Oberstenfeld is a town in the district of Ludwigsburg in Baden-Württemberg in Germany. It is located about 40 km north of Stuttgart. Oberstenfeld is located in the upper Bottwar river valley, it lies in the northeast of the district of Ludwigsburg. In the north it borders to the Löwensteiner Berge hills, in the west there are the hills Forstberg and Wunnenstein covered by vineyards; the closest neighboring towns are Beilstein to Großbottwar to the south. The villages Gronau and Prevorst are incorporated. Prevorst is an exclave located between the Rems-Murr district. With an elevation of 482m it is the highest location of the Ludwigsburg district; the motorway Autobahn A81 is nearby and reachable within minutes. The Verkehrs- und Tarifverbund Stuttgart operates bus stops in Oberstenfeld and its incorporated villages which connects them to the larger metropolitan area Stuttgart. Northwards, when crossing the border to the Heilbronn district, starting in the neighboring town of Beilstein, the buses are operated by the Heilbronner Hohenloher Haller Nahverkehr, giving access to the city of Heilbronn.
Oberstenfeld originated in the 7th or 8th century, belonged to the Lichtenberg castle residing above the town. The Oberstenfeld nunnery was founded in 1016 CE, its patronage was taken over in 1357 CE when the count of Lichtenberg sold the town to the dukes of Württemberg. In 1540 CE it adopted the reformation but remained a part of the Imperial Knights until 1803 CE when it was taken in by the duchy of Württemberg; the community Prevorst as well as the Lichtenberg castle were taken over by the dukes of Württemberg from the count of Lichtenberg in 1357 CE. The three villages were conjointly assigned to the de:Oberamt Marbach since 1810 CE. In 1938 CE Oberstenfeld was allotted to the Ludwigsburg district while Gronau and Prevorst became a part of the Heilbronn district. On January 1, 1972 Gronau and Prevorst were assigned to Oberstenfeld; the outcome of the municipal council elections on June 13. 2004 was: FBWV 31,9%: 6 seats CDU 28,1%: 6 seats SPD 23,9%: 5 seats OBLO 16,0%: 3 seats The Lichtenbergschule in Oberstenfeld is an elementary school and a Hauptschule with Werkrealschule.
There are six Kindergartens. There are one Roman Catholic and three Protestant churches as well as one mosque. Located on top of a hill, amidst idyllic vineyards, the town is guarded by the Lichtenberg castle; the Romanesque Peterskirche is situated on a hill, about one kilometer north of downtown Oberstenfeld. Built in the mid 11th century, it is a relict of a lost precursor commune; the choir was arched over and the church's inside was painted with frescos in the 13th century. Some of those frescos are still present today; the church was nearly unused for a long time. However, it is used for protestant and also for Roman Catholic services since it was restored between 1973 and 1976; the Cyriakuskirche, located in Gronau, is second eldest church of the municipality. Its choirtower is a relict of the Gothic first building phase in the 14th century, it was rebuilt and extended in 1599. The collegiate church St. Johannes der Täufer, located downtown Oberstenfeld, is one of the state's most important Romanesque churches.
The nave was built about 1220, the choirtower about 1230 CE. It is open to the public May to October on Sundays between 1 pm. Guided tours are available for value. Nearby is the Dorfkirche, built in the 9th century as Galluskapelle, it became the prayer room of the market town community in contradiction to the collegiate church, reserved for the canonesses. After heavy damage in 1693 it was newly built in 1738; the porch in the north is decorated with the coat of arms of the municipality, which can be found on the weather vane. In the centre are a few restored baroque timbered framed houses. Among them are: the town hall, built single-story in 1698 and got two more stories attached in 1840 the timber framed house in the Großbottwerer Straße 14, built in 1700 the bakery, the former de:Pfrundhaus built in 1702 used as dwelling for the canonesses, it is the birthplace of the democrat Johannes Nefflen the winemaker's house in Berggasse 2, built in 1737 the cooper's house in the Küfergasse 15, built in 1726A few minutes walk south of the old centre is the former train station of the Bottwarbahn.
Oberstenfeld has several medium-sized businesses as well as bigger employers like Werzalit or Hoerbiger. In September 2005 Italian Town of Verbicaro in the Provence of Cosenza became a sister city. Many of the citizen of Italian descent have roots in this 3000 souls town in Calabria. A sign at the town's entrance was installed as a reminder of this town twinning
Freudental is a town in the district of Ludwigsburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Freudental was first mentioned in 1304 in the stock records of the hospital in Esslingen. Similar to Besigheim and Löchgau it belonged to the Marquis of Baden, as a result of the Bavarian Succession War of 1504 it fell under Duke Ulrich of Württemberg and under the stewardship of the bailiff of Besigheim Konrad Schenk von Winterstetten. After changes and fragmentation of local government in 1685 the town was owned by the Duke of Württemberg - Frederick Charles but soon sold again, to Baron Johann Gottlob von Zobel of Giebelstadt heir owner of the place, his heirs in turn sold the town in 1727 at the Landeshofmeisterin Wilhelmine of Würben. Around 1731–1733 Duke Eberhard Louis, acquired the town; the town was not incorporated into the Duchy of Württemberg, but protected as'Hofkammergut' in the Württemberg'Kameralverwaltung'. When the Württemberg Oberamt Besigheim was dissolved in 1938, Freudental came within the district of Ludwigsburg, where it remains.
Freudental has been majority Protestant since the Reformation. Today there is still a Protestant congregation in the town. There is still a small community of the New Apostolic Church; the Catholics of the Roman Catholic community practice their religion in Besigheim. From the first half of the 18th century there was a significant Jewish community in Freudental and by the mid-19th century more than 40 percent of the inhabitants were Jewish. In 1832 seat of Bezirksrabbinats Freudental; the town experienced - like many other Jewish rural communities - a decline in numbers towards the end of the 19th century. It was eradicated by the persecution of the Jews during the Nazi regime. From the once significant community can still be seen the former synagogue built in 1770 in Freudental and the neighboring Jewish Schlössle, in which the first six Jewish families in the area from 1723 had her apartment, the Jewish cemetery. In memory of the persecuted and murdered Jewish citizens a memorial plaque is on the wall of the castle, more plaques at the beginning and end of the Stromberg street remember since 1988, to the centuries-old Jewish settlement of this until 1933 so-called "Jewish street".
During World War II many of the empty buildings which had once housed Jewish families were used to house refugee civilians from cities whose homes had been destroyed in allied bombing raids. After the war some of these refugees assisted the occupation forces in collecting reparations from the local farmers and landowners who had profited from the property'vacated' by the Jewish population. Official website Former Synagogue
Pleidelsheim is a town in the state of Baden-Württemberg, about 30 km north of Stuttgart. Pleidelsheim is situated on the right bank of the Neckar river across from Ingersheim; this historical town has buildings. Johann David Wildermuth, (1807-1885, professor and high school teacher in Tübingen, husband of Ottilie Wildermuth Adelbert von Keller, German scholar and linguist 1983 Arthur Boka, professional footballer of VfB Stuttgart, lived in Pleidelsheim. Official Web site
Ludwigsburg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, about 12 kilometres north of Stuttgart city centre, near the river Neckar. It is the largest and primary city of the Ludwigsburg district with about 88,000 inhabitants, it is situated within the Stuttgart Region, the district is part of the administrative region of Stuttgart. The area around Ludwigsburg had been a favored hunting grounds by the royal Württemberg family for generations before the founding of Ludwigsburg. Although the region was wilderness, it was accessible by boat using the Neckar River. In 1704 the founder of Ludwigsburg, Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg, arranged for the laying of the foundation stone for Ludwigsburg Palace. Ludwigsburg is named after the Duke Eberhard Louis' middle name, Ludwig being the German name for Louis. Right up until his death, construction workers and craftsmen worked on what was to become one of the largest Baroque palace ensembles in Europe. Under Eberhard Louis and his successor, Charles Eugene, the Palace served as the royal residence of Württemberg for a total of 28 years.
With the Palace as their gesamtkunstwerk and the opulent festivals they organized, the Dukes put their unbounded power on display with no consideration for the finances of Württemberg. To them, their most important task was to bring fame and renown to the court of Württemberg and to compete with and outdo other European rulers in this regard. Duke Eberhard Louis planned to found an ideal Baroque city right beside Ludwigsburg Palace. From 1709 onwards, he tried to attract new residents to the city with a series of incentives: first he promised free plots of land and free building materials as well as fifteen years tax-free status, on he added freedom to practice one's profession and religion to the list. However, the town only began to grow when it was granted city status in 1718 and in that year became the royal residence and capital city of the country of Württemberg. By the time of Eberhard Louis' death in 1733, the population had risen to around 6,000 people, more than half as big as the former capital city Stuttgart.
The new capital city Ludwigsburg was still a major construction site with many unpaved streets and half-finished buildings. For over two decades, Eberhard Louis held court in Ludwigsburg with his mistress Wilhilmine von Grävenitz while the Duchess Johanna Elisabeth remained in Stuttgart; the clever, ambitious mistress made the best of her time, influencing politics in Württemberg and advancing her status in society. When it became clear that the ill heir to the throne would not come to power, Eberhard Louis had a change of heart, split with his lover and reconciled with his wife in the hope that he would have another son; this was cause for great joy for many people in Württemberg, as the Protestant population feared that power would fall into the hands of the Catholic side of the royal house. To mark reconciliation, the Ludwigsburg citizenry published a leaflet with a copper etching that made reference to the general wish for a new heir to the throne; the etching depicts the personification of Ludwigsburg, receiving a pearl, a symbol of fertility, from the hand of God.
However, people's hopes for another child were not fulfilled as Eberhard Louis died in 1733 and his Catholic cousin, Charles Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, ascended to the throne. When Charles Alexander moved the capital of Württemberg back to Stuttgart, the population of the Ludwigsburg dropped by more than half within a year; the middle of Neckarland, where Ludwigsburg lies, was settled in the bronze ages. Numerous archaeological sites from the Hallstatt period remain in surrounding area. Towards the end of the 1st century, the area was occupied by the Romans, they pushed the Limes further to the east around 150 and controlled the region until 260, when the Alamanni occupied the Neckarland. Evidence of the Alamanni settlement can be found in grave sites in the city today; the origins of Ludwigsburg date from the beginning of the 18th century when the largest baroque castle in Germany, Ludwigsburg Palace was built by Duke Eberhard Ludwig von Württemberg. The Duke planned to just build one country home, which he began building in 1704.
However, the examples of other princes fostered a desire to project his absolutist power by establishing a city. To the baroque palace, he added a hunting lodge and country seat, called Schloss Favorite, the Seeschloss Monrepos. A settlement began near the palace in 1709 and a town charter was granted on 3 April 1718; that same year, Ludwigsburg became a bailiff's seat, which became the rural district of Ludwigsburg in 1938. In the years between 1730 and 1800, the royal seat of residence changed back and forth several times between Stuttgart and Ludwigsburg. In 1800, Württemberg was occupied by France under Napoleon Bonaparte and was forced into an alliance. In 1806, the Kurfürst Friedrich was made king of Württemberg by Napoleon. In 1812, the Württembergish army was raised in Ludwigsburg for Napoleon's Russian campaign. Of the 15,800 Württemberg soldiers who served, just a few hundred returned. In 1921, Ludwigsburg became the largest garrison in southwest Germany. In 1945, Ludwigsburg was made a "Kreisstadt", when the Baden-Württemberg municipal code took effect on 1 April 1956, the city was named a major urban district.
In 1956 the tradition of the German garrison town was taken up again by the Bundeswehr, Germany's federal armed forces. 2004 was the 300th birthday of Residenz
Bönnigheim is a town in the German administrative district of Ludwigsburg which lies at the edge of the areas known as Stromberg and Zabergäu. The nearest large towns are Heilbronn. Districts of the town The town includes the separate parishes of Hofen and Hohenstein; the boundaries established on 31 December 1971, saw the inclusion of the property known as the Burgermühle and the lost village of Birlingen. The former parish of Hofen now comes under the village of Hofen. In the same way, the former parish of Hohenstein now comes under the village of that name. Development of the town The first documentary reference to Bönnigheim occurs in the Lorsch codex. In a document dated 16 February 793, the nun Hiltburg bequeathed the parishes of Bönnigheim and Alt-Cleebronn to the abbey of Lorsch, it was due to this bequest that Bönnigheim fell to the bishopric of Mainz; the monastery of Hirsau bought the village as a fief and sold it in 1284 to the monastery of Bebenhausen. In the same year, Bönnigheim was granted the status of a so-called Ganerbentum, in 1288 the fief was passed to Rudolf von Habsburg, who in turn granted it to his son, Albrecht von Löwenstein-Schenkenberg, in 1291.
The estate that had emerged from the so-called Ganerbentum, which lasted until 1750, became partitioned through inheritance and purchase. During this time the ownership of the town, which still came under the rule of the bishopric of Mainz, was subdivided between four noble families - the Lords of Sachsenheim, Liebenstein and Neipperg; each of the heirs became entitled to a quarter of the town. The same hereditary circumstances prevailed in nearby Erligheim, it is impossible for a town to be divided into four parts without this impinging on the life of the community. Furthermore, it is hardly surprising that such a situation should give rise to quarrels between the heirs themselves. Accordingly, a local truce was agreed in 1388. Under the terms of this truce, the four heirs agreed that a so-called ‘Baumeister’ would be elected from their ranks every two years who would be responsible for the administration of the town; the ‘Baumeister’ took up residence in the castle. Established as part of this agreement was the election of the town council and of the mayor, as well as the appointment of a bailiff.
During the Peasants Revolt, the castle was burnt down. It was rebuilt in 1546, only to be torn down again in 1697; the castle remains in this latter state today. In 1750, Earl Friedrich von Stadion purchased the town and so brought to an end the Garnerbentum era. In 1756, Bönnigheim passed to Württemberg via its purchase by Duke Carl Eugen. Here it became part of the old administrative district of Besigheim which, in turn, came under the administrative district of Ludwigsburg in 1938. Apart from the Protestant and Roman Catholic congregations, the population includes those of the New Apostolic faith. From 1 January 1972: Hohenstein From 1 January 1972: Hofen The local election held on 7 June 2009 resulted in a Council consisting of 18 members; the turnout was 54.64%. The result of the election was; the chairperson of the Council is the mayor. The arms display, in red, a silver wheel with six spokes below, a silver moon showing a face; the arms thus mirror the history of the town showing, elements of the Wheel of Mainz.
The moon forms part of the arms of the Lords of Magenheim, who are considered to be the founders of Bönnigheim. The town's colours have been thus since 1921 at least; the arms of the incorporated parishes are: * Hofen: In red, a silver church with a tower, above a silver double cross. The flag is red; the arms and flag were approved on 7 October 1966. * Hohenstein: In silver, a red crenellated castle with twin towers on a green hill formed by a row of five diamonds. The flag is white; the arms and flag were approved on 19 August 1965. Bönnigheim is twinned with the following towns: Rouffach in Alsace, France since 1964, Neukirch/Lausitz, Landkreis Bautzen, Saxony since 1992 Balatonboglár am Plattensee, Hungary since 2000 The signposted tour of the town includes some 50 listed buildings; the Ganerbenburg marks the north-western boundary of the town. The castle was destroyed during the Peasants Revolt but subsequently rebuilt, only to be torn down again in the 17th century; the remains consist of a solidly-built stone house.
Vestiges of the old wall, which dates from the Middle Ages, can be see to the west of the castle. The wall is up to 9.10 metres high and 1.40 metres thick. The Köllesturm is part of the 13th-century town wall. A bridge led across the dry moat to the Köllesturm; the present roof dates back to renovation work carried out after a fire in the late 18th century. Der Diebsturm is a semi-circular tower built onto the town wall in 1458; the Stadionsche Schloss was built in 1756 by the master builder Anton Haaf for Count Friedrich Stadion. It has fulfilled various functions over the years: from 1828 to 1888. Since 1996, it has been home to the collection of Naive Art belonging to the Museum Charlotte Zander. Der Kavaliersbau at the town wall with its striking stepped gable is the last vestige of the former small Liebensteiner castle, it was on this site that the Stadionsche Schloss was built. The town's music school and the youth café are both located here. Das Forst
Ingersheim is a town in the district of Ludwigsburg in Baden-Württemberg in Germany
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte