Aetolia is a mountainous region of Greece on the north coast of the Gulf of Corinth, forming the eastern part of the modern regional unit of Aetolia-Acarnania. The Achelous River separates Aetolia from Acarnania to the west. In classical times Aetolia comprised two parts: Old Aetolia in the west, from the Achelous to the Evenus and Calydon; the country has a level and fruitful coastal region, but an unproductive and mountainous interior. The mountains contained many wild beasts, acquired fame in Greek mythology as the scene of the hunt for the Calydonian Boar. Tribes known as Curetes – named after the nearby mountain Kourion, or just to stand out from the Acarnanians, who were called so because they were unshorn – and Leleges inhabited the country, but at an early period Greeks from Elis, led by the mythical eponym Aetolus, set up colonies. Dionysius of Halicarnassus mentions that Curetes was the old name of the Aetolians and Leleges the old name of the Locrians; the Aetolians took part under their king Thoas.
The mountain tribes of Aetolia were the Ophioneis, the Apodotoi, the Agraeis, the Aperantoi and the Eurytanians. The primitive lifestyle of those tribes made an impression on ancient historians. Polybius doubted their Greek heritage, while Livy reports that they spoke a language similar to the Macedonians. On the other hand, Thucydides claims that Eurytanians spoke a difficult language and ate their food raw, they were semi-barbaric and predatory. They worshiped Apollo as god of Artemis as goddess of wilderness, they worshiped Athena, not as goddess of wisdom, but emphasizing the element of war – i.e. a goddess, a counterbalance to the god Ares. They called Artemis "Laphrios gods," i.e. patrons of the spoils and loot of war. In addition, they worshiped the river Achelous and Bacchus. In Thermos, an area north of Trichonis lake, there was after the 7th century a shrine of Apollo “Thermios,” which became a significant religious center during the time of the Aetolian League; the Aetolians refused to participate in the Persian Wars.
In 426 BC, led by Aegitios, they defeated the Athenians and their allies, who had turned against Apodotia and Ophioneia under the general command of Demosthenes. However, they failed to regain Naupaktos, which had meanwhile been conquered by the Corinthians with the aid of the Athenians. At the end of the Peloponnesian War, the Aetolians took part as mercenaries of the Athenians in the expedition against Syracuse; the Achaeans occupied Calydon, but the Aetolians recovered it in 361 BC. In 338 BC, Naupaktos was again taken by the Aetolians, with the help of Philip II. During the Lamian War, the Aetolians helped the Athenian general Leosthenes defeat Antipater; as a result, they came into conflict with Antipater and Craterus, taking great risks, but were saved by the disagreement between the two Macedonian generals and Perdiccas. The Acarnanians attempted to invade their land, but the Aetolians were able to force them to flee; the Aetolians set up the Aetolian League, in early times. It soon became a powerful confederation and by c. 340 BC it became one of the leading military powers in ancient Greece.
It had been organized during the reign of Philip II by the cities of Aetolia for their mutual benefit and protection and became a formidable rival to the Macedonian monarchs and the Achaean League. The great courage shown by the Aetolians during the fighting against the Macedonians increased their glamour and fame after winning the last Amphictyonic war and more after repulsing the Gallic invasion under Brennus and rescuing the sanctuary of Delphi. Subsequently, the Sotiria Games were established in honour of Zeus the Saviour; the Aetolians’ power magnified with the occupation of the lands of Ozoloi and Phocians, as well as Boeotia. They united under the power of their League in the areas of Tegea, Orchomenus and Phigaleia. Between 220 -- 217 BC, the Social War broke out between the Aetolian Leagues; the war was first started by the Aetolians with the help of the Eleans. Allies of the Achaeans were the Macedonians, the Boeotians, the Phocians, the Epirotes, the Acarnanians and the Messenians.
The Aetolians allied with the Romans, while Philip destroyed the temple of Apollo Thermios and allied with the Carthaginians. The Aetolians continued to fight on the side of the Romans in the Battle of Cynoscephalae, ignoring the great dangers looming for Greece as a result of this alliance; the Aetolians took the side of Antiochus III against the Roman Republic, on the defeat of that monarch in 189 BC, they became the subjects of Rome. Following the conquest of the Achaeans by Lucius Mummius Achaicus in 146 BC, Aetolia became part of the Roman province of Achaea; when the Roman garrisons were withdrawn because of the civil wars in Rome, the Aetolians, began to fight each other. Following Octavius’ victory at the Battle of Actium, the Aetolians who had sided with Antony disbanded completely. Octavius handed Calydon over to the Achaeans, who devastated it and moved the statue of Artemis Laphria to Patras. There were subsequent invasions by Goths and Vandals several centuries at the end of the Roman Empire.
Aetolia's reputation has suffered from a rather hostile treatment in the sources. Polybius is considered now to have a h
Visoki Dečani, or Dečani is a medieval Serbian Orthodox Christian monastery located near Deçan, Kosovo. It was founded in the first half of the 14th century by Serbian king Stefan Dečanski; the Visoki Dečani monastery is located by the Dečanska Bistrica river gorge at the foot of the Prokletije Mountains, in the region of Metohija. It is located about 2 kilometres from the town of Deçan; the monastery is managed by the Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Prizren. The monastery has been under the legal protection of Serbia since 1947 with a designation of Cultural Monument of Exceptional Importance; the monastery is part of the World Heritage site named "Medieval Monuments in Kosovo". Construction began during the reign of Serbian King Stefan Dečanski in 1327 and the original founding charter from 1330 has been preserved. Dečanski's son, Stefan Dušan, seized the Serbian throne in 1331 and had his father strangled to death in the Zvečan Fortress shortly afterwards. Dečanski was buried in the still incomplete Visoki Dečani monastery in 1331 and its construction was continued by Dušan.
The monastery's main architect was Fra Vita, a Franciscan friar from the Montenegrin coastal town of Kotor. Construction of the monastery lasted for a total of 8 years, ended in 1335; the wooden throne of the hegumen was finished at around this time, the church interior was decorated. Dečanski's carved wooden sarcophagus was finished in 1340. Serbian princess and Bulgarian empress consort. Bulgarian writer Gregory Tsamblak, author of the Life of Stefan Dečanski, was the hegumen at the beginning of the 15th century; the painter-monk Longin spent two decades in the monastery during the second half of the 16th century and created 15 icons with depictions of the Great Feasts and hermits, as well as his most celebrated work, the icon of Stefan Dečanski. In the late 17th century, the Ottomans inflicted no serious damage. In 1819, archimandrite Zaharija Dečanac became Metropolitan of Prizren. During World War I, the monastery's treasures were plundered by the Austro-Hungarian Army, which occupied Serbia between 1915 and 1918.
The monastery fell within the territory of the Italian-ruled Albanian Kingdom during World War II, was targeted for destruction by the Albanian nationalist Balli Kombëtar and Italian fascist blackshirts in mid-1941. The Royal Italian Army responded by sending a group of soldiers to help protect the monastery from attack; the monastic treasure was exhibited in the rebuilt medieval refectory in 1987. The monastery's monks sheltered refugees of all ethnicities during the Kosovo War, which lasted from March 1998 to June 1999. On 7 May 1998, the corpses of two elderly Albanians were found 400 metres from the monastery, they were killed by the Kosovo Liberation Army for collaborating with Serbian forces. The KLA staged an attack not far from the monastery on 8 May, killing one person and wounding four others; that evening, Dečani's 300 remaining Serbs came to the monastery to seek shelter. Albanian civilians seeking refuge in the monastery returned to their homes following the withdrawal of Serbian military from Kosovo in June 1999.
An Italian unit of the Kosovo Force was subsequently assigned to guard the monastery, attacked on several occasions. Dozens of Romanis sought sanctuary in the monastery over the next several months, fearing retaliatory attacks by their Albanian neighbours, who accused them of collaborating with the Serbs and looting Albanian homes. During the violent unrest in Kosovo on 17 March 2004, KFOR defended the monastery from an Albanian mob trying to throw Molotov cocktails at it. Several Albanians were wounded in the clash. On 2 July 2004, the monastery was declared a World Heritage Site by the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization. UNESCO cited it as "an irreplaceable treasure, a place where traditions of Romanesque architecture meet artistic patterns of the Byzantine world." The monastery, along with all other Serbian Medieval Monuments in Kosovo, was added to the UNESCO list of endangered World Heritage sites in 2006. Suspected Kosovo Albanian insurgents hurled hand grenades at the monastery on 30 March 2007, but caused little damage.
In recent years, the situation around the monastery has stabilized and it has reopened to visitors. Serbian President Boris Tadić attended a service at the monastery in April 2009. U. S. Vice President Joe Biden visited the monastery the following month; the church has five-nave naos, a three-part iconostasis, a three-nave parvise. With the dome, it is 26 m high, its outer walls are done in alternate layers of pink marble. The portals, windows and capitals are richly decorated. Christ the Judge is shown surrounded by angels in the western part of the church, its twenty major cycles of fresco murals represent the largest preserved gallery of Serbian medieval art, featuring over 1000 compositions and several thousand portraits. Dečani Monastery is one of four World Heritage medieval monuments in Kosovo designated as a heritage site in danger. Since the arrival of KFOR peacekeepers in the region in 1999, attacks on the Monastery have increased exponentially. Since 1999 there have been five significant attacks and near miss attacks on the monastery: February 27, 2000 - Six grenades hit the Decani Monastery.
June 22, 2000 - Nine grenades hit the Decani Monastery. March 17, 2004 - Seven grenades fell around the monastery walls; this attack formed part of the 2004 unrest in Kosovo. March 30, 2007 - One grenade hit the wall behind the church. February 1, 2016 - Four armed suspects in a motor vehic
Sérres is a city in Macedonia, capital of the Serres regional unit and second largest city in the region of Central Macedonia, after Thessaloniki. Serres is one of the economic centers of Northern Greece; the city is situated in a fertile plain at an elevation of about 70 metres, some 24 kilometres northeast of the Strymon river and 69 km north-east of Thessaloniki, respectively. Serres' official municipal population was 76,817 in 2011 with the total number of people living in the city and its immediate surroundings estimated at around 100,000; the city is home to the Department of Physical Education and Sport Science of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the Technological Educational Institute of Central Macedonia, composed of the School of Technological Applications, the School of Management and Finance and the School of Graphic Arts and Design, with at least 10,000 Greek and international students. The Ancient Greek historian Herodotus mentions the city as Siris in the 5th century BC.
Theopompus refers to the city as Sirra. It is mentioned as Sirae, in the plural, by the Roman historian Livy. Since the name of the city has remained plural and by the 5th century AD it was in the contemporary form as Serrae or Sérrai, which remained the Katharevousa form for the name till modern times. In the local Greek dialect, the city is known as "ta Serras", a corruption of the plural Accusative "tas Serras" of the archaic form "ai Serrai". Τhe oldest mention of this form is attested in a document of the Docheiariou Monastery in Mount Athos from 1383, while there are many other such references in documents from the 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. It was known as Siroz in Turkish. In the Slavic languages, the city is known as Ser in Serbian, while in Bulgarian it is known as Syar or Ser. Although the earliest mention of Serres is dating in the 5th century BC, the city was founded long before the Trojan War at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC; the ancient city was built on a steep hill just north of Serres.
It held a strategic position, since it controlled a land road, which following the valley of the river Strymon led from the shores of Strymonian Gulf to the Danubian countries. The most ancient known inhabitants of the area were the Bryges and Strymonians. Afterwards were the Paeonian tribes of the Odomantes; these populations engaged in agriculture and cattle-raising worshiped the Sun, the deified river Strymon and the "Thracian horseman". The ancient city of Serraepolis was founded in Cilicia by Siropaiones exiled from Serres. In Roman antiquity the city is mentioned in sources under the name Sirra and in inscriptions as Sirraion polis, it was an important city of the Roman province of Macedonia, with the status of a civitas stipendiaria. It flourished during the imperial period thanks to the Pax Romana. During the great crisis of the Roman Empire, the city declined and only in the times of Diocletian, with its reforms, returned to prosperity; as regards the urban structure it featured, like all Greek cities, a market, theater and temples.
As we know from epigraphic evidence, the local government was based on the known Greek institutions, which were the parliament, the municipality and the archons. It was the seat of a federation of five cities and participated in the provincial life and organization of the Macedonians. Sirra as a city-state, apart from the usual Greek institutions, held its own territory, which occupied the area of the former province of Serres; the organization of its territory was based on villages, whose many sites have been found in various places near modern villages, such as Lefkonas, Ano Vrontou, Neo Souli, Agio Pnevma, Paralimnio etc. Within the limits of its territory have discovered traces of marble quarries and iron mines, which indicate systematic exploitation of the existing mineral wealth in the imperial period. In terms of population, except the most numerous Greek element, are recognized some population substrates from prehistoric times. Concerning the society, the main feature was its distinction in lower social strata.
Concerning the cults of the residents, except the known panhellenic cults, are evidenced and some local and Thracian cults as the Thracian horseman. Many inscriptions of Roman times have been found in the city. From these inscriptions, the eight are votive or honorific and all other on epitaph reliefs or steles; the first attested bishop of the city is recorded as participating in the Second Council of Ephesus in 449. In the early Middle Ages, Serres became the site of a major fortress built by the Byzantine Empire to guard the empire's northern frontier and the strategic Rupel Pass; the city's history was
The Jazak Monastery is a Serb Orthodox monastery on the Fruška Gora mountain in the northern Serbia, in the province of Vojvodina. The monastery was founded in 1736; the icons on the baroque iconostasis were painted in 1769 by Dimitrije Bačević. An overall reconstruction of the monastery was carried out from 1926 to 1930. Jazak Monastery was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1990, it is protected by Serbia. Stefan Uroš V Monasteries of Fruška Gora Cultural Monuments of Exceptional Importance Tourism in Serbia List of Serbian Orthodox monasteries Jazak Monastery - Fruškać More about the monastery
Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria
Ivan Alexander sometimes Anglicized as John Alexander, ruled as Emperor of Bulgaria from 1331 to 1371, during the Second Bulgarian Empire. The date of his birth is unknown, he died on 17 February 1371. The long reign of Ivan Alexander is considered a transitional period in Bulgarian medieval history. Ivan Alexander began his rule by dealing with internal problems and external threats from Bulgaria's neighbours, the Byzantine Empire and Serbia, as well as leading his empire into a period of economic recovery and cultural and religious renaissance. However, the emperor was unable to cope with the mounting incursions of Ottoman forces, Hungarian invasions from the northwest and the Black Death. In an ill-fated attempt to combat these problems, he divided the country between his two sons, thus forcing it to face the imminent Ottoman conquest weakened and divided. Ivan Alexander was the son of the despotēs Sracimir of Kran by Petrica, a sister of Michael Asen III of Bulgaria. Therefore, Ivan Alexander was a nephew of Michael Asen III.
Paternally, Ivan Alexander descended from the Asen dynasty. By 1330 Ivan Alexander was himself a despotēs and governed the city of Lovech. Together with his father and his father-in-law Basarab of Wallachia, Ivan Alexander fought in the Battle of Velbazhd against the Serbs at modern-day Kyustendil in 1330, in which Bulgaria suffered defeat; the defeat, combined with the worsening relations with the Byzantine Empire, precipitated an internal crisis, exacerbated by an invasion of the Byzantines. A coup d'état drove Ivan Stefan out of the capital Tarnovo in 1331, the conspirators placed Ivan Alexander on the throne; the new ruler set about consolidating his position by regaining territories lost to the Byzantine Empire. In 1331 Ivan Alexander reconquered northeastern Thrace. Meanwhile, Stefan Uroš IV Dušan deposed his father Stefan Uroš III Dečanski and became Serbian king in 1331; this helped normalize the tense relations between the two countries. Ivan Alexander and Stefan Uroš IV Dušan concluded an alliance, cemented by the marriage of the Serbian king to Helena of Bulgaria, a sister of Ivan Alexander, on Easter 1332.
At about the same time, Belaur, a brother of Michael Asen III, rebelled in Vidin in support of his deposed nephew Ivan Stefan's claim to the throne. The advance of the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos against Bulgaria in the summer of 1332 protracted military operations against the rebels; the Byzantines overran Bulgarian-controlled northeastern Thrace, but Ivan Alexander rushed southward with a small army and swiftly caught up with Andronikos III at Rusokastro. After giving the impression that he wished to negotiate, Ivan Alexander, reinforced by Mongol cavalry, overwhelmed the smaller but better organized Byzantine army in the Battle of Rusokastro; the contested cities surrendered to Ivan Alexander, while Andronikos III sought refuge within the walls of Rusokastro. The war ended with Ivan Alexander agreeing a peace based on the status quo. To seal the alliance, he betrothed his eldest son, Michael Asen IV, to Andronikos's daughter Maria, the marriage taking place in 1339; the Bulgarian emperor was now free to turn his attentions to Belaur, but it was not until 1336 or 1337 that the rebellion in the northwest was put down.
In about 1332 Ivan Alexander had crowned his eldest son Michael Asen IV co-emperor to safeguard possession of the throne by his own family. He followed up this traditional association with the coronation of his younger sons Ivan Sracimir and Ivan Asen IV in 1337. Ivan Alexander may have intended the creation of two younger co-emperors to establish immediate control over important cities and regions, as Ivan Sracimir was based in Vidin, Ivan Asen IV in Preslav; this was a marked departure from Byzantine practice, in which younger sons of the sovereign were made despotēs, whether they were charged with a territorial administration or not. In the early 1340s relations with the Byzantine Empire temporarily deteriorated. Ivan Alexander demanded the extradition of his cousin Šišman, one of the sons of Michael Asen III, threatening the Byzantine government with war. Ivan Alexander's show of force backfired, as the Byzantines managed to see through his intentions and sent against him the fleet of their ally, the Turkish emir of Smyrna Umur Beg.
Landing in the Danube Delta, they attacked nearby Bulgarian cities. Forced to restrain his demands, Ivan Alexander invaded the Byzantine Empire again at the end of 1341, claiming that he was summoned by the people of Adrianople. However, Ivan Alexander's troops were defeated twice by Turkish allies of the Byzantines near the city. In 1341–1347 the Byzantine Empire was plunged into a protracted civil war between the regency for Emperor John V Palaiologos under Anna of Savoy and his intended guardian John VI Kantakouzenos; the neighbours of the Byzantines took advantage of the civil war, while Stefan Uroš IV Dušan of Serbia sided with John VI Kantakouzenos, Ivan Alexander backed John V Palaiologos and his regency. Although the two Balkan rulers picked opposite sides in the Byzantine civil war, they maintained their alliance with each other; as the price for Ivan Alexander's support, the regency for John V Palaiologos ceded him the city of Philippopolis and nine important fortresses in the Rhodope Mountains in 1344.
This peaceful turnover constituted the last major success of Ivan Alexander's foreign policy. During the same period, the Serbian king took advantage of the Byzantine civil war to take possession of what is now Macedoni
Marko Mrnjavčević was the de jure Serbian king from 1371 to 1395, while he was the de facto ruler of territory in western Macedonia centered on the town of Prilep. He is known as Prince Marko and King Marko in South Slavic oral tradition, in which he has become a major character during the period of Ottoman rule over the Balkans. Marko's father, King Vukašin, was co-ruler with Serbian Tsar Stefan Uroš V, whose reign was characterised by weakening central authority and the gradual disintegration of the Serbian Empire. Vukašin's holdings included lands in western Kosovo. In 1370 or 1371, he crowned Marko "young king". On 26 September 1371, Vukašin was killed and his forces defeated in the Battle of Maritsa. About two months Tsar Uroš died; this formally made Marko the king of the Serbian land. Sometime after 1371, he became an Ottoman vassal. King Marko, in reality, came to be a regional lord who ruled over a small territory in western Macedonia, he funded the construction of the Monastery of Saint Demetrius near Skopje, completed in 1376.
Marko died on 17 May 1395, fighting for the Ottomans against the Wallachians in the Battle of Rovine. Although a ruler of modest historical significance, Marko became a major character in South Slavic oral tradition, he is venerated as a national hero by the Serbs and Bulgarians, remembered in Balkan folklore as a fearless and powerful protector of the weak, who fought against injustice and confronted the Turks during the Ottoman occupation. Marko was born about 1335 as the first son of his wife Alena; the patronymic "Mrnjavčević" derives from Mrnjava, described by 17th-century Ragusan historian Mavro Orbin as a minor nobleman from Zachlumia. According to Orbin, Mrnjava's sons were born in Livno in western Bosnia, where he may have moved after Zachlumia was annexed from Serbia by Bosnia in 1326; the Mrnjavčević familyn.b.1 may have supported Serbian Emperor Stefan Dušan in his preparations to invade Bosnia as did other Zachlumian nobles, fearing punishment, emigrated to the Serbian Empire before the war started.
These preparations began two years ahead of the invasion, which took place in 1350. From that year comes the earliest written reference to Marko's father Vukašin, describing him as Dušan's appointed župan of Prilep, acquired by Serbia from Byzantium in 1334 with other parts of Macedonia. In 1355, at about age 47, Stefan Dušan died of a stroke. Dušan was succeeded by his 19-year-old son Uroš, who regarded Marko Mrnjavčević as a man of trust; the new Emperor appointed him the head of the embassy he sent to Ragusa at the end of July 1361 to negotiate peace between the empire and the Ragusan Republic after hostilities earlier that year. Although peace was not reached, Marko negotiated the release of Serbian merchants from Prizren who were detained by the Ragusans and was permitted to withdraw silver deposited in the city by his family; the account of that embassy in a Ragusan document contains the earliest-known, undisputed reference to Marko Mrnjavčević. An inscription written in 1356 on a wall of a church in the Macedonian region of Tikveš, mentions a Nikola and a Marko as governors in that region, but the identity of this Marko is disputed.
Dušan's death was followed by the stirring of separatist activity in the Serbian Empire. The south-western territories, including Epirus and lands in southern Albania, seceded by 1357. However, the core of the state, remained loyal to Emperor Uroš. Local noblemen asserted more and more independence from Uroš' authority in the part of the state that remained Serbian. Uroš was weak and unable to counteract these separatist tendencies, becoming an inferior power in his own domain. Serbian lords fought each other for territory and influence. Vukašin Mrnjavčević was a skilful politician, assumed the main role in the empire. In August or September 1365 Uroš crowned making him his co-ruler. By 1370 Marko's potential patrimony increased as Vukašin expanded his personal holdings from Prilep further into Macedonia and Metohija, acquiring Prizren, Novo Brdo and Ohrid. In a charter he issued on 5 April 1370 Vukašin mentioned his wife and sons, signing himself as "Lord of the Serb and Greek Lands, of the Western Provinces".
In late 1370 or early 1371 Vukašin crowned Marko "Young King", a title given to heirs presumptive of Serbian kings to secure their position as successors to the throne. Since Uroš was childless Marko could thus become his successor, beginning a new—Vukašin's—dynasty of Serbian sovereigns, ending the two-century Nemanjić dynasty. Most Serbian lords were unhappy with the situation, which strengthened their desire for independence from the central authority. Vukašin sought a well-connected spouse for Marko. A prince
Fruška Gora is a mountain in north Srem. Most of it is in Syrmia, but a small part on its western side overlaps into Croatia. Sometimes it is referred to as jewel of Serbia due to its beautiful landscape protection area and its picturesque countryside. In Serbian, it is known as Fruška gora, in Hungarian as Tarcal, in German as Frankenwald, in Latin as Alma Mons. In Medieval Greek, it was known as Frangochoria; the mountain's name originates in the old Serbian word "Fruzi" of which singular form is "Frug". The name of "Fruška Gora" is "Frankish mountain" in English whose meaning is based on describing a historical event, the mountain served as a natural border when Frankish campaigns were set up in the area. In the time of the Roman Empire, its name was Alma Mons, meaning the "fertile mount", it is recorded that during the reign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus, 276-282, born in the nearby Sirmium, first grapevines were planted on the mountain. The mountain is a natural geological phenomenon as it is built from the rocks from all geological periods.
It used to be an island during the existence of the Pannonian Sea. To the north, the mountain is bordered by the Danube river, while to the south it descends into the Syrmian lowlands. Lengthwise, it is 80 km from east to west and is 15 km from north to south, its highest peak is Crveni Čot at 539 m. Fruška Gora divides Syrmia in two geographically distinct parts: Wine Syrmia and Swine Syrmia. Slopes of the mountain were established as one of the most prestigious vineyards in Hungary since the 15th century. Golden age of the Fruška Gora's viticulture began after 1699 and the Treaty of Karlowitz, when Ottomans were expelled from the area, until the late 19th century. In Sremski Karlovci, a famous bermet is produced, a sweet, dessert wine with the protected geographical indication, it is recorded that the crates of bermet were used as the bribe, used by the Serbs to obtain certain privileges from the Austrian empress Maria Theresa. The wine was served at the Russian and British courts, was on the wine list of Titanic.
The slopes of Fruška Gora are suited for growing grape arbors on there, there are many wine-makers producing Traminer and other wines in the region. Many people have been captivated by its picturesque beauty, due to its outstanding location, famous for the peaceful and lucrative lifestyles of its inhabitants, a perfect destination for sightseeing where tourists can relax and enjoy themselves in the spectacular natural environment. After the fall of communism, the Serbian Orthodox Church got 10,000 hectares restitution in the area of their nationalized properties. A national park Fruška Gora was declared in 1960 and covers an area of 266.72 km2. It is the oldest modern national park in Serbia. Rich fossil fauna is preserved and 90% of the park area is forested; the predominant tree species include linden and beech. Altogether, 1,500 plant species inhabits the park. There are 400 species of fungi. Pannonian plant endemites include broadleaf wild leek and Hungarian leopard's - bane. There are some 30 species of orchids in the park.
Protected insect species include Balkan goldenring, certain species of dragonflies and hoverflies, Hungarian ground beetle, which went extinct in some other European countries. Park is the habitat of 13 amphibian species and 11 reptilians, of which 14 are protected, among them fire salamander and European adder. Park is home to 211 bird species. Symbol of Fruška Gora is 3 remaining breeding couples. There are 60 mammalian species, of which 17 are protected, including edible dormouse, European pine marten, European polecat and Mediterranean water shrew. Out of 30 species of bats which live in Serbia, 15 inhabits the mountain and all are under strict protection. In January 2018, for the first time after the 1960s, additional mouflons were introduced in the park. 30 animals were relocated from Slovakia, which raised the number of mouflons in the park to 70. There are traces of human habitation in this area. Before the Roman conquest and Celts inhabited this region. In 31 AD, this area was included into Pannonia province.
The Danube river was a border of the Roman Empire, on the northern side of the mountain several Roman border fortresses were built. In the Early Middle Ages, this area was settled by Quadi, Goths, Gepids and Avars; the Franks expelled Huns, Avars and Lombards from this area and formed the southern border of the Frankish Empire giving its name to the mountain. It was inhabited by Bulgarians and Hungarians. In the 11th century, when Christianity was split between Catholicism and Orthodoxy, both communities had their churches in this region. A important group of Serb medieval monasteries was formed on the mountain. Since the 19th century, during the Austro-Hungarian period, cities developed so as the trade and crafts. Settlements on the mountain itself developed, designed in the typical folk tradition. Two most distinct settlements, in terms of architectural inheritance, are Sremski Karlovci, which grew into the center of the political and cultural life of the Serbs in Austria and Austria-Hungary, Irig, one of the most developed Syrmian settlements since the 18th century.
During the time, the area was part of the Hun Empire, the Ostrogothic Kingdo