Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a country in Eurasia. The European western part of the country is more populated and urbanised than the eastern. Russias capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world, other urban centers include Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a range of environments. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, in 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus ultimately disintegrated into a number of states, most of the Rus lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion. The Soviet Union played a role in the Allied victory in World War II.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the worlds first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the second largest economy, largest standing military in the world. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic, the Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russias extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the producers of oil. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. The name Russia is derived from Rus, a state populated mostly by the East Slavs. However, this name became more prominent in the history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants Русская Земля.
In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus by modern historiography, an old Latin version of the name Rus was Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western and southern regions of Rus that were adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Kievan Rus, the standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is Russians in English and rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians
Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft
The Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft was a touring car racing series held from 1984 to 1996. Originally based in Germany, it held additional rounds elsewhere in Europe, since 2000, a new DTM has been run as the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, again organised by ITR. In the late 1980s, works teams joined the DTM, in 1993, the Group A rules were abandoned in favor of a more liberalised 2. Opel, Mercedes-Benz and Alfa Romeo all fielded works teams after Audi, the DTM expanded its horizons for the 1995 season and the teams contested the inaugural FIA International Touring Car Series as well as the traditional DTM. The former was contested over ten races, all held outside of Germany, plans were made to combine the two into one new series, the International Touring Car Championship, for 1996. The ITR governing body sought approval and support from the FIA to begin the new series. In exchange for FIA support, the ITR let the organisation take control over aspects of the way the ITC was run, crucially.
The choices of circuits on which to hold rounds of the championship were unsuccessful – the rounds at Magny-Cours, questions were raised by the manufacturers as to why they were racing in countries in which their cars were not actually sold. Opel and Alfa Romeo both left the championship after the 1996 season, leaving only Mercedes, the championship was consequently cancelled, the DTM returned in the year 2000 with different rules and without International Championship status. The DTM initials now stand for Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters, in 1995 there were two different series with same drivers and teams competing. DTM consisted of seven German events and ITC five non-German events, Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters V8Star Series DTM official website Audi Sport AMG-Mercedes Opel Motorsport Schnitzer Motorsport
He was widely known as il Commendatore or il Drake. In his final years he was referred to as lIngegnere or il Grande Vecchio. Ferrari was born on 18 February 1898 in Modena and his birth certificate had recorded his birth date on 20 February because a heavy snowstorm had prevented his father from reporting the birth at the local registry office. He was the younger of two children to Alfredo and Adalgisa Ferrari, after his elder sibling Alfredo Junior, Alfredo Senior was the son of a grocer from Carpi and started a workshop fabricating metal parts at the family home. Enzo grew up with formal education. At the age of 10 he witnessed Felice Nazzaros win at the 1908 Circuit di Bologna, during World War I he served in the 3rd Mountain Artillery Regiment of the Italian Army. His father Alfredo, and his brother, Alfredo Jr. died in 1916 as a result of a widespread Italian flu outbreak. Ferrari became severely sick himself in the 1918 flu pandemic and was discharged from Italian service. Following the familys carpentry business collapse, Ferrari started searching for a job in the car industry and he unsuccessfully volunteered his services to FIAT in Turin, eventually settling for a job as test-driver for C. M. N.
A car manufacturer in Milan, which rebuilt used truck bodies into small passenger cars, on November 23 of the same year, he took part in the Targa Florio but had to retire after his cars fuel tank developed a leak. The prancing horse emblem was created when Italian fighter pilot Francesco Baracca was shot down during World War I, Baracca gave Enzo Ferrari a necklace with the prancing horse on it prior to takeoff. Baracca was tragically shot down and killed, in memory of his death, Enzo Ferrari used the prancing horse to create the emblem that would become the world famous Ferrari shield. However the world first saw this emblem on an Alfa Romeo as Ferrari was still tied up with Alfa Romeo and it was not until 1947 that the shield was first seen on a Ferrari. This was the birth of Ferrari, in 1924 Ferrari won the Coppa Acerbo at Pescara, a success that encouraged Alfa Romeo to offer him a chance to race in much more prestigious competitions. Ferrari himself continued racing until 1932, before he left Alfa Romeo to found Scuderia Ferrari, despite the quality of the Scuderia drivers, the team struggled to compete with Auto Union and Mercedes.
In 1937 Alfa Romeo decided to regain control of its racing division. Unhappy with the arrangement, Ferrari left and founded Auto-Avio Costruzioni, with the outbreak of World War II in 1943, Ferraris factory was forced to undertake war production for Mussolinis fascist government. Following Allied bombing of the factory, Ferrari relocated from Modena to Maranello, at the end of the conflict, Ferrari decided to start making cars bearing his name, and founded Ferrari S. p. A. in 1947
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Pascal Wehrlein is a German Formula One driver who is currently racing for Sauber. Holding dual nationality of Germany and Mauritius, he races under the German flag in Formula One and he had previously raced in the DTM, winning the title with the Mercedes-Benz team HWA AG in 2015. In 2014 Wehrlein became the youngest driver to win a DTM race at the age of 19, in February 2016 he began driving full-time for Manor, scoring his first championship point at the Austrian Grand Prix. 2010 saw his debut in the ADAC Formel Masters championship with ADAC Berlin-Brandenburg e. V, Wehrlein finished sixth in the championship with a win at Sachsenring and three other podiums. He remained in the series with the team for the next year, Wehrlein scored seven wins at Oschersleben, Zolder, Nürburgring and Lausitz on his way to the championship title. In 2012, Wehrlein stepped up to the Formula 3 Euro Series and he finished 2nd in the championship to Daniel Juncadella. Wehrlein made his debut in the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters in 2013 at the age of 18, in a career spanning three seasons Wehrlein managed to be one of the leading drivers in the field despite his youthful age.
In his debut season he achieved 3 points finishing 22nd in the championship and he achieved his first of two fastest laps in his career. In 2014 he switched teams to HWA where he became the youngest driver in the history to claim pole position. Besides his stand out victory at Lausitz, Wehrleins second best result of the season was a finish at Norisring. In 2015 DTM returned to running two races per weekend, resulting in 18 rounds in the 2015 championship. Due to the inconsistency of most teams and drivers Wehrlein won the title easily having scored in all rounds except for three and he achieved 5 podiums, one fastest lap and two wins. He is the first driver to win the championship having not claimed a pole position throughout his championship season while being the youngest ever DTM champion, in September 2014, it was announced that Wehrlein would act as a reserve driver for the Mercedes F1 Team. He took part in testing in Barcelona, driving for both Force India and Mercedes. In February 2016, it was announced that Wehrlein would make his F1 debut with Manor Racing and it is understood that Manor would receive access to Mercedes wind tunnel in exchange for hiring Wehrlein.
Wehrlein scored his and Manors only point of the season at the Austrian Grand Prix with a tenth-place finish, on 16 January 2017, Wehrlein signed with Sauber. He was forced to miss the first test in Barcelona due to an injury he sustained while competing in the Race of Champions and he was replaced by Antonio Giovinazzi before returning for the second test at the same circuit. Despite being fit to take part in the Australian Grand Prix, on 3 April 2017, Sauber F1 announced Wehrlein will again be replaced by Giovinazzi for the 2017 Chinese Grand Prix
Juan Manuel Fangio
Juan Manuel Fangio Déramo, nicknamed El Chueco or El Maestro, was an Argentine racing car driver. He dominated the first decade of Formula One racing, winning the World Drivers Championship five times, from childhood, he abandoned his studies to pursue auto mechanics. In 1938, he debuted in Turismo Carretera, competing in a Ford V8, Fangio competed in Europe between 1947 and 1949 where he achieved further success. He won the World Championship of Drivers five times—a record which stood for 47 years until beaten by Michael Schumacher—with four different teams, Fangio is the only Argentine driver to have won the Argentine Grand Prix, having won it four times in his career—the most of any driver. After retirement, Fangio presided as the president of Mercedes-Benz Argentina from 1987. In 2011, on the centenary of his birth, Fangio was remembered around the world, Fangios grandfather, Giuseppe Fangio, emigrated to Buenos Aires in 1887. Giuseppe managed to buy his own farm near Balcarce within three years by making charcoal from tree branches and his father, emigrated to Argentina from the small central Italian town of Castiglione Messer Marino in the Chieti province of the Abruzzo region.
His mother, Herminia Déramo, was from Tornareccio, slightly to the north and they married on 24 October 1903, and lived on farms where Herminia was a housekeeper and Loreto worked in the building trade, becoming an apprentice stonemason. Fangio was born on San Juans Day 1911 at 12,10 a. m. in Balcarce and his birth certificate was mistakenly dated 23 June by the Register of Balcarce. He was the fourth of six children, in his childhood he became known as El Chueco, the bandy legged one, for his skill in bending his left leg around the ball to shoot on goal during football games. Fangio started his education at the School No.4 of Balcarce, when Fangio was 13, he dropped out of school and worked as an assistant mechanic. When he was 16, he started riding as a mechanic for his employers customers and he developed pneumonia, which almost proved fatal, after a football game where hard running had caused a sharp pain in his chest. He was bed-ridden for two months, cared for by his mother, after recovering, Fangio served compulsory military service at the age of 21.
In 1932 he was enlisted at the Campo de Mayo cadet school near Buenos Aires and his driving skills caught the attention of his commanding officer, who appointed Fangio as his official driver. Fangio was discharged before his 22nd birthday after taking his final physical examination and he returned to Balcarce where he aimed to further his football career. Along with his friend José Duffard he received offers to play at a club based in Mar del Plata. Their teammates at Balcarce suggested the two work on Fangios hobby of building his own car and his parents donated space in a section of their home where a rudimentary shed was built. After finishing his service, Fangio opened his own garage
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2015. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest, Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward. Monacos most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins, through land reclamation, Monacos land mass has expanded by twenty percent, in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2. Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, in 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva.
Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are widely spoken and understood. The states sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monacos independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the countrys first casino, Monte Carlo, since then, Monacos mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principalitys status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into services and small, high-value-added, the state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven.
It is the host of the street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs, through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monacos name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony, according to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos, because the only temple of this area was the House of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, an ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system, Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest recorded presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century, Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century, Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and it is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of very high. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, the description of the country by the word Argentina has to be found on a Venice map in 1536. In English the name Argentina probably comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, Argentina means in Italian of silver, silver coloured, probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine of silver > silver coloured already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the form of argentin and derives of argent silver with the suffix -in.
The Italian naming Argentina for the country implies Argentina Terra land of silver or Argentina costa coast of silver, in Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said lArgentina. The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venitian and Genoese navigators, in Spanish and Portuguese, the words for silver are respectively plata and prata and of silver is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region, the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name Argentine Republic in legal documents. The name Argentine Confederation was used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the name as Argentine Republic
Red Bull Racing
Red Bull Racing is an Austrian Formula One racing team based in Milton Keynes, England. It is one of two F1 teams owned by beverage company Red Bull GmbH, the other being Scuderia Toro Rosso, the team won four successive Constructors Championship titles, in 2010,2011,2012, and 2013, becoming the first Austrian licensed team to win the title. The team produced the world champion driver of 2010,2011,2012. Managed by Christian Horner, the team has used Renault engines since 2007, Red Bull Racing used TAG Heuer-branded Renault engines starting from the 2016 season. The current Red Bull team can trace its origins back to the Stewart Grand Prix outfit that made its debut in 1997. Jackie Stewart sold his team to the Ford Motor Company late in 1999, Red Bull, an energy drinks company, agreed its purchase of Jaguar Racing on the final day of the sale,15 November 2004. BBC Sport reported that Ford asked bidders for a symbolic US$1 in return for a commitment to invest US$400 million in the team over three grand prix seasons.
The team continued to have access to the Cosworth engine developed for their 2005 chassis, Christian Horner was installed as the new Team boss and lined up David Coulthard and Christian Klien to drive for the team. Red Bull Racing was not the start of Red Bulls involvement in Formula One, after setting up a Formula One team of its own, Red Bull ended its long-term partnership with the Swiss team. The drinks company runs a young drivers programme, Red Bull Junior Team, high-profile drivers who have received this backing include Enrique Bernoldi, Christian Klien, Patrick Friesacher, Vitantonio Liuzzi and Scott Speed. Red Bull sponsors many drivers and teams competing in the GP2 Series, Red Bulls owner, Dietrich Mateschitz, reportedly tried to recruit former Formula One driver and BMW Motorsport chief Gerhard Berger to help guide the team through its debut season. For 2005, the chassis was christened the RB1, Red Bull Racing used Cosworth engines in its maiden year due to the ease of continuing with the engine Jaguar Racing used.
Former McLaren driver David Coulthard led the team, Coulthard was chosen for his experience, considered ideal to help lead the fledgling team. For the second car, Red Bull shared the drive two of its young sponsored drivers, Christian Klien, who had driven for Jaguar in 2004 and 2004 F3000 champion Vitantonio Liuzzi. At first it was announced that Klien and Liuzzi would swap driving duty every four races, Red Bulls first year in Formula One was a massive success compared to their predecessors, Jaguar Racing. They were 6th in the Constructors Championship for most of the season, in a single season they amassed more points than Jaguar had in 2003 and 2004. Coulthard, after a poor 2003 and 2004 with McLaren, was a revelation for the team while Klien showed that he had improved from 2004. Overall they scored 34 points,24 for Coulthard,9 for Klien and 1 for Liuzzi, Red Bull was a consistent points and occasional podium challenger for most of their debut season
John Michael Hawthorn was a British racing driver. Hawthorn won the 195524 Hours of Le Mans, but was haunted by his involvement in the crash that marred the race. Hawthorn died in an accident six months after retiring, he was suffering from a terminal illness at the time. His father owned the Tourist Trophy Garage in Farnham, franchised to supply and service several high performance brands including Jaguar and his father raced motorcycles and supported his sons racing career, when he died in a road accident, in 1954, Mike Hawthorn inherited the business. Mike Hawthorn made his debut in his 1934 Riley Ulster Imp, KV9475. In 1951, driving a 1½-litre T. T. Riley, he entered the Motor Sport Brooklands Memorial Trophy and he won the Ulster Trophy Handicap at Dundrod and the Leinster Trophy at Wicklow that year. By 1952, he had switched to single-seaters and during that season won his first race in a Formula Two Cooper-Bristol T20 at Goodwood, further successes followed which brought him to the attention of Enzo Ferrari who offered him a works drive.
He made his Formula One debut at the 1952 Grote Prijs van Belgie on the legendary Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps, finishing in fourth place. By the end of the season, he had secured his first podium, with a third place at the RAC British Grand Prix. This and two podium finishes helped him end the season fourth overall. He won the BRDC International Trophy and the Ulster Trophy as well as the 24 Heures de Spa Francorchamps with Ferrari team-mate Giuseppe Farina, in January 1955, Hawthorn joined the Jaguar racing team, replacing Stirling Moss, who had left for Mercedes. Hawthorn won the 1955 les 24 Heures du Mans following what has been described as a drive in which he set a lap record of 122.388 mph during a three-hour duel with Fangio in the early stages. The impact shattered the front end of the car, which somersaulted high, pitching debris into the spectator area, the debris, including bonnet and front axle, which separated from the frame, flew through the crowd. Eight hours later, while leading the race 1, the French press carried photographs of Hawthorn and Ivor Bueb celebrating their win with the customary champagne but treated them with scorn.
The official inquiry into the accident ruled that Hawthorn was not responsible for the crash, the death of the spectators was blamed on inadequate safety standards for track design. The Grandstand and pit areas were demolished and rebuilt soon after, the death toll led to a ban on motorsports in France, Switzerland and other nations, until the tracks could be brought to a higher safety standard. Another change of team for 1956 – this team to BRM - was a failure, in 1957, Hawthorn rejoined the Ferrari factory team, and soon became friends with Peter Collins, a fellow Englishman and Ferrari team driver. During the 1957 and 1958 racing seasons, the two Englishmen became engaged in a rivalry with Luigi Musso, another Ferrari driver, for prize money