top 40 songs from the week ending July 11, 1970. The first show featured the last time both Elvis Presley and The Beatles had songs in the Top 10, it was distributed by Watermark Inc. and was first presented in mono until February 24, 1973 when the first stereo vinyl copies were distributed.
In early 1982, Watermark was purchased by ABC Radio and AT40 became a program of the "ABC Contemporary Radio Network". The program was co-created by Kasem. Rounds was the marketing director; the show began as a three-hour program written and directed by Bustany, counting down the top 40 songs on Billboard's Hot 100 Singles chart. The show gained popularity once it was commissioned, expanded to a four-hour-program on October 7, 1978, to reflect the increasing average length of singles on Billboard's Hot 100 chart; the producing staff expanded to eight people, some of them still in the business: Nikki Wine, Ben Marichal, Scott Paton, Matt Wilson, Merrill Shindler, Guy Aoki, Ronnie Allen and Sandy Stert Benjamin. By the early 1980s, the show could be heard on 520 stations in the United States and at its zenith, the show was broadcast on 1,000-plus stations in some 50 countries. Kasem eliminate the negative; that is the timeless thing." During Kasem's run as host, the AT40 show had a number of popular and distinguishing features, some of which Kasem had done for some time at stations like KRLA in Los Angeles: Bios & stories: Most segments of the show included two countdown songs.
The second song in the segment would be introduced by Kasem with a brief story connected with the song, which could be about its performer, its composer, or a random bit of trivia. Kasem would lead into the commercial break preceding the segment with a brief preview of the story, sometimes giving away the song title or artist; the top-ranking song on the chart always was introduced with one of these stories, which would be followed with a drum roll and the final reveal. Here is an example from the week of October 8, 1983: A stunning achievement for 33-year-old New York-born Jim Steinman. Jim started writing songs when he was going to Amherst College in Massachusetts, not just your basic r
Kemal Amin "Casey" Kasem was an American disc jockey, music historian, radio personality, voice actor and actor. He was the host of several music radio countdown programs, notably American Top 40 from 1970 until his retirement in 2009, he provided the voice of Norville "Shaggy" Rogers in the Scooby-Doo franchise from 1969 to 1997, again from 2002 until 2009. Kasem co-founded the American Top 40 franchise in 1970, hosting it from its inception to 1988, again from 1998 to 2004. Between January 1989 and early 1998, he was the host of Casey's Top 40, Casey's Hot 20 and Casey's Countdown. From 1998 to 2009, Kasem hosted two adult contemporary spinoffs of American Top 40: American Top 20 and American Top 10, he helped found the American Video Awards in 1983 and continued to co-produce and host it until its final show in 1987. In addition to his radio shows, Kasem provided many commercial voiceovers, performed many voices for children's television, was "the voice of NBC" and helped with the annual Jerry Lewis telethon.
Kasem was born in Detroit, Michigan on April 27, 1932 to Lebanese Druze immigrant parents who were grocers. He was named after Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, a man Kasem said his father respected. Kasem's parents did not allow their children to speak Arabic and insisted that they assimilate into American life. In the 1940s, "Make Believe Ballroom" inspired Kasem to follow a career in radio and host a national radio hits countdown show. Kasem received his first experience in radio covering sports at Northwestern High School in Detroit, he attended Wayne State University, where he voiced children on radio programs such as The Lone Ranger and Challenge of the Yukon. In 1952, Kasem was drafted into the U. S. Army and was sent to Korea. There, he worked as a DJ/announcer on the Armed Forces Radio Korea Network. After the war, Kasem began his professional broadcasting career in Michigan. From there, he spent time in Detroit as a disc jockey for radio station WJBK-AM, WBNY in Buffalo, New York and a station in Cleveland before moving to California.
At KYA in San Francisco, the general manager suggested that he tone down his delivery and talk about the records instead. At KEWB in Oakland, Kasem was both the music director and an on-air personality, he created a show that mixed in biographical tidbits about the artists and songs he played, attracted the attention of Bill Gavin, who tried to recruit him as a partner. After Kasem joined KRLA in Los Angeles in 1963, his career began to blossom and he championed the R&B music of East L. A. Kasem acted in radio dramas. While hosting "dance hops" on local television, he attracted the attention of Dick Clark, who hired him as co-host of a daily teenage music show called Shebang, starting in 1964. Kasem had roles on network TV series that included Hawaii Ironside. In 1967, he appeared on The Dating Game, played the role of "Mouth" in the motorcycle gang film The Glory Stompers. In 1969, he played the role of Knife in the film Wild Wheels, had a small role in another biker movie, The Cycle Savages, starring Bruce Dern and Melody Patterson.
Kasem's voice was the key to his career. At the end of the 1960s, he began working as a voice actor. In 1969, he started one of his most famous roles, the voice of Shaggy on Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! He voiced the drummer Groove from The Cattanooga Cats that year. In 1964 during the Beatlemania craze, Kasem had a minor hit single called "Letter from Elaina", a spoken-word recording that told the story of a girl who met George Harrison after a San Francisco Beatles concert. On July 4, 1970, along with Don Bustany, Tom Rounds, Ron Jacobs, launched the weekly radio program American Top 40. At the time, top 40 radio was on the decline as DJs preferred to play album-oriented progressive rock. Loosely based on the TV program Your Hit Parade, the show counted down from #40 to #1 based on the Billboard Hot 100 weekly chart, but the show was not just about the countdown: Kasem mixed in biographical information and trivia about the artists, as well as flashbacks and "Long-Distance Dedication" segments in which he read letters from listeners wishing to dedicate songs to distant loved ones.
He mentioned a trivia fact about an unnamed singer before a commercial break provided the name of the singer after returning from the break. Kasem ended the program with his signature sign-off, "Keep your feet on the ground and keep reaching for the stars."The show debuted on seven stations but soon went nationwide. In October 1978, the show expanded from three hours to four. American Top 40's success spawned several imitators, including a weekly half-hour music video television show, America's Top 10, hosted by Kasem himself. "When we first went on the air, I thought we would be around for at least 20 years," he remarked. "I knew. I knew people tuned in to find out what the number 1 record was." Because of his great knowledge of music, Kasem became known as not just a disc jockey, but a music historian. In 1971, Kasem provided the character voice of Peter Cottontail in the Rankin/Bass production of Here Comes Peter Cottontail. In the same year, he appeared in the low-budget film The Incredible 2-Headed Transplant, in what was his best-remembered acting role.
From 1973 to 1985, Kasem voiced Robin for several SuperFriends franchise shows. In 1980, he voiced Merry in The Return of the King, he voiced Alexander Cabot III on Josie and the Pussycats and Josie and the Pussycats in Outer Space, supplied a number of voices for Sesame Street. In the late 1970s
Steel Breeze (album)
Steel Breeze is the self-titled debut album by Steel Breeze released in 1982 on RCA Records. "You Don't Want Me Anymore," the first single from the album jumped into the Top 20 on the Billboard Hot 100. All songs were written except where noted. Rick Jacobs – Vocals Ken Goorabian – Guitar, Vocals Waylin Carpenter – Lead guitars Vinnie Pantaleoni – Bass, Vocals Rod Toner – Keyboards Barry Lowenthal – Drums Album - Billboard Single - Billboard
Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew on the genres of blues and blues, from country music. Rock music drew on a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, incorporated influences from jazz and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar as part of a rock group with electric bass and one or more singers. Rock is song-based music with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become diverse. Like pop music, lyrics stress romantic love but address a wide variety of other themes that are social or political. By the late 1960s "classic rock" period, a number of distinct rock music subgenres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, southern rock, raga rock, jazz-rock, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock, influenced by the countercultural psychedelic and hippie scene.
New genres that emerged included progressive rock. In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock reacted by producing stripped-down, energetic social and political critiques. Punk was an influence in the 1980s on new wave, post-punk and alternative rock. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break into the mainstream in the form of grunge and indie rock. Further fusion subgenres have since emerged, including pop punk, electronic rock, rap rock, rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock's history, including the garage rock/post-punk and techno-pop revivals at the beginning of the 2000s. Rock music has embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major subcultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. 1970s punk culture spawned the goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race and drug use, is seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.
The sound of rock is traditionally centered on the amplified electric guitar, which emerged in its modern form in the 1950s with the popularity of rock and roll. It was influenced by the sounds of electric blues guitarists; the sound of an electric guitar in rock music is supported by an electric bass guitar, which pioneered in jazz music in the same era, percussion produced from a drum kit that combines drums and cymbals. This trio of instruments has been complemented by the inclusion of other instruments keyboards such as the piano, the Hammond organ, the synthesizer; the basic rock instrumentation was derived from the basic blues band instrumentation. A group of musicians performing rock music is termed as a rock group. Furthermore, it consists of between three and five members. Classically, a rock band takes the form of a quartet whose members cover one or more roles, including vocalist, lead guitarist, rhythm guitarist, bass guitarist and keyboard player or other instrumentalist. Rock music is traditionally built on a foundation of simple unsyncopated rhythms in a 4/4 meter, with a repetitive snare drum back beat on beats two and four.
Melodies originate from older musical modes such as the Dorian and Mixolydian, as well as major and minor modes. Harmonies range from the common triad to parallel perfect fourths and fifths and dissonant harmonic progressions. Since the late 1950s and from the mid 1960s onwards, rock music used the verse-chorus structure derived from blues and folk music, but there has been considerable variation from this model. Critics have stressed the eclecticism and stylistic diversity of rock; because of its complex history and its tendency to borrow from other musical and cultural forms, it has been argued that "it is impossible to bind rock music to a rigidly delineated musical definition." Unlike many earlier styles of popular music, rock lyrics have dealt with a wide range of themes, including romantic love, rebellion against "The Establishment", social concerns, life styles. These themes were inherited from a variety of sources such as the Tin Pan Alley pop tradition, folk music, rhythm and blues.
Music journalist Robert Christgau characterizes rock lyrics as a "cool medium" with simple diction and repeated refrains, asserts that rock's primary "function" "pertains to music, or, more noise." The predominance of white and middle class musicians in rock music has been noted, rock has been seen as an appropriation of black musical forms for a young and male audience. As a result, it has been seen to articulate the concerns of this group in both style and lyrics. Christgau, writing in 1972, said in spite of some exceptions, "rock and roll implies an identification of male sexuality and aggression". Since the term "rock" started being used in preference to "rock and roll" from the late-1960s, it has been contrasted with pop music, with which it has shared many characteristics, but from wh
Alexander John "Alex" Ligertwood is a Scottish singer and drummer. He is best known as the lead vocalist of Santana, with five different stints from 1979 to 1994, he is credited on songs by Santana such as "All I Ever Wanted", "You Know That I Love You", "Winning" and "Hold On". He performed with The Senate, The Jeff Beck Group and Brian Auger's Oblivion Express, he appeared with Go Ahead side project started by members of Grateful Dead, John Cipollina and friends, the Average White Band and David Sancious. Ligertwood sang lead vocals on the song "Crank It Up" by The Dixie Dregs, from their album Industry Standard, as well as contributing the lead vocal on the song "Double Bad" from Jeff Lorber's album In the Heat of the Night. From 1986 to 1988, Ligertwood was a member of Go Ahead with Brent Mydland. During 2000 he toured with World Classic Rockers. More he sang on a cover of the Scorpions song "Is There Anybody There", which appeared on drummer Herman Rarebell's solo album Acoustic Fever. In 2014, Ligertwood's vocals were featured on tracks by El Chicano and in the same year he toured in Japan and Europe with Brian Auger and the Oblivion Express.
In 2014, Ligertwood was invited by producer Gerry Gallagher to record with Latin rock band El Chicano, as well as Alphonse Mouzon, David Paich, Brian Auger, Ray Parker Jr. Lenny Castro, Siedah Garrett, Walfredo Reyes Jr. Vikki Carr, Pete Escovedo, Peter Michael Escovedo, Jessy J, Marcos J. Reyes, Salvador Santana and Spencer Davis, his vocals are featured on the songs "Make Love", "The Viper" and "Outbound" from Gallagher's most recent studio collaboration. Ligertwood has performed with The Magic of Santana, a German tribute group whose guests have included other former Santana members. Alex Ligertwood discography at Discogs Alex Ligertwood at AllMusic
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45