The bell gable is an architectural element crowning at the upper end of the wall of church buildings in lieu of a church tower. It consists of a gable end in stone, with small hollow semi-circular arches where the church bells are placed, it is a characteristic example of the simplicity of Romanesque architecture. Bell-gables or espadañas are a feature of Romanesque architecture in Spain. Since they were easier and cheaper to build than a church tower or bell tower, they are common in small village churches throughout the Iberian Peninsula; this simple and sober architectural element would be brought to the Americas and the Philippines by Iberian colonizers. The bell gable rises over the front façade wall, but in some churches it may be located on top of any other wall or on top of the toral arch in the midst of the roof. In Catalonia and the Valencian Community bell-gables are known as campanar de paret or campanar de cadireta; because it reminds one of the back of a chair. In Écija the bell tower of the church of Santa Bárbara fell destroyed by a lightning strike in 1892 and was replaced by an espadaña, a more expedient solution than rebuilding the tower.
Zvonnitsa Bell tower Bamboo or Brick: The travails of building churches in Spanish Colonial Philippines by Jose Regalado Trota, Ayala Museum
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings or any other structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are identified with their surviving architectural achievements. Architecture is both the process and the product of planning and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architecture can mean: A general term to describe other physical structures; the art and science of designing buildings and nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. A unifying or coherent form or structure. Knowledge of art, science and humanity; the design activity of the architect, from the macro-level to the micro-level. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments.
The earliest surviving written work on the subject of architecture is De architectura, by the Roman architect Vitruvius in the early 1st century AD. According to Vitruvius, a good building should satisfy the three principles of firmitas, venustas known by the original translation – firmness and delight. An equivalent in modern English would be: Durability – a building should stand up robustly and remain in good condition. Utility – it should be suitable for the purposes for which it is used. Beauty – it should be aesthetically pleasing. According to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible. Leon Battista Alberti, who elaborates on the ideas of Vitruvius in his treatise, De Re Aedificatoria, saw beauty as a matter of proportion, although ornament played a part. For Alberti, the rules of proportion were those that governed the idealised human figure, the Golden mean; the most important aspect of beauty was, therefore, an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially, was based on universal, recognisable truths.
The notion of style in the arts was not developed until the 16th century, with the writing of Vasari: by the 18th century, his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects had been translated into Italian, French and English. In the early 19th century, Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin wrote Contrasts that, as the titled suggested, contrasted the modern, industrial world, which he disparaged, with an idealized image of neo-medieval world. Gothic architecture, Pugin believed, was the only "true Christian form of architecture." The 19th-century English art critic, John Ruskin, in his Seven Lamps of Architecture, published 1849, was much narrower in his view of what constituted architecture. Architecture was the "art which so disposes and adorns the edifices raised by men... that the sight of them" contributes "to his mental health and pleasure". For Ruskin, the aesthetic was of overriding significance, his work goes on to state that a building is not a work of architecture unless it is in some way "adorned".
For Ruskin, a well-constructed, well-proportioned, functional building needed string courses or rustication, at the least. On the difference between the ideals of architecture and mere construction, the renowned 20th-century architect Le Corbusier wrote: "You employ stone and concrete, with these materials you build houses and palaces:, construction. Ingenuity is at work, but you touch my heart, you do me good. I am happy and I say: This is beautiful; that is Architecture". Le Corbusier's contemporary Ludwig Mies van der Rohe said "Architecture starts when you put two bricks together. There it begins." The notable 19th-century architect of skyscrapers, Louis Sullivan, promoted an overriding precept to architectural design: "Form follows function". While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius' "utility". "Function" came to be seen as encompassing all criteria of the use and enjoyment of a building, not only practical but aesthetic and cultural.
Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.' To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art's sake is not only reactionary. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach to building design are rationalism, structuralism, poststructuralism, phenomenology. In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability, hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner, environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling and waste management and lighting
Luxemburg is a city in Dubuque County, United States. It is part of Iowa Metropolitan Statistical Area; the population was 240 at the 2010 census, down from 246 at the 2000 census. The White Pine Hollow State Forest is located four miles to the northwest of Luxemburg. Luxemburg is located at 42°36′17″N 91°4′36″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.46 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 240 people, 100 households, 74 families residing in the city; the population density was 521.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 103 housing units at an average density of 223.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 100.0% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.7% of the population. There were 100 households of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.0% were married couples living together, 2.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 26.0% were non-families.
25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the city was 44 years. 23.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.3% male and 48.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 246 people, 92 households, 72 families residing in the city; the population density was 540.2 people per square mile. There were 94 housing units at an average density of 206.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 100.00% White. There were 92 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.7% were married couples living together, 4.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.7% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.10.
In the city, the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 18.7% from 45 to 64, 20.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,833, the median income for a family was $46,667. Males had a median income of $26,042 versus $19,643 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,314. None of the population or families were below the poverty line. Residents are within the Western Dubuque Community School District. Zoned schools include Farley Elementary School in Farley, Drexler Middle School in Farley, Western Dubuque High School in Epworth
The belfry is a structure enclosing bells for ringing as part of a building as part of a bell tower or steeple. It can refer to the entire tower or building in continental Europe for such a tower attached to a city hall or other civic building. A belfry encloses the room in which the bells are housed; the openings may be left uncovered but are filled with louvers to prevent rain and snow from entering. There may be a separate room below the bell chamber to house the ringers; the word belfry comes from Old French berfrei or beffroi, derived from Proto-Germanic *bergan "to protect" and *frithuz "peace". In larger towns, watchmen in these towers were on the lookout for fires. Though flags were used by the watchmen for communication, these towers contained an alarm bell or bells built into a Bell-Cot, thus Middle English speakers thought berfrei had something to do with bells: they altered it to belfry, an interesting example of the process of folk etymology. Today's Dutch belfort combines the term "bell" with the term "stronghold".
It was a watchtower that a city was permitted to build in its defence, while the Dutch term "klokkenstoel" refers only to the construction of the hanging system, or the way the bell or bells are installed within the tower. Bats in the belfry Belfries of Belgium and France
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Minaret, from Arabic: منارة manarah known as Goldaste, is a type of tower found built into or adjacent to mosques. Minarets serve multiple purposes. While they provide a visual focal point, they are used for the Muslim call to prayer; the basic form of a minaret includes shaft, a cap and head. They are a tall spire with a conical or onion-shaped crown, they can either be taller than the associated support structure. The architecture and role of the minaret vary by region and time period. Minarets attached to mosques serve two main functions: to perform the call to prayer and to act as a symbol of Islam. In the early 9th century, the first minarets were placed opposite the qibla wall. Times, this placement was not beneficial in reaching the community for the call to prayer, they served as a reminder that the region was Islamic and helped to distinguish mosques from the surrounding architecture. In addition to providing a visual cue to a Muslim community, the other function is to provide a vantage point from which the call to prayer, or adhan, is made.
The call to prayer is issued five times each day: dawn, mid-afternoon and night. In most modern mosques, the adhān is called from the musallah via microphone to a speaker system on the minaret; the basic form of minarets consists of four parts: a shaft, a cap and a head. Minarets may be conical, cylindrical, or polygonal. Stairs circle the shaft in a counter-clockwise fashion, providing necessary structural support to the elongated shaft; the gallery is a balcony that encircles the upper sections from which the muezzin may give the call to prayer. It is covered by a roof-like canopy and adorned with ornamentation, such as decorative brick and tile work, cornices and inscriptions, with the transition from the shaft to the gallery displaying muqarnas; the earliest mosques lacked minarets, the call to prayer was performed from smaller tower structures. Hadiths relay that the early Muslim community of Medina gave the call to prayer from the roof of the house of Muhammad, which doubled as a place for prayer.
The first known minarets appear in the early 9th century under Abbasid rule, were not used until the 11th century. These early minaret forms were placed in the middle of the wall opposite the qibla wall; these towers were built across the empire in a height to width ratio of 3:1. The oldest minaret is the Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia and it is the oldest minaret still standing; the construction of the Great Mosque of Kairouan dates to the year 836. The mosque is constituted by three levels of decreasing widths. Minarets have had various forms in light of their architectural function. Minarets are built out of any material, available, changes from region to region; the number of minarets by mosques is not fixed one minaret would accompany each mosque the builder could construct several more. Styles and architecture can vary according to region and time period. Here are a few styles and the localities from which they derive: Central Asia During the Seljuk period, minarets were decorated with geometric and calligraphic design.
They were built prolifically at smaller mosques or mosque complexes. Additionally, minarets during the Seljuk period were characterized by their circular plans and octagonal bases; the Bukhara minaret remains the most well known of the Seljuk minarets for its use of brick patterns and inscriptions. The "international Timurid" style surfaced in central Asia during the 17th century and is categorized by the use of multiple minarets. Examples of this style include the minarets on the roof of the south gate in Akbar's Tomb at Sikandra, the minarets on the Tomb of Jahangir, as well as the four minarets surrounding the mausoleum of the Taj Mahal. Egypt The styles of minarets have varied throughout the history of Egypt. Most minarets were on a square base, the shaft could be plain or decorated and topped with various crowns and pavilions; the tiers of the minaret are separated by balconies. The Mosque of al-Hakim, built between 990 and 1010, has a square base with a shaft that tapers towards the crown.
East China Eastern Chinese minarets were influenced by the Islamic minarets of Iran. They had circular platforms and cylindrical shafts with decorative patterns of the Chinese landscape; the Tower of Light known as the Guangta minaret, merges aspects of Islamic and Chinese architecture. Iraq The Great Mosque of Samarra is one of the earliest minarets and is characterized by a 30 meter high cylindrical tower outside the walls of the mosque. A common Abbasid style of minaret seen in Iraq, is characterized by a structure with a polygonal base and a thick cylindrical shaft, it is typically found on the roof of the mosque. Two examples of this style are the Mosque of Qumriyya. Iran The minarets of 12th century Iran had cylindrical shafts with square or octagonal bases that taper towards their capitals; these minarets became the most common style across the Islamic world. These forms were highly decorated. Pairs of minaret towers. Southeast Asia Tower minarets were not as common in Southeast Asia as mosques were designed to function more as community structures.
Mosques were designed to be much smaller and contained staircase minarets. Tunisia The minaret at the Great Mosque of Kairouan, built in 83