Kleinbettingen is a small town in the commune of Steinfort, in western Luxembourg. As of 2005, the town has a population of 855
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
History of rail transport in Luxembourg
This article is part of the history of rail transport by country series The history of rail transport in Luxembourg began in 1846 and continues to the present day. The first negotiations for the creation of a railway on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg began in 1845. A preliminary agreement was signed with a British company on 4 June 1846, but did not bear fruit. A few years by the law of 7 January 1850, the government was authorized to negotiate with private companies; the law provided a guarantee of a minimum interest of 3%. In 1853, the Luxembourger François-Émile Majerus, who had worked for a long time in Mexico as an engineer and geologist, published a pamphlet showing the great economic advantages for agriculture and the Luxembourgish steel industry which would result from a Luxembourgish railway network connected to neighbouring countries. On 25 November 1855, after five years of negotiations the Chamber passed a law mandating a Luxembourgish railway network, to be connected with railway lines abroad.
Four main lines were built: Luxembourg – Bettembourg – France Luxembourg – Kleinbettingen – Belgium Luxembourg – Wasserbillig – Germany Luxembourg – Ettelbrück, Ettelbrück – Kautenbach, Ettelbrück – Diekirch, Kautenbach – Troisvierges – Belgium Two smaller lines were built to transport the iron ore to the blast furnaces at Dommeldange: Bettembourg – Esch-Alzette Noertzange – Rumelange – Ottange Due to the opposition of the local population, the lines were not laid through villages and vineyards. The railway line received the name of the Dutch King and Grand Duke of Luxembourg: "Guillaume Luxembourg", it was administered until 10 May 1871 by the Compagnie Francaise de l'Est. After this, the Prussians, having just won the Franco-Prussian War and subsequently having annexed the Alsace, transferred the French rights into a new Compagnie EL; the law of 7 May 1856 mandated the construction of a new direct railway line to Saarbrucken, without going via Trier. This project, the law notwithstanding, was never executed.
On 30 October 1858, the founding stone of the first railway station in Luxembourg City was laid down. The Fortress of Luxembourg was at this point still garrisoned by the Prussian military, for strategic reasons the railway line could not go into the fortress. Therefore, the new station was built on the Bourbon Plateau outside of the Fortress; the Prussian military authorities demanded. The fact that the station was built outside the fortress, 1,500 metres away from the city centre, on the other side of the Pétrusse valley, is the reason for the construction of the city's viaduct, the Passerelle and the Adolphe Bridge. On 4 October 1859, at the celebrations for the first train to depart from Luxembourg, the patriotic song "Feierwon" was sung for the first time on the steps of the town hall; this became the unofficial national anthem. As part of the celebrations on 4/5 October, the first stone of the Passerelle bridge was laid down; the first train from the city to Hesperange forest, Prince Henry was a passenger, was pulled by a horse.
The track construction from Hesperange to the city had not progressed enough to accommodate a steam locomotive. From 1864 several prominent figures put their support behind the idea of constructing a second railway line; these included a Brussels book printer. It was to go from Wasserbillig, along the Sauer, via Ettelbrück, along the Attert and the Belgian border, via Kleinbettingen to Pétange, where the centre of the new network was to be located. From Pétange it was to go on to Esch-Alzette. On 19 March 1869, to realise this project, a law created the Compagnie des chemins de fer Prince-Henri. Prince Henry was at the time the Lieutenant-Governor of Luxembourg. In the spring of 1870, work started in two places: the line Esch-Alzette – Pétange – Steinfort and the line Pétange – Fond-de-Gras. At the same time the line Clemency – Autelbas – Arlon was started. From 1 August 1873, the first trains run on the new PH network: Esch-Alzette – Pétange Pétange – Steinfort Hagen – Kleinbettingen.1873 – 1874: From Diekirch, along the Sauer, a new project was started, the Ettelbrück-Wasserbillig line.
50 km in length, in order to avoid tunnels it went all the way through the Sauer valley up to Wasserbillig. On 20 October 1873 the Diekirch – Echternach line was inaugurated in the presence of Prince Henry, in Echternach, it was only functional from 8 December 1873, as there was still some work to be done. On 20 May 1874 the Echternach-Wasserbillig line started work. In 1874, the double track Pétange -- Athus line was built. During 1874 – 1877, the customers of the ironworks were losing interest in Luxembourgish cast iron. Due to its high phosphorus contents, it was too brittle, its price fell from 140 to 45 francs per tonne. The first crisis was unavoidable, 40% of the ironworkers lost their jobs; the Prince-Henri company went bankrupt. In 1877, the government stepped in and in 1878 formed a new company, along with private investors, the “Société Luxembourgeoise des Minières et Chemins de Fer Prince Henri”, its abbreviation remained “PH”. Sidney Thomas and his cousin Percy Gilchrist invented a new procedure to produce steel from the phosphorus cast iron.
This created a boom for Luxembourgish steel-working, new steelworks and rolling mills sprung up. The new PH company made efforts to finish construction of their lines. On the Steinfort - Ettelbrück section, the longest tunnel of L
Pétange is a commune and town in south-western Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Esch-sur-Alzette. Pétange lies on the borders with both France; as of 2007, the town of Pétange, which lies in the north of the commune, has a population of 7,399. Other towns within the commune include Rodange; the commune is one of the smallest communes of Luxembourg, yet is the fifth-most populous. It is the most-populous commune without city status; the modern settlement of Pétange was first mentioned in 938 by the name'Perdgitten'. Six centuries Pétange had still not acquired much prominence. In 1601, the boundary between Luxembourg and the Duchy of Lorraine was definitively demarcated for the first time; the modern commune was divided between the two, with the town of Pétange going to Luxembourg, but the towns of Rodange and Lamadelaine, which are further to the south, lying on the Lorrainian side of the border. When, in 1795, Luxembourg was annexed into Revolutionary France as part of the département of Forêts, its former territories were reunited, the commune's territory was established as it is today.
However, when Luxembourg passed to the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, after the Congress of Vienna, the towns of Rodange and Lamadelaine passed with it. The town's importance grew in the late nineteenth century, thanks to the booming iron-mining and steel industries; the first railway into Pétange was opened in 1873. Further railway lines were added to Luxembourg City. On 9 September 1944, Pétange became the first commune in the country to be liberated by Allied soldiers at the end of the German occupation in the Second World War. In remembrance to the first soldier to die in the liberation, a memorial was erected in his honor: Hyman Josefson Square; the commune lies in the extreme south-west of Luxembourg, bordering both the French département of Meurthe-et-Moselle and the Belgian province of Luxembourg. The town of Rodange lies just across the border from the Belgian town of Aubange. Pétange is situated at the west end of the Red Lands: iron-rich sedimentary rocks that form the far south and south-west of Luxembourg.
The town lies in the upper reaches of the Chiers valley, is one of the few places in Luxembourg to lie outside the drainage system of the Rhine. The commune is only 12 square kilometres in area, one of the smallest in Luxembourg, but is the site of three significant towns; the town of Pétange itself has a population of 6,909, despite being the seventh-largest town in Grand Duchy, accounts for under half of the population of the commune. Rodange, in the south-west of the commune, is home to 4,505 people, whilst Lamadelaine, in the south of the commune, has a population of 2,335; the south of the commune is home to Titelberg, a prominent hill on top of which lie the ruins of a Celtic oppidum. The walled hill fort was 1 km long; the entire settlement had a total population of 10,000 before the Roman conquest, making it the largest pre-Roman settlement in Luxembourg. Pétange is the home of the Grand-Duchy's largest pre-Lenten Karneval celebration. Annually hosting a calvalacade with 1200 participants and thousand of participants, the official name is Karneval Gemeng Péiteng or Kagepe.
The Fond de Gras heritage railway and museum recreate the conditions of the Red Lands in the year 1900, at the height of their growth and development. Whilst the centre lies just within the commune of Differdange, to the east, the two steam locomotives take visitors to the towns of Pétange and Rodange, provide a stream of tourists to the towns in the summer. Pétange has a football team in Luxembourg's top-flight National Division, called CS Pétange, they play their home games at the Stade Municipal. Despite being one of the oldest Luxembourgian clubs in existence, having been founded in 1910, Pétange have won only one trophy, the Luxembourg Cup in 2004-05. Union Titus Pétange - football club. Chantelle de Rothschild - Crutchfield Louis-Phillip de Rothschild - Crutchfield Tessy de Nassau Jean-Marie Halsdorf Maribor, Slovenia Schio, Italy Dilijan, Armenia List of mayors of Pétange Commune of Pétange official website
Kehlen is a commune and town in western Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Capellen; as of the February 1, 2011 census, the commune had a population of 5,048. As of 2005, the town of Kehlen, which lies in the centre of the commune, has a population of 1,627. Other towns within the commune include Dondelange, Meispelt and Olm; the history of Kehlen goes back at least to Gallo-Roman period. Celtic tombs have been excavated in nearby Nospelt and a necropolis from the 1st century was discovered in the early 1970s on the Juckelsboesch plateau between Mamer and Kehlen. A beautiful dark blue glass bowl was among the offerings found there. A monument to the four gods depicting Juno, Minerva and Hercules once the base of a Jupiter Column, was discovered on the heights of Schoenberg at the point where two Roman roads once crossed; the original is now in the National Museum of History and Art but a replica can be seen beside the entrance to the Schoenberg cemetery. Schoenberg is one of the oldest parishes in Luxembourg.
It came under the authority of the St. Maximin's Abbey, Trier, as far back as 1637; the cemetery is classified as a national monument as many of the gravestones are from the beginning of the 16th century. Until recently, Kehlen was a farming community with a few cottage industries. Today, owing to its proximity to Luxembourg City, most of its inhabitants now work in the service sector; the name Kehlen is said to originate from Callidovilla meaning the villa of Callidus. Germany: Meckenbeuren Media related to Kehlen at Wikimedia Commons
Ettelbruck is a commune with town status in central Luxembourg, with a population of 7,500. As of 2005, the town of Ettelbruck itself, which lies in the east of the commune, has a population of 6,191; the towns of Warken and Grentzingen are within the commune. Until 1850, both Erpeldange and Schieren were part of the Ettelbruck commune as well, but both towns were detached from Ettelbruck by law on 1 July 1850. Germany occupied Ettelbruck on 10 May 1940. US forces first liberated the town on 11 September 1944 but Germany retook the town on 16 December 1944 during the Battle of the Bulge. US General George S. Patton on Christmas Day, 25 December 1944, led US troops in the final liberation of Ettelbruck from Nazi occupation. One of Ettelbruck's main squares is named Patton Square, is located at the exact spot where the German offensive into Luxembourg's Alzette Valley was stopped, ending its attempt to reoccupy the country as a whole. Since 1954, the town has held a Remembrance Day celebration each July honoring General Patton and the US, French and Luxembourgish troops who fought with him there.
Ettelbruck is one of the 12 communes of the canton of Diekirch, part of the district of Diekirch. Governmentally, the Ettelbruck communal council serves as the commune's local council; the council consists of thirteen members, elected every six years. Ettelbruck lies at the exact spot where three rivers meet: the Wark and the Alzette; this location has made Ettelbruck a major transportation hub for the country second only to the city of Luxembourg. Ettelbruck serves as a junction, where the line to Diekirch branches off the main line Luxembourg – Liège. State-owned railway company; the station is on Line 10, which connects Luxembourg City to central and northern Luxembourg towards Gouvy and Wiltz, with a branch line connecting to Diekirch. The A7 motorway, known as the Motorway of the North, runs through Ettelbruck; the General George S. Patton Memorial Museum in Ettelbruck honors the general who liberated the town; the museum exhibits photographs, uniforms and documents from the period of German occupation of Luxembourg.
The museum represents a main tourist attraction in the town. The Ettelbruck parish church—D' Kierch Ettelbréck—is a decagonal structure. Restored in 1849, the church contains tombstones dating as far back to the 15th century. Ettelbruck since 1917 has been the home of the football team FC Etzella Ettelbruck; the team plays in Ettelbruck's football stadium Stade Am Deich which has capacity of about 2,000. Ettelbruck is a medical center for northern Luxembourg, as it is home to the Central Hospice, now the location of the Ettelbruck Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital with 500 beds. Lucien Wercollier's marble sculpture La Vague is located in Ettelbruck on the grounds of the CHNP; the New Saint Louis Hospital was renovated and reopened as a state of the art medical facility in 2003 on the site of the earlier Charles Marx Clinic and Saint Louis Clinic. The original clinic was founded by Dr. Charles Marx in 1936; the Saint Louis Clinic became a point of resistance preceding the Nazi occupation, when its founder Charles Marx treated downed French airmen in April, 1940.
Following the occupation of Luxembourg, Marx fled to France. Following the Nazi occupation, Marx was jailed for treating the airmen. In 1946, following liberation and Marx's accidental death in that year, the clinic was renamed as the Charles Marx Clinic to honor him. In 1963, the clinic was renamed the New Saint Louis Clinic when it was revamped and modernized, becoming the New Saint Louis Hospital in 2003. Ettelbruck is an educational center for the north of the country, it is home to the State Agricultural School. Ettelbruck is the location of the vocational school of Lycée Technique Ettelbruck. Ons Heemecht, the national anthem of Luxembourg, was first sung publicly in Ettelbruck on 5 June 1864. Both the Alzette and Sauer rivers are named in the song, since Ettelbruck is located at the point where they both meet, the location was appropriate for its public introduction. Charles Marx physician and World War II resistance leader Pierre Joris a Luxembourg-American poet, translator and essayist.
Bady Minck a filmmaker, film producer and artistSportErny Putz a Luxembourgian fencer, competed at the 1948 Summer Olympics Eddi Gutenkauf a Luxembourgian fencer, competed at the 1960 Summer Olympics Erny Schweitzer a Luxembourgian former swimmer, competed at the 1960 Summer Olympics Ni Xialian a female Chinese-born table tennis player who resides in Ettelbruck. Luc Holtz a former Luxembourgish football player, manager of the Luxembourg national football team Yves Clausse a Luxembourgian swimmer, competed at the 1988 and 1992 Summer Olympics Daniel da Mota a Luxembourgish footballer, over 350 pro games and 91 for the national side Laurent Carnol a Luxembourgish breaststroke swimmer, competed in the 2008 2012 and 2016 Summer OlympicsPoliticiansErnest Mühlen a Luxembourgish politician and financial journalist
Koerich is a commune and village in western Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Capellen; as of 2009, the commune of Koerich has a population of 2,310. The other small communities in the commune are Goeblange and Windhof. With its onion-towered church standing above the ruins of the medieval castle, Koerich has a attractive rural setting although it is only 15 km west of Luxembourg City; the village lies in the valley of the Goeblange stream which flows down to the River Eisch to the west. It is at the junction of the CR 110 to Windhof and Dippach; the centre of the village is 295 m above sea level while the residential developments to the north and south rise to a height of 320 m. The streets in the village are therefore hilly; the surrounding countryside is a mixture of open fields with mixed farming. The commune has a history extending back some 2,000 years. There is strong evidence that the Romans inhabited the area between the 4th centuries. To the south at Windhof the commune borders on the Kiem or Roman road from Trier to Reims and to the north-west, in the Miecher forest near Goeblange, impressive remains of a Roman farming community have been found.
Two large villas have been excavated and the foundations rebuilt. There are other fortifications on the site which are now being uncovered. According to the commune's website, the first documentary reference to Koerich was in 979 but it was not until the 12th century that its two castles were built: the Fockeschlass of which all traces have disappeared though it is shown on the first cadastral map in 1771; the Grevenschlass, now known as Koerich Castle, was built by Wirich I, Lord of Koerich and Seneschal of Luxembourg at the end of the 12th and beginning of the 13th century in late Romanesque style. It was expanded in 1304 by Godefroid of Koerich; the watchtower, now 11 m tall, was much higher when it was built. Surrounded by a moat, the castle had a fortified entrance with a portcullis. From 1380, Gilles of Autel and Koerich converted the stronghold into a more comfortable residence by building two 12-m towers at either end of the south wall; the south-western tower which still stands, houses a chapel on the ground floor.
In 1580, the new owner Jacques de Raville made further changes, demolishing part of the property and adding two Renaissance wings. The stately fireplace on the first floor and large rectangular windows testify to the castle's palatial splendor at the time; the south wing was again altered in this time with baroque additions. After the death of the Ravilles in the second half of the 18th century, the castle started to fall into ruin owing to lack of maintenance. In 1950, Pierre Flammang, the last private owner, carried out some essential structural repairs before the castle came into the hands of the State. Today major repairs are in progress. There appears to have been a church in Koerich as long ago as the 12th century when there were references to Saint Remigius, its patron saint. In 1610, the existing church was pulled down and in its place, a new structure was built in Renaissance style. Various additions in Renaissance and baroque were made over the next hundred years. A huge bell was added in 1778.
The tower was crowned with its distinctive onion-shaped spire in 1791. Apart from a new organ in 1969, there have been no further major additions; the church was restored in the early 1990s. Although Koerich still has a distinctly rural atmosphere, it has over the past 30 years become popular as a residential area. Many new properties, both detached houses and apartment buildings, have been constructed in and around the village. New shops and cafés have opened but the nearest supermarket is in Capellen, some 5 km away. For its residents, the village of Koerich has not attracted new businesses. By contrast, Windhof, 2 km to the south has become a major new centre of business activity. Evy Friedrich: Burgen und Schlösser, Editions Guy Binsfeld, Luxembourg, ISBN 3-88957-033-X Media related to Koerich at Wikimedia Commons