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Stefan–Boltzmann constant

The Stefan–Boltzmann constant, a physical constant denoted by the Greek letter σ, is the constant of proportionality in the Stefan–Boltzmann law: "the total intensity radiated over all wavelengths increases as the temperature increases", of a black body, proportional to the fourth power of the thermodynamic temperature. The theory of thermal radiation lays down the theory of quantum mechanics, by using physics to relate to molecular and sub-atomic levels. Slovenian physicist Josef Stefan formulated the constant in 1879, it was derived in 1884 by Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann; the equation can be derived from Planck's law, by integrating over all wavelengths at a given temperature, which will represent a small flat black body box. "The amount of thermal radiation emitted increases and the principal frequency of the radiation becomes higher with increasing temperatures". The Stefan–Boltzmann constant can be used to measure the amount of heat, emitted by a blackbody, which absorbs all of the radiant energy that hits it, will emit all the radiant energy.

Furthermore, the Stefan–Boltzmann constant allows for temperature to be converted to units for intensity, power per unit area. The value of the Stefan–Boltzmann constant is given in SI units by σ = 5.670374419...×10−8 W⋅m−2⋅K−4. In cgs units the Stefan–Boltzmann constant is: σ ≈ 5.6704×10−5 erg⋅cm−2⋅s−1⋅K−4. In thermochemistry the Stefan–Boltzmann constant is expressed in cal⋅cm−2⋅day−1⋅K−4: σ ≈ 11.7×10−8 cal cm−2⋅day−1⋅K−4. In US customary units the Stefan–Boltzmann constant is: σ ≈ 1.714×10−9 BTU⋅hr−1⋅ft−2⋅°R−4. The value of the Stefan–Boltzmann constant is derivable as well as experimentally determinable, it can be defined in terms of the Boltzmann constant as σ = 2 π 5 k B 4 15 h 3 c 2 = π 2 k B 4 60 ℏ 3 c 2 = 5.670 374 419... × 10 − 8 J ⋅ m − 2 ⋅ s − 1 ⋅ K − 4, where: kB is the Boltzmann constant h is the Planck constant ħ is the reduced Planck constant c is the speed of light in vacuum. The CODATA recommended value prior to 20 May 2019 was calculated from the measured value of the gas constant: σ = 2 π 5 R 4 15 h 3 c 2 N A 4 = 32 π 5 h R 4 R ∞ 4 15 A r 4 M u 4 c 6 α 8, where: R is the universal gas constant NA is the Avogadro constant R∞ is the Rydberg constant Ar is the "relative atomic mass" of the electron Mu is the molar mass constant α is the fine-structure constant.

Dimensional formula: M1T−3Θ−4A related constant is the radiation constant a, given by: a = 4 σ c = 7.5657 × 10 − 15 erg ⋅ cm − 3 ⋅ K − 4 = 7.5657 × 10 − 16 J ⋅ m − 3 ⋅ K − 4. Media related to Stefan–Boltzmann constant at Wikimedia Commons

Creative journalism

Creative journalism refers to a journalistic story than has been enhanced in an creative way by the journalist with an intent to mislead or with an objective to cause an event to happen that otherwise would not. Creative journalism has sometimes been applied to newly identified genres until a definitive designated is settled upon. One usage of the term creative journalism is to cover an overlap between creating writing and journalism that occurs in the feature writing, narrative literature and whatever. Journalism is the factual portrayal of news and events with minimal interpretation. By contrast creative is original imaginative. Creative writing refers to imagination The UNICEF indicated it wished to celebrate creative journalism by was of the Meena Media award, though the award is divided into creative and journalistic categories. Hugh Cudlipp has defined creative journalism differently, as the art of causing something to occur that would not otherwise materialise and the antithesis of the phantom scoop where the foretold event does not occur.

He puts it as making news not faking news This definition has been alluded to by others. Creative journalism can be applied to a journalistic work. Used this way if will be used to denote a praiseworthy example of photojournalism, visual journalism or graphic journalism; the euphemism for Creative journalism refers to the similar use of'creative' in creative accounting. Here creative is used in the sense to mislead; the term has elements of relationship to tabloid journalism, yellow journalism and fakes news, though there are differences in emphasis and objectives. A significant difference from clickbait is the former but form emphasis on the story. Creative journalism does not occur when the source are incorrect or as a result of spin propaganda providing the journalist has not knowingly colluded or negligently failed to check sources

Arde Madrid

Arde Madrid is a Spanish period comedy-drama limited television series created by Paco León and Anna R. Costa, which premiered on November 8, 2018 on Movistar+. León directed every episode of the series and stars in it, alongside Debi Mazar, Inma Cuesta and Anna Castillo; the series tells the story of the period which American actress Ava Gardner spent in Francoist Spain. On 14 November 2018, Movistar+ renewed the series for a second season, but on 3 May 2019, the creators announced their decision to not continue the series. Ava Gardner's life in Madrid in the 1960s is told from the point of view of her maid and chauffeur, both spies in Franco's secret service, who report on her hedonistic lifestyle, filled with an elite group of artists and expats. Arde Madrid on IMDb Arde Madrid on Filmaffinity

Tombstone diagram

In computing, tombstone diagrams consist of a set of “puzzle pieces” representing compilers and other related language processing programs. They are used to illustrate and reason about transformations from a source language to a target language realised in an implementation language, they are most found describing complicated processes for bootstrapping and self-compiling of compilers and macro-processors. T-diagrams were first introduced for describing bootstrapping and cross-compiling compilers by McKeeman et al. in 1971. Melvin Conway described the broader concept before that with his UNCOL in 1958, to which Bratman added in 1961. On, including P. D. Terry, gave an explanation and usage of T-diagrams in their textbooks on the topic of compiler construction. T-diagrams are now used to describe client-server interconnectivity on the World Wide Web. A teaching tool TDiag has been implemented at Germany. Bootstrapping

Bishop Worthington Residence

The Bishop Worthington Residence was built at 1240 South 10th Street in Omaha, Nebraska in 1885. The personal home of Bishop George Worthington of the Episcopal Church, the Worthington Mansion was a place of high social and religious importance during the pioneer era of Omaha history. During its history, the mansion served as the second Presbyterian Hospital and as the White House Apartments; the location of the Worthington Mansion reflected his great wealth on arrival to Omaha. The banking family of brothers Herman and Augustus Kountze established an exclusive neighborhood for wealthy people on South 10th Street, due south of downtown Omaha, in the early 1880s. Herman Kountze's estate was called Forest Hill, was renowned for one of the most commanding views of Omaha. Bishop Worthington had his mansion constructed adjacent to Brownell Hall, an Episcopalian girls boarding school, its accompanying chapel, St. Matthias Episcopal Church. Gordon W. Lloyd, an English-trained architect who worked in Detroit, was the architect of the Worthington Mansion.

Lloyd was noted as a designer of Episcopal churches and related buildings, was from Worthington's former diocese in Michigan. Designed in the high Queen Anne style, the home has retained many of its original interior features, they include 26 rooms, a grand staircase, large parlor, separate devotional room, a large library and den, as well as many bedrooms. The arms of the local Episcopalian diocese were cut into the glass on the front doors, which had the personal arms of Bishop Worthington on the inner doors of the vestibule. Soon after its construction, Bishop Worthington's sister and brother moved from Ohio and New York to join him living in his mansion; the three were all unmarried at first, with Bishop Worthington marrying in life. Bishop Worthington is attributed with serving in Omaha until 1899. Worthington's mansion was surrounded by other mansions, including the 1893 Drexel Mansion at 1244 South 10th. During this early era the Worthington Hospital, named in honor of the Bishop, was built nearby at South 10th and Pierce Streets, too.

In the early 1900s, the Worthington Mansion became home to the Presbyterian Hospital. It was one of several mansions. However, by the 1930s the hospital had moved out and the building became home to the Lutheran Home for the Aged. By the 1950s, the home was called The White House Apartments. During this era, the Order of the Sons of Italy moved into 1238 South 10th Street, the original carriage house for the mansion, it has been demolished since then. The neighborhood surrounding the Worthington Mansion has changed too; the last of the mansions that once surrounded Bishop Worthington's residence was the Charles Storz home, it was demolished in 2014. Grace University has bought many of the other regal homes that once filled the blocks and has been demolishing them, too. A local historic preservation organization called Restoration Exchange Omaha has expressed interest in saving the Worthington Mansion from further deterioration, in 2016 began fundraising to contribution to its accurate restoration and further preservation efforts.

History of Omaha, Nebraska South 10th Street Old Gold Coast

Texture compression

Texture compression is a specialized form of image compression designed for storing texture maps in 3D computer graphics rendering systems. Unlike conventional image compression algorithms, texture compression algorithms are optimized for random access. In their seminal paper on texture compression, Beers and Chaddha list four features that tend to differentiate texture compression from other image compression techniques; these features are: Decoding Speed It is desirable to be able to render directly from the compressed texture data and so, in order not to impact rendering performance, decompression must be fast. Random Access Since predicting the order that a renderer accesses texels would be difficult, any texture compression scheme must allow fast random access to decompressed texture data; this tends to rule out many better-known image compression schemes such as JPEG or run-length encoding. Compression Rate and Visual Quality In a rendering system, lossy compression can be more tolerable than for other use cases.

Some texture compression libraries, such as crunch, allow the developer to flexibly trade off compression rate vs. visual quality, using methods such as rate-distortion optimization. Encoding Speed Texture compression is more tolerant of asymmetric encoding/decoding rates as the encoding process is done only once during the application authoring process. Given the above, most texture compression algorithms involve some form of fixed-rate lossy vector quantization of small fixed-size blocks of pixels into small fixed-size blocks of coding bits, sometimes with additional extra pre-processing and post-processing steps. Block Truncation Coding is a simple example of this family of algorithms; because their data access patterns are well-defined, texture decompression may be executed on-the-fly during rendering as part of the overall graphics pipeline, reducing overall bandwidth and storage needs throughout the graphics system. As well as texture maps, texture compression may be used to encode other kinds of rendering map, including bump maps and surface normal maps.

Texture compression may be used together with other forms of map processing such as MIP maps and anisotropic filtering. Some examples of practical texture compression systems are S3 Texture Compression, PVRTC, Ericsson Texture Compression and Adaptive Scalable Texture Compression. OpenGL and OpenGL ES, as implemented on many video accelerator cards and mobile GPUs, can support multiple common kinds of texture compression - through the use of vendor extensions. Texture compression can be applied to reduce memory usage at runtime, as opposed to texture compression designed to reduce download or disk size. For 64-bit iPhone and iPad hardware, the RenderReduce Framework can be applied to reduce memory use. Texture data is the largest source of memory usage in a mobile application. Block Truncation Coding Vector quantization Color Cell Compression GST: GPU-decodable Supercompressed Textures