The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Film editing is both a creative and a technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the traditional process of working with film which involves the use of digital technology; the film editor works with the raw footage, selecting shots and combines them into sequences which create a finished motion picture. Film editing is described as an art or skill, the only art, unique to cinema, separating filmmaking from other art forms that preceded it, although there are close parallels to the editing process in other art forms such as poetry and novel writing. Film editing is referred to as the "invisible art" because when it is well-practiced, the viewer can become so engaged that he or she is not aware of the editor's work. On its most fundamental level, film editing is the art and practice of assembling shots into a coherent sequence; the job of an editor is not to mechanically put pieces of a film together, cut off film slates or edit dialogue scenes. A film editor must creatively work with the layers of images, dialogue, pacing, as well as the actors' performances to "re-imagine" and rewrite the film to craft a cohesive whole.
Editors play a dynamic role in the making of a film. Sometimes, auteurist film directors edit their own films, for example, Akira Kurosawa, Bahram Beyzai and the Coen brothers. With the advent of digital editing, film editors and their assistants have become responsible for many areas of filmmaking that used to be the responsibility of others. For instance, in past years, picture editors dealt only with just that—picture. Sound and visual effects editors dealt with the practicalities of other aspects of the editing process under the direction of the picture editor and director. However, digital systems have put these responsibilities on the picture editor, it is common on lower budget films, for the editor to sometimes cut in temporary music, mock up visual effects and add temporary sound effects or other sound replacements. These temporary elements are replaced with more refined final elements produced by the sound and visual effects teams hired to complete the picture. Early films were short films that were one long and locked-down shot.
Motion in the shot was all, necessary to amuse an audience, so the first films showed activity such as traffic moving on a city street. There was no editing; each film ran as long. The use of film editing to establish continuity, involving action moving from one sequence into another, is attributed to British film pioneer Robert W. Paul's Come Along, Do!, made in 1898 and one of the first films to feature more than one shot. In the first shot, an elderly couple is outside an art exhibition having lunch and follow other people inside through the door; the second shot shows. Paul's'Cinematograph Camera No. 1' of 1896 was the first camera to feature reverse-cranking, which allowed the same film footage to be exposed several times and thereby to create super-positions and multiple exposures. One of the first films to use this technique, Georges Méliès's The Four Troublesome Heads from 1898, was produced with Paul's camera; the further development of action continuity in multi-shot films continued in 1899-1900 at the Brighton School in England, where it was definitively established by George Albert Smith and James Williamson.
In that year, Smith made As Seen Through a Telescope, in which the main shot shows street scene with a young man tying the shoelace and caressing the foot of his girlfriend, while an old man observes this through a telescope. There is a cut to close shot of the hands on the girl's foot shown inside a black circular mask, a cut back to the continuation of the original scene. More remarkable was James Williamson's Attack on a China Mission Station, made around the same time in 1900; the first shot shows the gate to the mission station from the outside being attacked and broken open by Chinese Boxer rebels there is a cut to the garden of the mission station where a pitched battle ensues. An armed party of British sailors arrived to rescue the missionary's family; the film used the first "reverse angle" cut in film history. James Williamson concentrated on making films taking action from one place shown in one shot to the next shown in another shot in films like Stop Thief! and Fire!, made in 1901, many others.
He experimented with the close-up, made the most extreme one of all in The Big Swallow, when his character approaches the camera and appears to swallow it. These two filmmakers of the Brighton School pioneered the editing of the film. By 1900, their films were extended scenes of up to 5 minutes long. Other filmmakers took up all these ideas including the American Edwin S. Porter, who started making films for the Edison Company in 1901. Porter worked on a number of minor films before making Life of an American Fireman in 1903; the film was the first American film with a plot, featuring action, a closeup of a hand pulling a fire alarm. The film comprised a continuous narrative over seven scenes, rendered in a total of nine shots, he put a dissolve between every shot, just as Georges Méliès was doing, he had the same action repeated across the dissolves. His film, The Great Train Robbery, had a running time of twelve minutes, with twenty separate shots and ten different indoor and outdoor locations.
He used cross-cutting editing method to show simultaneous action in different places. These early film directors discovered impor
Sound-on-film is a class of sound film processes where the sound accompanying a picture is physically recorded onto photographic film but not always, the same strip of film carrying the picture. Sound-on-film processes can either record an analog sound track or digital sound track, may record the signal either optically or magnetically. Earlier technologies were sound-on-disc, meaning the film's soundtrack would be on a separate phonograph record; the most prevalent current method of recording analogue sound on a film print is by stereo variable-area recording, a technique first used in the mid-1970s as Dolby Stereo. A two-channel audio signal is recorded as a pair of lines running parallel with the film's direction of travel through the projector; the lines change area depending on the magnitude of the signal. The projector shines light from a small lamp, called an exciter, through a perpendicular slit onto the film; the image on the small slice of exposed track modulates the intensity of the light, collected by a photosensitive element: a photocell, a photodiode or CCD.
In the early years of the 21st century distributors changed to using cyan dye optical soundtracks on color stocks instead of applicated tracks, which use environmentally unfriendly chemicals to retain a silver soundtrack. Because traditional incandescent exciter lamps produce copious amounts of infra-red light, cyan tracks do not absorb infra-red light, this change has required theaters to replace the incandescent exciter lamp with a complementary colored red LED or laser; these LED or laser exciters are backwards-compatible with older tracks. Earlier processes, used on 70 mm film prints and special presentations of 35 mm film prints, recorded sound magnetically on ferric oxide tracks bonded to the film print, outside the sprocket holes. 16 mm and Super 8 formats sometimes used a similar magnetic track on the camera film, bonded to one side of the film on which the sprocket holes had not been punched for the purpose. Film of this form is no longer manufactured, but single-perforated film without the magnetic track or, in the case of 16 mm, utilising the soundtrack area for a wider picture is available.
Three different digital soundtrack systems for 35 mm cinema release prints were introduced during the 1990s. They are: Dolby Digital, stored between the perforations on the sound side; because these soundtrack systems appear on different parts of the print, one movie can contain all of them, allowing broad distribution without regard for the sound system installed at individual theatres. All sound formats used with motion-picture film have been sound-on-film formats, including: Fox/Western Electric Movietone, are variable-density formats of sound film. RCA Photophone, a variable-area format now universally used for optical analog soundtracks—since the late 1970s with a Dolby encoding matrix. Tri-Ergon, the patent of this Berlin based company was bought by Fox in 1926. Dolby Stereo Dolby SR Ultra Stereo Dolby Digital Sony Dynamic Digital Sound Cinema Digital Sound, an optical format, the first commercial digital sound format, used between 1990 and 1992 Fantasound; this was a system developed by RCA and Disney Studios with a multi-channel soundtrack recorded on a separate strip of film from the picture.
It was used for the initial release of Walt Disney's Fantasia Phonofilm, patented by Lee De Forest in 1919, defunct by 1929 Charles A. Hoxie List of film formats List of film sound systems Movietone sound system Optigan Phonofilm RCA Photophone Eugène Lauste Joseph Tykociński-Tykociner Multichannel Film Sound
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress is the research library that serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States. It is the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States; the Library is housed in three buildings on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C.. The Library's functions are overseen by the Librarian of Congress, its buildings are maintained by the Architect of the Capitol; the Library of Congress has claimed to be the largest library in the world. Its "collections are universal, not limited by subject, format, or national boundary, include research materials from all parts of the world and in more than 450 languages."The Library of Congress moved to Washington in 1800 after sitting for 11 years in the temporary national capitals in New York City and Philadelphia. The small Congressional Library was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century until the early 1890s. Most of the original collection had been destroyed by the British in 1814 during the War of 1812, the library sought to restore its collection in 1815.
They bought Thomas Jefferson's entire personal collection of 6,487 books. After a period of slow growth, another fire struck the Library in its Capitol chambers in 1851, again destroying a large amount of the collection, including many of Jefferson's books. After the American Civil War, the Library of Congress grew in both size and importance, which sparked a campaign to purchase replacement copies for volumes, burned; the Library received the right of transference of all copyrighted works to deposit two copies of books, maps and diagrams printed in the United States. It began to build its collections, its development culminated between 1888 and 1894 with the construction of a separate, extensive library building across the street from the Capitol; the Library's primary mission is to research inquiries made by members of Congress, carried out through the Congressional Research Service. The Library is open to the public, although only high-ranking government officials and Library employees may check out books and materials.
James Madison is credited with the idea of creating a congressional library, first making such a proposition in 1783. The Library of Congress was subsequently established April 24, 1800 when President John Adams signed an act of Congress providing for the transfer of the seat of government from Philadelphia to the new capital city of Washington. Part of the legislation appropriated $5,000 "for the purchase of such books as may be necessary for the use of Congress... and for fitting up a suitable apartment for containing them." Books were ordered from London, the collection consisted of 740 books and three maps which were housed in the new United States Capitol. President Thomas Jefferson played an important role in establishing the structure of the Library of Congress. On January 26, 1802, he signed a bill that allowed the president to appoint the Librarian of Congress and establishing a Joint Committee on the Library to regulate and oversee it; the new law extended borrowing privileges to the President and Vice President.
The invading British army burned Washington in August 1814 during the War of 1812 and destroyed the Library of Congress and its collection of 3,000 volumes. These volumes had been left in the Senate wing of the Capitol. One of the few congressional volumes to survive was a government account book of receipts and expenditures for 1810, it was taken as a souvenir by British Admiral George Cockburn, whose family returned it to the United States government in 1940. Within a month, Thomas Jefferson offered to sell his personal library as a replacement. Congress accepted his offer in January 1815; some members of the House of Representatives opposed the outright purchase, including New Hampshire Representative Daniel Webster who wanted to return "all books of an atheistical and immoral tendency." Jefferson had spent 50 years accumulating a wide variety of books in several languages and on subjects such as philosophy, law, architecture, natural sciences, studies of classical Greece and Rome, modern inventions, hot air balloons, submarines, fossils and meteorology.
He had collected books on topics not viewed as part of a legislative library, such as cookbooks. However, he believed, he remarked: I do not know that it contains any branch of science which Congress would wish to exclude from their collection. Jefferson's collection was unique in that it was the working collection of a scholar, not a gentleman's collection for display. With the addition of his collection, the Library of Congress was transformed from a specialist's library to a more general one, his original collection was organized into a scheme based on Francis Bacon's organization of knowledge. He grouped his books into Memory and Imagination, which broke down into 44 more subdivisions; the Library followed Jefferson's organization scheme until the late 19th century, when librarian Herbert Putnam began work on a more flexible Library of Congress Classification structure that now applies to more than 138 million items. In 1851, a fire destroyed two thirds of the Jefferson collection, with only 2,000 books remaining.
By 2008, the Librarians of Congress had found replacements for all but 300 of the works that were in Jefferson's original collection. On December 22, 1851 the largest fire in the Library's history destroyed 35,000 books, about two–thi
Hamburg is the second-largest city in Germany with a population of over 1.8 million. One of Germany's 16 federal states, it is surrounded by Schleswig-Holstein to the north and Lower Saxony to the south; the city's metropolitan region is home to more than five million people. Hamburg lies on two of its tributaries, the River Alster and the River Bille; the official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League and a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a sovereign city state, before 1919 formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. Beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, north Sea flood of 1962 and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids, the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Hamburg is Europe's third-largest port. Major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm Gruner + Jahr and the newspapers Der Spiegel and Die Zeit are based in the city.
Hamburg is the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, Blohm + Voss, Aurubis and Unilever; the city hosts specialists in world economics and international law, including consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Both the former German Chancellor Helmut Schmidt and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg; the city is a major domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016; the Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the Laeiszhalle concert halls.
It paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's Reeperbahn is among the best-known European entertainment districts. Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the Jutland Peninsula, between Continental Europe to the south and Scandinavia to the north, with the North Sea to the west and the Baltic Sea to the northeast, it is on the River Elbe at its confluence with the Bille. The city centre is around the Binnenalster and Außenalster, both formed by damming the River Alster to create lakes; the islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn, Nigehörn, 100 kilometres away in the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park, are part of the city of Hamburg. The neighborhoods of Neuenfelde, Cranz and Finkenwerder are part of the Altes Land region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in Central Europe. Neugraben-Fischbek has Hamburg's highest elevation, the Hasselbrack at 116.2 metres AMSL. Hamburg borders the states of Lower Saxony.
Hamburg has an oceanic climate, influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the Atlantic Ocean. The location north of Germany provides extremes greater than marine climates, but in the category due to the mastery of the western standards. Nearby wetlands enjoy a maritime temperate climate; the amount of snowfall has differed a lot during the past decades: while in the late 1970s and early 1980s, at times heavy snowfall occurred, the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall only on a few days per year. The warmest months are June and August, with high temperatures of 20.1 to 22.5 °C. The coldest are December and February, with low temperatures of −0.3 to 1.0 °C. Claudius Ptolemy reported the first name for the vicinity as Treva; the name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a castle which the Emperor Charlemagne ordered constructed in AD 808. It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the River Alster and the River Elbe as a defence against Slavic incursion, acquired the name Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort.
The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain. In 834, Hamburg was designated as the seat of a bishopric; the first bishop, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years Hamburg was united with Bremen as the Bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. Hamburg occupied several times. In 845, 600 Viking ships sailed up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. In 1030, King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland burned down the city. Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214; the Black Death killed at least 60% of the population in 1350. Hamburg experienced several great fires in the medieval period. In 1189, by imperial charter, Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of a Free Imperial City and tax-free access up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. In 1265, an forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg; this charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea made it a
Venray is a municipality and a city in Limburg, the Netherlands. The municipality of Venray consists of 14 towns over an area of 165 km2, with 43,494 inhabitants as of July 2016. About 30,000 of those inhabitants live in the city of Venray. Beek - hamlet Blitterswijck - village Castenray - village Geijsteren Heide - village Leunen Merselo Oirlo Oostrum Smakt Venray - city Veulen - village Vredepeel - village with military base Wanssum - village Ysselsteyn - village In 1905, the Sint Servatius mental hospital for males was built by the Brothers of Charity; the first patients arrived in 1907. In 1906, the Sint Anna mental hospital for women was built by the Sisters of Charity of Jesus and Mary; the first patients arrived in 1909. In 1969, management of the mental hospitals was transferred to two separate foundations. Both mental hospitals have had a big impact on Venray from cultural and employment perspectives that lasts up to today. Nowadays, both mental hospitals are managed by GGZ Noord- en Midden-Limburg.
Venray hosts one of 12 mental hospitals in the Netherlands, De Rooyse Wissel, that house people assigned to mental treatment as a measure by the courts. The St. Peter ad Vincula church in Venray hosts one of the largest late medieval collections of wooden sculptures that survived the iconoclasm of the protestant reformation in the Netherlands; the church itself was built in the 15th century in the gothic style. It was rebuilt after extensive damage following the World War II Battle of Overloon. Towards the end of World War II there were a lot of battles in and around Venray, damaging large parts of the center of Venray. One of the more famous battles around Venray is the Battle of Overloon. One of the biggest tank battles between the Germans and Allies was fought in October 1944 in Overloon, resulting in hundreds of casualties on both sides. Venray was not liberated until 1945. Venray is famous for its German War Cemetery, as it is the only German war cemetery in the Netherlands. 31,598 German soldiers are buried at this cemetery.
Inalfa: Venray hosts the head-office and a manufacturing plant of Inalfa, a supplier of car roofs to the automotive industry. Flextronics: Venray hosts manufacturing units and logistics centers for Flextronics Herbalife: Venray hosts a European logistics center for Herbalife. OTTO Work Force: Venray hosts the head-office for OTTO Work Force, a temp agency that predominantly provides Polish expatriate workers. Xerox: Venray hosts a manufacturing plant and European logistics center for Rank Xerox Xerox. Nowadays, the European logistics center and a Toner and Photoconductor plant remain. In the 1990s Xerox outsourced manufacturing of copier and printers to Flextronics. VidaXL: Venray hosts the head office and warehouse of vidaXL, an international online retailer. Royal Netherlands Air Force: Venray houses De Peel Air Base. In recent decades Venray has made a transition from a manufacturing base to a third-party logistics base; as a consequence many warehouses have been built on industrial estates in recent years.
Small and medium enterprises and mental healthcare continue to play an important role in the local economy. Venray provides logistics through its Meuse river harbor in Wanssum and A73 motorway; the western section of Venray, the villages Vredepeel and Ysselsteyn, was reclaimed from the Peel peat bogs in the early 20th century. Parts of the peat bogs have been transferred to a national park; the western section of Venray is straddled by part of the Peel-Raam Line, defensive works consisting out of a canal and bunkers dating to the World War II period. Venray, near Geijsteren has a forest and sand dune area, one of the few locations in the Netherlands, home to common juniper. Michelle Courtens, a singer Edward Linskens, a football player Harry Peeters, a historian and psychologist Mark Veens, a freestyle swimmer Gerard Verschuuren, a human geneticist and philosopher Peter Winnen, a cyclist, winner of Alpe d'Huez Koen Heldens, mixing engineer Battle of Venray Venray sheep companies Media related to Venray at Wikimedia Commons Official website
16 mm film
16 mm film is a popular and economical gauge of film. 16 mm refers to the width of the film. It is used for non-theatrical film-making, or for low-budget motion pictures, it existed as a popular amateur or home movie-making format for several decades, alongside 8 mm film and Super 8 film. Eastman Kodak released the first 16 mm "outfit" in 1923, consisting of a camera, tripod and splicer, for $335. RCA-Victor introduced a 16 mm sound movie projector in 1932, developed an optical sound-on-film 16 mm camera, released in 1935. Eastman Kodak introduced 16 mm film in 1923, as a less expensive alternative to 35 mm film for amateurs. During the 1920s, the format was referred to as sub-standard by the professional industry. Kodak hired Willard Beech Cook from his 28 mm Pathescope of America company to create the new 16 mm'Kodascope Library'. In addition to making home movies, people could buy or rent films from the library, a key selling aspect of the format. Intended for amateur use, 16 mm film was one of the first formats to use acetate safety film as a film base.
Kodak never used nitrate film for the format. 35 mm nitrate was discontinued in 1952. The silent 16 mm format was aimed at the home enthusiast, but by the 1930s it had begun to make inroads into the educational market; the addition of optical sound tracks and, most notably, Kodachrome in 1935, gave an enormous boost to its popularity. The format was used extensively during World War II, there was a huge expansion of 16 mm professional filmmaking in the post-war years. Films for government, business and industrial clients created a large network of 16 mm professional filmmakers and related service industries in the 1950s and 1960s; the advent of television production enhanced the use of 16 mm film for its advantage of cost and portability over 35 mm. At first used as a news-gathering format, the 16 mm format was used to create television programming shot outside the confines of the more rigid television studio production sets; the home movie market switched to the less expensive 8 mm and Super 8 mm film formats.
16 mm, using light cameras, was extensively used for television production in many countries before portable video cameras appeared. In Britain, the BBC's Ealing-based film department made significant use of 16mm film and, during its peak, employed over 50 film crews. Throughout much of the 1960s-1990s period, these crews made use of cameras such as the Arriflex SP and Eclair NPR in combination with quarter-inch sound recorders, such as the Nagra III. Using these tools, film department crews would work on some of the most significant programmes produced by the BBC, including Man Alive and Chronicle. Made up of five people, these small crews were able to work efficiently and in hostile environments, were able to shoot an entire programme with a filming ratio of less than 5:1. Replacing analog video devices, digital video has made significant inroads in television production use. 16 mm is still in use in its Super 16 ratio for low-cost productions. Two perforation pitches are available for 16 mm film.
One specification, known as "long pitch", has a spacing of 0.3000 inch and is used for print and reversal film stocks. Negative and intermediate film stocks have perforations spaced 0.2994 in. Known as "short pitch"; these differences allow for the sharpest and smoothest possible image when making prints using a contact printer. Film stocks are available in either'single-perf' or'double-perf', meaning the film is perforated on either one or both edges. A perforation for 16 mm film is 0.0720 in wide by 0.05 in tall with a radius curve on all four corners of 0.0101 in. Tolerances are ±0.0004 in.. The picture-taking area of standard 16 mm is 10.26 mm by 7.49 mm, an aspect ratio of 1.37:1, the standard pre-widescreen Academy ratio for 35 mm. The "nominal" picture projection area is 0.380 in by 0.284 in, the maximum picture projection area is 0.384 in by 0.286 in, each implying an aspect ratio of 1.34:1. Double-perf 16 mm film, the original format, has a perforation at both sides of every frame line.
Single-perf is perforated at one side only, making room for an optical or magnetic soundtrack along the other side. The variant called Super 16 mm, Super 16, or 16 mm Type W is an adaptation of the 1.66 aspect ratio of the'Paramount format' to 16 mm film. It was developed by Swedish cinematographer Rune Ericson in 1969, using single-sprocket film and taking advantage of the extra room for an expanded picture area of 7.41 mm by 12.52 mm. Super 16 cameras are 16 mm cameras that have had the film gate and ground glass in the viewfinder modified for the wider frame, since this process widens the frame by affecting only one side of the film, the various cameras' front mounting plate or turret areas must be re-machined to shift and re-center the mounts for any taking lenses used; because the resulting, Super 16 aspect-ratio takes up the space reserved for the 16mm soundtrack, films shot in this format must be enlarged by optical printing to 35 mm for sound-projection, and, in order to preserve the proper 1.66:1, or 1.85:1 theatrical aspect ratios which this format was designed to provide.
And, with the recent development of digital intermediate workflows, it is now possible to digitally enlarge to a 35 mm sound print with no quality loss, or alternatively to use high-quality video equipment f