Andrews is a ghost town in Harney County, United States. It is located south near the Alvord Desert; the community was named for Peter Andrews, who settled in the area about 1880. A post office was established on Andrews' property in 1890; the post office was moved north a short distance in 1900 and called "Wildhorse" or "Wild Horse". Locals referred to it as "Wild Hog", however, so the postmaster changed the name to honor his friend Andrews; the population of Andrews declined until only one house remained. When it burned down in 1996, the community became a ghost town. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Andrews has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps. List of ghost towns in Oregon Photo of Andrews school by chipsbuttie Historic images of Andrews from Salem Public Library Andrews listing on ghosttowns.com
Satellite imagery are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world. Satellite imaging companies sell images by licensing them to governments and businesses such as Apple Maps and Google Maps; the first images from space were taken on sub-orbital flights. The U. S-launched V-2 flight on October 24, 1946 took one image every 1.5 seconds. With an apogee of 65 miles, these photos were from five times higher than the previous record, the 13.7 miles by the Explorer II balloon mission in 1935. The first satellite photographs of Earth were made on August 14, 1959 by the U. S. Explorer 6; the first satellite photographs of the Moon might have been made on October 6, 1959 by the Soviet satellite Luna 3, on a mission to photograph the far side of the Moon. The Blue Marble photograph was taken from space in 1972, has become popular in the media and among the public. In 1972 the United States started the Landsat program, the largest program for acquisition of imagery of Earth from space.
Landsat Data Continuity Mission, the most recent Landsat satellite, was launched on 11 February 2013. In 1977, the first real time satellite imagery was acquired by the United States's KH-11 satellite system. All satellite images produced by NASA are published by NASA Earth Observatory and are available to the public. Several other countries have satellite imaging programs, a collaborative European effort launched the ERS and Envisat satellites carrying various sensors. There are private companies that provide commercial satellite imagery. In the early 21st century satellite imagery became available when affordable, easy to use software with access to satellite imagery databases was offered by several companies and organizations. Satellite images have many applications in meteorology, fishing, biodiversity conservation, landscape, cartography, regional planning, education and warfare. Images can be in other spectra. There are elevation maps made by radar images. Interpretation and analysis of satellite imagery is conducted using specialized remote sensing software.
There are four types of resolution when discussing satellite imagery in remote sensing: spatial, spectral and radiometric. Campbell defines these as follows: spatial resolution is defined as the pixel size of an image representing the size of the surface area being measured on the ground, determined by the sensors' instantaneous field of view. Geometric resolution refers to the satellite sensor's ability to image a portion of the Earth's surface in a single pixel and is expressed in terms of Ground sample distance, or GSD. GSD is a term containing the overall optical and systemic noise sources and is useful for comparing how well one sensor can "see" an object on the ground within a single pixel. For example, the GSD of Landsat is ≈30m, which means the smallest unit that maps to a single pixel within an image is ≈30m x 30m; the latest commercial satellite has a GSD of 0.41 m. This compares to a 0.3 m resolution obtained by some early military film based Reconnaissance satellite such as Corona.
The resolution of satellite images varies depending on the instrument used and the altitude of the satellite's orbit. For example, the Landsat archive offers repeated imagery at 30 meter resolution for the planet, but most of it has not been processed from the raw data. Landsat 7 has an average return period of 16 days. For many smaller areas, images with resolution as high as 41 cm can be available. Satellite imagery is sometimes supplemented with aerial photography, which has higher resolution, but is more expensive per square meter. Satellite imagery can be combined with vector or raster data in a GIS provided that the imagery has been spatially rectified so that it will properly align with other data sets. Satellite imaging of the Earth surface is of sufficient public utility that many countries maintain satellite imaging programs; the United States has led the way in making these data available for scientific use. Some of the more popular programs are listed below followed by the European Union's Sentinel constellation.
Landsat is the oldest continuous Earth observing satellite imaging program. Optical Landsat imagery has been collected at 30 m resolution since the early 1980s. Beginning with Landsat 5, thermal infrared imagery was collected; the Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 satellites are in orbit. Landsat 9 is planned. MODIS has collected near-daily satellite imagery of the earth in 36 spectral bands since 2000. MODIS is onboard the NASA Aqua satellites; the ESA is developing the Sentinel constellation of satellites. 7 missions are planned, each for a different application. Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3 have been launched; the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissio
Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons
Bureau of Land Management
The Bureau of Land Management is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior that administers more than 247.3 million acres of public lands in the United States which constitutes one eighth of the landmass of the country. President Harry S. Truman created the BLM in 1946 by combining two existing agencies: the General Land Office and the Grazing Service; the agency manages the federal government's nearly 700 million acres of subsurface mineral estate located beneath federal and private lands severed from their surface rights by the Homestead Act of 1862. Most BLM public lands are located in these 12 western states: Alaska, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming; the mission of the BLM is "to sustain the health and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations." BLM holdings were described as "land nobody wanted" because homesteaders had passed them by. All the same, ranchers hold nearly 18,000 permits and leases for livestock grazing on 155 million acres of BLM public lands.
The agency manages 221 wilderness areas, 27 national monuments and some 636 other protected areas as part of the National Conservation Lands, totaling about 36 million acres. In addition the National Conservation Lands include nearly 2,400 miles of Wild and Scenic Rivers, nearly 6,000 miles of National Scenic and Historic Trails. There are more than 63,000 gas wells on BLM public lands. Total energy leases generated $5.4 billion in 2013, an amount divided among the Treasury, the states, Native American groups. The BLM's roots go back to the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787; these laws provided for the survey and settlement of the lands that the original 13 colonies ceded to the federal government after the American Revolution. As additional lands were acquired by the United States from Spain and other countries, the United States Congress directed that they be explored and made available for settlement. During the Revolutionary War, military bounty land was promised to soldiers who fought for the colonies.
After the war, the Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed by the United States, England and Spain, ceded territory to the United States. In the 1780s, other states relinquished their own claims to land in modern-day Ohio. By this time, the United States needed revenue to function. Land was sold. In order to sell the land, surveys needed to be conducted; the Land Ordinance of 1785 instructed a geographer to oversee this work as undertaken by a group of surveyors. The first years of surveying were completed by error. In 1812, Congress established the General Land Office as part of the Department of the Treasury to oversee the disposition of these federal lands. By the early 1800s, promised bounty land claims were fulfilled. Over the years, other bounty land and homestead laws were enacted to dispose of federal land. Several different types of patents existed; these include cash entry, homestead, military warrants, mineral certificates, private land claims, state selections, town sites, town lots. A system of local land offices spread throughout the territories, patenting land, surveyed via the corresponding Office of the Surveyor General of a particular territory.
This pattern spread across the entire United States. The laws that spurred this system with the exception of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the Desert Land Act of 1877 have since been repealed or superseded. In the early 20th century, Congress took additional steps toward recognizing the value of the assets on public lands and directed the Executive Branch to manage activities on the remaining public lands; the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 allowed leasing and production of selected commodities, such as coal, oil and sodium to take place on public lands. The Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 established the United States Grazing Service to manage the public rangelands by establishment of advisory boards that set grazing fees; the Oregon and California Revested Lands Sustained Yield Management Act of 1937 referred as the O&C Act, required sustained yield management of the timberlands in western Oregon. In 1946, the Grazing Service was merged with the General Land Office to form the Bureau of Land Management within the Department of the Interior.
It took several years for this new agency to reorganize. In the end, the Bureau of Land Management became less focused on land disposal and more focused on the long term management and preservation of the land; the agency achieved its current form by combining offices in the western states and creating a corresponding office for lands both east of and alongside the Mississippi River. As a matter of course, the BLM's emphasis fell on activities in the western states as most of the mining, land sales, federally owned areas are located west of the Mississippi. BLM personnel on the ground have been oriented toward local interests, while bureau management in Washington are led by presidential guidance. By means of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, Congress created a more unified bureau mission and recognized the value of the remaining public lands by declaring that these lands would remain in public ownership; the law directed that these lands be managed with a view toward "multiple use" defined as "management of the public lands and their various resource values so that th
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Northern Paiute people
The Northern Paiute people is a Numic tribe that has traditionally lived in the Great Basin in eastern California, western Nevada, southeast Oregon. The Northern Paiutes' pre-contact lifestyle was well adapted to the harsh desert environment in which they lived; each tribe or band occupied a specific territory centered on a lake or wetland that supplied fish and water-fowl. Communal hunt drives, which involved neighboring bands, would take rabbits and pronghorn from surrounding areas. Individuals and families appear to have moved among the bands. Northern Paiutes lived a nomadic lifestyle, moving from place to place following animal migration patterns and seasonal foods, they lived in independent groups that consisted of a handful or so of different family units. Upon arrival of foreigners into western Nevada, the Northern Paiutes became sedentary in order to protect themselves and handle negotiations with the new settlers; because of their change from nomadic to sedentary lifestyle, women were relied upon more for both their full-time employment and at-home work.
This is true today. In some modern Northern Paiute tribes, men work in “seasonal jobs on the ranches, in the mines, as caretakers in the nearby motels,” and women work “in the laundry, the bakery, in homes and motels as domestics, in the country hospital.”They gathered Pinyon nuts in the mountains in the fall as a critical winter food source. Women gathered grass seeds and roots as important parts of their diet; the name of each band was derived from a characteristic food source. For example, the people at Pyramid Lake were known as the Cui Ui Ticutta; the people of the Lovelock area were known as the Koop Ticutta. The Kucadikadi of Mono County, California are the "brine fly eaters." Relations among the Northern Paiute bands and their Shoshone neighbors were peaceful. There is no sharp distinction between Sosone. Relations with the Waasseoo or Washoe people, who were culturally and linguistically different, were not so peaceful; these differences in lifestyle and language could be because Northern Paiutes may have moved from southern regions to the Nevada/California area in which they reside.
They may have overthrown and destroyed other Indian tribes in order to inhabit their current lands. The Paiutes, for example, were “continually at war” with the Klamath south and west of them. "The Achomawi, south of the Klamath were enemies of the Northern Paiute, the earliest wars related in Achomawi oral tradition were Northern Paiute."Sustained contact between the Northern Paiute and Euro-Americans began in the early 1840s, although the first contact may have occurred as early as the 1820s. Although the Paiute had adopted the use of horses from other Great Plains tribes, their culture was otherwise largely unaffected by European influences; as Euro-American settlement of the area progressed, competition for scarce resources increased. Several violent confrontations took place, including the Pyramid Lake War of 1860, Owens Valley Indian War 1861-1864, Snake War 1864-1868; these incidents began with a disagreement between settlers and the Paiute regarding property, retaliation by one group against the other, counter-retaliation by the opposite party culminating in the armed involvement of the U.
S. Army. Fatalities were much higher among the Paiute due to newly introduced Eurasian infectious diseases, such as smallpox, which were endemic among the Europeans; the Natives had no acquired immunity. Sarah Winnemucca's book Life Among the Piutes; the government first established the Malheur Reservation for the Northern Paiute in eastern Oregon. It intended to concentrate the Northern Paiute there; because of the distance of the reservation from the traditional areas of most of the bands, because of its poor environmental conditions, many Northern Paiute refused to go there. Those that did, soon left, they clung to their traditional lifestyle as long as possible. When environmental degradation of their lands made that impossible, they sought jobs on white farms, ranches or in cities, they established small Indian colonies, where they were joined by many Shoshone and, in the Reno area, Washoe people. The government created larger reservations at Pyramid Lake and Duck Valley, Nevada. By that time the pattern of small de facto reservations near cities or farm districts with mixed Northern Paiute and Shoshone populations, had been established.
Starting in the early 20th century, the federal government began granting land to these colonies. Under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934, several individual colonies gained federal recognition as independent tribes, it is said that the Northern Paiute people have inhabited the area between the West and Northwest of the United States for over 11,000 years. Therefore, their history is old with many varying accounts of their origin. One version of how the Northern Paiute people came to be is that a bird, the Sagehen, was the only bird that survived a massive flood; the Sagehen cared for it until the fire grew bigger and bigger. The water from the flood dried, a man “happened.” This man was called Nűműzóho, a cannibal. The Cannibals killed all the Indians, except for a woman, able to escape; this woman kept herself alive by traveling from place to place in the region and staying with different characters
Fault blocks are large blocks of rock, sometimes hundreds of kilometres in extent, created by tectonic and localized stresses in the Earth's crust. Large areas of bedrock are broken up into blocks by faults. Blocks are characterized by uniform lithology; the largest of these fault blocks are called crustal blocks. Large crustal blocks broken off from tectonic plates are called terranes; those terranes which are the full thickness of the lithosphere are called microplates. Continent-sized blocks are called variously microcontinents, continental ribbons, H-blocks, extensional allochthons and outer highs; because most stresses relate to the tectonic activity of moving plates, most motion between blocks is horizontal, parallel to the Earth's crust by strike-slip faults. However vertical movement of blocks produces much more dramatic results. Landforms are sometimes formed. Adjacent raised down-dropped blocks can form high escarpments; the movement of these blocks is accompanied by tilting, due to compaction or stretching of the crust at that point.
Fault-block mountains result from rifting, another indicator of tensional tectonic forces. These can form extensive rift valley systems, such as the East African Rift zone. Death Valley in California is a smaller example. There are two types of block mountains. Lifted type block mountains have two steep sides exposing both sides scarps, leading to the horst and graben terrain seen in various parts of Europe including the Upper Rhine valley, a graben between two horsts - the Vosges mountains and the Black Forest, the Rila - Rhodope Massif in Bulgaria, Southeast Europe, including the well defined horsts of Belasitsa, Rila mountain and Pirin mountain - a horst forming a massive anticline situated between the complex graben valleys of Struma and that of Mesta. Tilted type block mountains have one sloping side and one steep side with an exposed scarp, are common in the Basin and Range region of the western United States. Example of graben is the basin of the Narmada River in India, between the Vindhya and Satpura horsts.
Orogeny – The formation of mountain ranges Plummer, David McGeary, Diane Carlson. Physical Geology 8th ed. McGraw-Hill, Boston, 1999. Monroe, James S. and Reed Wicander. The Changing Earth: Exploring Geology and Evolution. 2nd educational Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 0-314-09577-2 Fault-Block Mountains — Universe Today