France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Poland)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the Polish government department tasked with maintaining Poland's international relations and coordinating its participation in international and regional supra-national political organisations such as the European Union and United Nations. The head of the ministry holds a place in the Council of Ministers; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for maintaining good, friendly relations between the Polish Republic and other states. In doing so it is required to act as a representative of the Polish people. To this end all Polish diplomatic missions around the world are subordinate to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Ambassadors, whilst receiving their credentials from the President of Poland, are employees of the foreign ministry and are recommended to the President for their posts by the minister of foreign affairs; the ministry is considered to be one of Poland's most important, with the minister of foreign affairs ranking amongst the most influential people in Polish politics.
This position is reserved for seasoned, professional politicians, is thought to require a great deal of tact and intellect. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs was first established, with Leon Wasilewski as its secretary, under the authority of the Regency Council when Poland regained its independence from the occupying German forces in the First World War. However, the ministry began to fulfil its ascribed duties only after the fall of the Regency Council, adoption of the Treaty of Versailles and the rise to power of Józef Piłsudski; the ministry was until 1939, located in central Warsaw, with its seat in the Brühl Palace on Piłsudski Square. During the Second World War, the ministry was evacuated, along with the rest of the Polish government, first to France and onwards to London, where it formed part of the Polish government in exile. During this period Count Edward Raczyński, a man, to become President of the government in exile, was the minister responsible. After 1945, when most countries began to afford diplomatic regocnition to the new communist government in Warsaw, at the expense of the government in exile, the authorities of the new People's Republic of Poland refounded the ministry and appointed, as its first minister, Edward Osóbka-Morawski.
Since 1989 and the establishment of the Third Republic, the ministry and its staff have been located in a complex of buildings on Aleje Szucha in central Warsaw, not far displaced from the Chancellery of the Prime Minister. The current Minister of Foreign Affairs is Jacek Czaputowicz; the departments for regional affairs exist to monitor the internal situation and politics of the countries within the area of any one specific department's competence. They coordinate development of bilateral relations, initiate the related undertakings and prepare evaluations; these departments oversee the issue of Poland's participation in the structures of multilateral cooperation with any relevant partner states, as well as handling interregional cooperation. They are responsible for the substantive activity of relevant Polish diplomatic missions abroad; the Following regional affairs departments exist: Administration Office Asia-Pacific Department Bureau for the Protection of Classified Information Bureau of Archives and Information Management Bureau of Control and Audit Bureau of Finances Bureau of Human Resources Bureau of Infrastructure Department for Cooperation with Polish Diaspora and Poles Abroad Department for Proceedings before International Human Rights Protection Bodies Department of Africa and the Middle East Department of Consular Affairs Department of Development Cooperation Department of Economic Cooperation Department of European Union Law Department of Foreign Policy Strategy Department of Public and Cultural Diplomacy Department of the Americas Department of the Committee for European Affairs Department of United Nations and Human Rights Diplomatic Protocol Director General's Office Eastern Department EU Economic Department European Policy Department Information Technology and Telecommunication Office Inspectorate of the Foreign Service Legal and Treaty Department MFA Press Office Minister's Secretariat Operations Centre Political Director's Office Security Policy Department Political Party: PO PiS SLD UW SdRP Independent Kingdom of Poland Wojciech Rostworowski Janusz Radziwiłł Stanisław Głąbiński Second Polish Republic Leon Wasilewski Ignacy Jan Paderewski Władysław Wróblewski Stanisław Patek Eustachy Sapieha Jan Dąbski Konstanty Skirmunt Gabriel Narutowicz Aleksander Skrzyński Marian Seyda Roman Dmowski Karol Bertoni Maurycy Zamoyski Aleksander Skrzyński Kajetan Dzierżykraj-Morawski August Zaleski Józef Beck Polish government-in-exile The Polish government-in-exile had a wide international recognition until 1945, limited to just few countries until the 1970s August Zaleski Edward Raczyński Tadeusz Romer (14 July 1943 – 24 Novem
The Polish government-in-exile, formally known as the Government of the Republic of Poland in exile, was the government in exile of Poland formed in the aftermath of the Invasion of Poland of September 1939, the subsequent occupation of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union, which brought to an end the Second Polish Republic. Despite the occupation of Poland by hostile powers, the government-in-exile exerted considerable influence in Poland during World War II through the structures of the Polish Underground State and its military arm, the Armia Krajowa resistance. Abroad, under the authority of the government-in-exile, Polish military units that had escaped the occupation fought under their own commanders as part of Allied forces in Europe and the Middle East. After the war, as the Polish territory came under the control of the People's Republic of Poland, a Soviet satellite state, the government-in-exile remained in existence, though unrecognized and without effective power. Only after the end of Communist rule in Poland did the government-in-exile formally pass on its responsibilities to the new government of the Third Polish Republic in December 1990.
The government-in-exile was based in France during 1939 and 1940, first in Paris and in Angers. From 1940, following the Fall of France, the government moved to London, remained in the United Kingdom until its dissolution in 1990. On 17 September 1939, the President of the Polish Republic, Ignacy Mościcki, in the small town of Kuty near the southern Polish border, issued a proclamation about his plan to transfer power and appointing Władysław Raczkiewicz, the Marshal of the Senate, as his successor; this was done in accordance with Article 24 of the Constitution of the Republic of Poland, adopted in April 1935. Article 24 provided as follows: In event of war, the term of the President's office shall be prolonged until three months after the conclusion of peace. Should the President's successor assume office, the term of his office shall expire at the end of three months after the conclusion of peace, it was not until 30 September 1939 that Mościcki resigned. Raczkiewicz, in Paris took his constitutional oath at the Polish Embassy and became President of the Republic of Poland.
Raczkiewicz appointed General Władysław Sikorski to be Prime Minister. After Edward Rydz-Śmigły stepped down, Raczkiewicz made Sikorski Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces. Most of the Polish Navy escaped to Britain, tens of thousands of Polish soldiers and airmen escaped through Hungary and Romania or across the Baltic Sea to continue the fight in France. Many Poles subsequently took part in Allied operations: in Norway, in France in 1940 and in 1944, in the Battle of Britain, in the Battle of the Atlantic, in North Africa, Italy, at Arnhem and elsewhere. Under the Sikorski–Mayski agreement of July 1941 Polish soldiers taken prisoner by the Soviet Union in 1939, were released to form Anders' Army, intended to fight Nazi Germany in the USSR, but instead transferred via Iran to fight with US and British forces. Berling's Army, formed in the USSR in 1944, fought under Soviet command; the Polish government in exile, based first in Paris in Angers, where Władysław Raczkiewicz lived at the Château de Pignerolle near Angers from 2 December 1939 until June 1940.
Escaping from France the government relocated to London, it was recognized by all the Allied governments. Politically, it was a coalition of the Polish Peasant Party, the Polish Socialist Party, the Labour Party and the National Party, although these parties maintained only a vestigial existence in the circumstances of war; when Germany launched a war against the Soviets in 1941, the Polish government in exile established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union against Hitlerism, but in order to help Poles persecuted by the NKVD. On 12 August 1941 the Kremlin signed a one-time amnesty, extending to thousands of Polish soldiers, taken prisoner in 1939 by the Red Army in eastern Poland, including many Polish civilian prisoners and deportees entrapped in Siberia; the amnesty allowed the Poles to create eight military divisions known as the Anders Army. They were evacuated to Iran and the Middle East, where they were needed by the British, hard pressed by Rommel's Afrika Korps; these Polish units formed the basis for the Polish II Corps, led by General Władysław Anders, which together with other, earlier-created Polish units fought alongside the Allies.
During the war from 1942 on, the Polish government in exile provided the Allies with some of the earliest and most accurate accounts of the ongoing Holocaust of European Jews and, through its representatives, like the Foreign Minister Count Edward Raczyński and the courier of the Polish Underground movement, Jan Karski, called for action, without success, to stop it. The note the Foreign Minister, Count Edward Raczynski, sent on 10 December 1942 to the Governments of the United Nations was the first official denunciation by any Government of the mass extermination and of the Nazi aim of total extermination of the Jewish population, it was the first official document singling out the sufferings of European Jews as Jews and not only as citizens of their respective countries of origin. The note of 10 December 1942 and the Polish Government efforts triggered the Declaration of the Allied Nations of 17 December 1942. In April 1943, the Germans announced that
Konstanty Skirmunt was a Polish politician. During 1907—1914 he was a member of the State Council of the Russian Empire, he was a member of the Polish National Committee in Paris in 1917–1918, Polish ambassador in Rome in 1919–1921, Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1921–22, Polish ambassador in London in 1919–1934. 1923: Order of Polonia Restituta of the 1st class 1932: Gold Cross of Merit 1936: Royal Victorian Order of the 1st class
Edward Bernard Raczyński
Count Edward Bernard Raczyński was a Polish diplomat, writer and President of Poland in exile. He was the longest living, oldest serving Polish President. Count Edward Bernard Maria Raczyński was born December 19, 1891 in Zakopane, to a Polish aristocratic family, his father was Count Edward Aleksander Raczyński of Nałęcz coat of arms, his mother Róża née Countess Potocka. The Raczyńskis were related to the Austro-Hungarian house of Habsburgs; the full name was "Raczyński z Małyszyna", as they were a branch of the noble family Nałęcz-Małyski from Greater Poland and about 1540 took their name from the estate of Raczyn near Wieluń. However, the Raczyńskis remained unknown until the 18th century, when four of them became Senators of Poland under different reigns. One of the Raczyńskis became a Knight of the Order of the White Eagle during the reign of King August the Strong, six of them were awarded the Virtuti Militari order during the time of Duchy of Warsaw and three received the same distinction during the November Uprising of 1831.
The title of Count was awarded to different branches of the family by Prussian Kings Friedrich Wilhelm III and Wilhelm II. One of their kin was a Knight of the highest Prussian Order of the Black Eagle. Raczyński spent most of his childhood in Kraków, in the family palace Pod Baranami and in the family palace in Rogalin in Greater Poland, he studied law in Lipsk, Kraków, London and was awarded with a doctorate of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków in 1915. In November 1918, Raczynski joined the army of the resuscitated Poland, from which he was called to the diplomatic service in May 1919; until 1925, he worked in Polish embassies and missions in Bern and London. Back in Warsaw, he became the head of the department of international agreements. In 1932, Raczyński was appointed Polish ambassador to the League of Nations and in 1934 he became the ambassador of the Republic of Poland in the United Kingdom. On behalf of Poland, he signed the Polish-British alliance which led the United Kingdom to declare war on Nazi Germany after the country's invasion.
Following the September 1, 1939 German Invasion of Poland Raczyński remained in London where he continued to serve as the ambassador of the Polish Government in Exile and one of its prominent members. Between July 22, 1941 and July 14, 1943 he was the Polish Minister of Foreign Affairs in the cabinet of Władysław Sikorski. In this capacity, he provided the Allies with one of the earliest and most accurate accounts of the ongoing Holocaust and pleaded for action. After 1945, when the government of the United Kingdom broke the pacts with Poland and withdrew support for the Polish government, Raczyński remained in London, where he acted as one of the most notable members of Polish diaspora there, he was active in various political and social organisations in exile, including the Fundusz Pomocy Krajowi which supported the democratic opposition in communist-controlled Poland. Between 1954 and 1972 he was one of the members of the Council of the Three, the collective presidential body of the Polish government in exile.
He was a member of the Committee for Polish Affairs and an advisor of various British governmental agencies and ministries. In March 1979, Raczyński became President in exile, after being chosen by the outgoing President Stanisław Ostrowski. In turn, he chose as his successor Prime Minister Kazimierz Sabbat. During the Raczyński presidency the Solidarity movement was established in Poland. Raczyński played an important role in raising awareness about the events in Poland in Western countries and in establishing closer ties with the opposition movement in Poland. President Raczyński at some point considered naming Władysław Bartoszewski as his successor, as he wanted to choose someone "from the country" and with strong ties to the Polish opposition movement. Bartoszewski, declined the offer. After serving a 7-year term he resigned from his post on April 8, 1986, he was the last Polish President-in-Exile who had held an important office during the era of the 2nd Republic: his successors, Kazimierz Sabbat and Ryszard Kaczorowski were in their twenties at the outset of the Second World War.
As he left office he received a praise for reuniting the Polish political emigration and reshaping the Government in exile. Edward Raczyński died July 1993, at his home in London as the last male descendant of his line, his coffin was placed in the mausoleum of his family located at the chapel in Rogalin. In his last will and testament, Count Raczyński bequeathed his family's palace in Rogalin, his library to the Polish nation, he was the longest living head of state in Poland's history and one of the few centenarians among European politicians of the 20th century. In 2004, a blue plaque was installed on the house where he lived and died, No. 8 Lennox Gardens in Brompton. Order of the White Eagle Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire Grand Cross of the Order of Pius IX from the Pope Doctor Honoris Causa of the Polish University Abroad, London, in 1982. On August 25, 1932 he married his second wife, Cecylia Maria Jar
Aleksander Kwaśniewski is a Polish politician and journalist. He served as the President of Poland from 1995 to 2005, he was born in Białogard, during Communist rule, he was active in the Socialist Union of Polish Students and was the Minister for Sport in the Communist government during the 1980s. After the fall of Communism, he became a leader of the left-wing Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland, successor to the former ruling Polish United Workers' Party, a co-founder of the Democratic Left Alliance. Kwaśniewski was elected to the presidency in 1995, defeating the Lech Wałęsa, he was re-elected to a final term as president in 2000 in a decisive first-round victory. Although he was praised for attempting to further integrate Poland into the European Union, he faced criticism for involving the country in the Iraq War, his term ended on 23 December 2005, when he handed over power to his elected successor, conservative Lech Kaczyński. From 1973-77, Kwaśniewski studied Transport Economics and Foreign Trade at the University of Gdańsk, although he never graduated.
He became politically active at this time, joined the ruling Polish United Workers' Party in 1977, remaining a member until it was dissolved in 1990. An activist in the communist student movement until 1982, he held, among other positions, the chairmanship of the University Council of the Socialist Union of Polish Students from 1976-77 and the vice-chairmanship of the Gdańsk Voivodship Union from 1977-79. Kwaśniewski was a member of the SZSP supreme authorities from 1977-82. From November 1981 to February 1984 he was the editor-in-chief of the communist-controlled student weekly ITD editor-in-chief of the daily communist youth Sztandar Młodych from 1984-85, he was a co-founder of the first computer-science periodical in Poland, Bajtek, in 1985. From 1985-87, Kwaśniewski was Minister for Youth Affairs in the Zbigniew Messner government, Chairman of the Committee for Youth and Physical Culture till June 1990, he joined the government of Mieczysław Rakowski, first as a Cabinet Minister and as chairman of the government Social-Political Committee from October 1988 to September 1989.
A participant in the Round-Table negotiations, he co-chaired the task group for trade-union pluralism with Tadeusz Mazowiecki and Romuald Sosnowski. As the PZPR was wound up, he became a founding member of the post-communist Social Democratic Party of the Republic of Poland from January to February 1990, its first chairman until he assumed the presidency in December 1995, he was one of the founding members of the coalition Democratic Left Alliance in 1991. Kwaśniewski was an activist in the Student Sports Union from 1975-79 and the Polish Olympic Committee. Running for the Sejm from the Warsaw constituency in 1991, he won the largest number of votes, although did not win an absolute majority. Kwaśniewski headed the parliamentary caucus of the Democratic Left Alliance in his first and second terms, he was a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee and chairman of the Constitutional Committee of the National Assembly from November 1993 to November 1995. In an bitter campaign, Kwaśniewski won the presidential election in 1995, collecting 51.7 percent of votes in the run-off, against 48.3 percent for the incumbent, Lech Wałęsa, the former Solidarity leader.
Kwaśniewski's campaign slogans were "Let's choose the future" and "A Poland for all". Political opponents disputed his victory, produced evidence to show that he had lied about his education in registration documents and public presentations. There was some mystery over his graduation from university. A law court confirmed that Kwaśniewski had lied about his record—and this did not come to light until after the election—but did not penalise him for it. Kwaśniewski took the presidential oath of office on 23 December 1995; the same day, he was sworn in as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces at the Warszawa First Fighter Wing, in Mińsk Mazowiecki. His political course resembled that of Wałęsa's in several key respects, such as the pursuit of closer ties to the European Union and NATO. Kwaśniewski continued the transition to a market economy and the privatization of state-owned enterprises, although with less energy than his predecessor. Hoping to be seen as "the president of all Poles", including his political opponents, he quit the Social Democratic Party after election.
He formed a coalition with the rightist government of Jerzy Buzek with few major conflicts and on several occasions he stood against movements of the Democratic Left Alliance government of Leszek Miller. At one moment, support for Kwaśniewski reached as high as 80% in popularity polls. In 1997, Polish newspaper Zycie reported that Kwaśniewski had met former KGB officer Vladimir Alganov at the Baltic sea resort Cetniewo in 1994. First Kwaśniewski denied meeting Alganov and filed a libel suit against the newspaper. Kwaśniewski admitted that he had met Alganov on official occasions, but denied meeting him in Cetniewo. Kwaśniewski's greatest achievement was his ability to bring about a new Constitution of Poland to replace the modified Stalinist document still in use; the failure to create a new document had been a criticism leveled at Wałęsa. Kwaśniewski campaigned for its approval in the subsequent referendum, he signed it into law on 16 July 1997, he took an active part in the efforts to secure Polish membership of NATO.
He headed Poland's delegation at the 1997 Madrid summit, where Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary were promised membership
Gabriel Narutowicz was a Polish professor of hydroelectric engineering and politician who served as the 1st President of Poland from 11 December 1922 until his assassination on 16 December, five days after assuming office. He served as the Minister of Public Works from 1920 to 1921 and as Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1922. A renowned engineer and politically independent, Narutowicz was the first elected head of state following Poland's regained sovereignty from partitioning powers. Born into a noble family with strong patriotic sentiment, Narutowicz studied at the University of St. Petersburg before relocating to Zurich Polytechnic and completing his studies in Switzerland. An engineer by profession, he was a pioneer of electrification and his works were presented at exhibitions across Western Europe. Narutowicz directed the construction of the first European hydroelectric power plants in Monthey, Mühleberg and Andelsbuch. In 1907 he was nominated a professor of hydroelectric and water engineering in Zurich, was subsequently assigned in maintaining the Rhine.
In September 1919 Narutowicz was invited by the Polish authorities in rebuilding the nation's infrastructure after devastation caused by World War I. On 23 June 1920 Narutowicz became the Minister of Public Works in Władysław Grabski’s government. Following his successful conduct of the Polish delegation at the Genoa Conference, on 28 June 1922 he became the Minister of Foreign Affairs in Artur Śliwiński’s cabinet. During the elections in 1922, Narutowicz was supported by the center-left, most notably the Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie", by national minorities, but gained harsh criticism from the right wing National Democratss. Far-right zealots, ultra-Catholic unions and nationalists targeted him for sympathy towards Polish Jews. Upon defeating the other candidate, Maurycy Zamoyski, Gabriel Narutowicz was elected the first president of the Second Polish Republic. After only five days in office he was assassinated by oppositionist Eligiusz Niewiadomski while viewing paintings at the Zachęta Art Gallery.
His funeral, attended by 500,000 people, was a manifestation of peace which diminished the power of the far-right movement in the upcoming years. Narutowicz was buried with honors on 22 December 1922 in the vault of St. John's Cathedral in Warsaw. Narutowicz was an active Freemason. Gabriel Józef Narutowicz was born into a Polish-Lithuanian noble family in Telsze part of the Russian Empire after the partitioning of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, his father, Jan Narutowicz, was a local district judge and landholder in the Samogitian village of Brewiki. As a result of his participation in the January 1863 Uprising against Imperial Russia, he was sentenced to a year in prison. Gabriel’s mother, Wiktoria Szczepkowska, was Jan's third wife. Following her husband's death she raised the sons herself. An educated woman, intrigued by the philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment, she had a great influence on the development of Gabriel and his siblings' world view. In 1873 she moved to Liepāja, Latvia, so that her children would not be forced to attend a Russian school.
An illustration of the dual nature of the family's identity is Gabriel Narutowicz’s brother, Stanisław Narutowicz, after Lithuania regained independence in 1918, became a Lithuanian, not Polish, citizen. Earlier, towards the end of World War I, Stanisław had become a member of the Council of Lithuania, the provisional Lithuanian parliament, he was a signatory of the Lithuanian Act of Independence of 16 February 1918. Narutowicz finished his secondary education at the gymnasium in Latvia, he enrolled at the University of St. Petersburg, in the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics. Illness, caused him to suspend those studies and to transfer to the Zurich Polytechnic in Switzerland, where he studied from 1887 to 1891. Narutowicz helped exiled Poles on the run from the Russian authorities during his time in Switzerland, he was connected with a Polish émigré socialist party, "Proletariat". As a result of his associations he was banned from returning to Russia, had a warrant issued for his arrest. In 1895 Narutowicz became a Swiss citizen and, after completing his studies, he was employed as an engineer during the construction of the St. Gallen railway.
Narutowicz proved to be an excellent engineering expert and in 1895 became a chief of works on the River Rhine. He was hired by the Kurstein technical office, his works were exhibited at the International Exhibition in Paris and he would become a famous pioneer of electrification in Switzerland. Narutowicz directed the construction of many hydroelectric power plants in Western Europe, in Monthey, Mühleberg and Andelsbuch. In 1907 he became a professor in the water construction institute in Zurich, he was dean of that institute from 1913 to 1919. He was a member of the Swiss Committee for Water Economy. In 1915 he was chosen chairman of the International Committee for regulation of the River Rhine. During World War I he cooperated with the General Swiss Committee tasked with helping victims of the war in Poland and was a member of La Pologne et la Guerre, located in Lausanne. A follower of the ideas of Józef Piłsudski, in September 1919 Narutowicz was invited by the Polish government to return to Poland to take part in the rebuilding of the nation's infrastructure.
After coming back to Poland, on 23 June 1920 Narutowicz became the Minister of Public Wo