Trondheim Fjord, an inlet of the Norwegian Sea, is Norways third-longest fjord at 130 kilometres long. It is located in the part of the country, and it stretches from Ørland in the west to Steinkjer in the north. Its maximum depth is 617 metres, just inside of Agdenes, the largest islands in the fjord are Ytterøy and Tautra, the small island of Munkholmen is located near the harbor of Trondheim, and there are several islands at the entrance of the fjord. The narrow Skarnsundet is crossed by the Skarnsund Bridge, the part of the fjord to the north of the strait is referred to as Beitstadfjorden. The main part of Trondheim Fjord is ice-free all year, only Verrasundet, the Beitstadfjorden might freeze over in winter, but only for a few weeks. The towns of Stjørdal and Steinkjer are found on the eastern and northeastern shore of the fjord, aker Verdal in Verdal produces large offshore installations for the petroleum sector. A yard in Rissa completed the luxurious apartment ship MS The World, fiborgtangen is a peninsula along the eastern shore of the fjord where a large paper mill owned by Norske Skog is located.
In recent years, deep water corals were discovered in the fjord, several of the best salmon rivers in Norway empty into Trondheim Fjord. Among these are the Gaula, the Orklaelva, Stjørdalselva, the lowland east and south of the fjord represents one of Norways best agricultural areas. The more rugged and mountainous Fosen peninsula lies to the west and northwest, Trondheim Fjord was an important waterway in the Viking Age, as it is still today. In 1888, a mudslide caused a tsunami that killed one person in Trondheim. Four giant squid have been found in the fjord, which is among the highest concentrations in the world, the fjord is named after Trondheim, but originally the name of the fjord might have been just *Þrónd or *Þróund in Old Norse. A name like that would be related to the verb þróast, which means to thrive or flourish and the name Þrór, if this is the case, the people living around the fjord named themselves after the fjord
European route E6
European route E6 is the main north-south road through Norway, and the west coast of Sweden. It is 1,295 mi long and runs from the tip of Sweden at Trelleborg, into Norway and through almost all of the country north to the Arctic Circle. The route ends in Kirkenes close to the Russian border, from south to north, E6 runs through Trelleborg, Malmö, Halmstad, Svinesund in Sweden, before crossing the border at the Svinesund Bridge into Norway. It passes Halden, Moss to the capital Oslo, north of this, it passes by Gardermoen, Lillehammer, Dombås, Melhus to Trondheim. Beyond Trondheim, the E6 meets Stjørdal, Steinkjer, Mosjøen, Mo i Rana, Saltdal and Hamarøy towards Bognes, where there is a ferry crossing over the Tysfjorden to Skarberget. It runs through on via Narvik, Nordkjosbotn and Alta to Olderfjord, the E6, turns south towards Lakselv and Karasjok, runs on the west bank of the Anarjohka, which forms the border with Finland. Beyond the border, it passes through Varangerbotn, and Kirkenes, between Trelleborg and Kirkenes, there is a more than 800 km shorter route using E4 and E75, among the longest detour any European route has.
In Finnmark there are several alternative routes to the E6. The road is a 2+2 lane motorway from outside Trelleborg to Kolomoen south of Hamar, the Swedish E6 motorway and the Norwegian motorway up to Kolomoen were completed in 2015. This motorway is connected to central Europe by uninterrupted motorway. Some stretches further north have four lanes or motorway standard, the rest of the road is ordinary road, usually 6–10 m wide. Some parts in the north of Norway are less than 6 m wide and it is often very curvy, at least on the northern half, north of Trondheim. E6 passes over mountain passes in a few places in Norway. In the winter, bad weather and snow storms can mean the road is closed, though unlike many minor roads. Because the road is the main artery through the country and leisure travellers avoid the southern sections owing to the excessive traffic and this road was called E6 in the old E road system before 1985 and previously continued to Rome. It was given the number E47 in the new system on most of the Scandinavian part, after a political negotiation all of the Scandinavian part was given the number E6 in the new system which was introduced in Scandinavia 1992.
The E6 became 4-lane motorway all the way Trelleborg–Oslo in 2015, the new Svinesund Bridge opened in 2005, replacing an earlier and narrower bridge that opened in 1946. Media related to European route E6 at Wikimedia Commons E6 through Sweden and Norway travel guide from Wikivoyage
Stod is a former municipality in Nord-Trøndelag county, Norway. The old municipality administration was in the village of Binde, the main church for Stod was For Church, located just south of the administrative center. The local sports team is Stod IL, Stod is best known for rock carvings in the Bølareinen field that are approximately 6000 years old. The carvings are of animals and humans, there are several other prehistoric sites, including two stone circles, one on the Nordgård farm and one at the rectory, both of which are partially destroyed. Traditionally and forestry were the industries in Stod, but construction of the Nordland Line brought with it new jobs. Today most residents of Stod work in the town of Steinkjer, the parish of Stod was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. On 23 January 1858, the town of Steinkjer was established with a population of 1,150, the new town was separated from Stod to constitute its own municipality leaving Stod with 3,471 residents. On 1 January 1869, the district of Egge was separated from Stod to form its own municipality.
This left Stod with 2,530 inhabitants, on 1 January 1909, the northern district of Kvam became a separate municipality, leaving Stod with 934 inhabitants. Prior to the merger, Stod had a population of 1,268
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, granite, a rock, is a combination of the minerals quartz, feldspar. The Earths outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock, rock has been used by mankind throughout history. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to human civilization, three major groups of rocks are defined, igneous and metamorphic. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology, which is a component of geology. At a granular level, rocks are composed of grains of minerals, the aggregate minerals forming the rock are held together by chemical bonds. The types and abundance of minerals in a rock are determined by the manner in which the rock was formed, many rocks contain silica, a compound of silicon and oxygen that forms 74. 3% of the Earths crust. This material forms crystals with other compounds in the rock, the proportion of silica in rocks and minerals is a major factor in determining their name and properties.
Rocks are geologically classified according to such as mineral and chemical composition, the texture of the constituent particles. These physical properties are the end result of the processes that formed the rocks, over the course of time, rocks can transform from one type into another, as described by the geological model called the rock cycle. These events produce three general classes of rock, igneous and metamorphic, the three classes of rocks are subdivided into many groups. However, there are no hard and fast boundaries between allied rocks, hence the definitions adopted in establishing rock nomenclature merely correspond to more or less arbitrary selected points in a continuously graduated series. Igneous rock forms through the cooling and solidification of magma or lava and this magma can be derived from partial melts of pre-existing rocks in either a planets mantle or crust. Typically, the melting of rocks is caused by one or more of three processes, an increase in temperature, a decrease in pressure, or a change in composition, igneous rocks are divided into two main categories, plutonic rock and volcanic.
Plutonic or intrusive rocks result when magma cools and crystallizes slowly within the Earths crust, a common example of this type is granite. Volcanic or extrusive rocks result from magma reaching the surface either as lava or fragmental ejecta, the chemical abundance and the rate of cooling of magma typically forms a sequence known as Bowens reaction series. Most major igneous rocks are found along this scale, about 64. 7% of the Earths crust by volume consists of igneous rocks, making it the most plentiful category. Of these, 66% are basalts and gabbros, 16% are granite, only 0. 6% are syenites and 0. 3% peridotites and dunites
Statistics Norway is the Norwegian statistics bureau. Relying on a staff of about 1,000, Statistics Norway publish about 1,000 new statistical releases every year on its web site, all releases are published both in Norwegian and English. In addition a number of edited publications are published, and all are available on the web site for free, as the central Norwegian office for official government statistics, Statistics Norway provides the public and government with extensive research and analysis activities. It is administratively placed under the Ministry of Finance but operates independently from all government agencies, Statistics Norway has a board appointed by the government. It relies extensively on data registers, but are collecting data from surveys and questionnaires. Hans Henrik Scheel has been the Director General since 2011, Statistics Norway was originally established in 1876. The Statistics Act of 1989 provides the framework for Statistics Norways activities
Counties of Norway
Norway is divided into 19 administrative regions, called counties, until 1918, they were known as amter. The counties form the first-level subdivisions of Norway and are divided into 428 municipalities. Svalbard and Jan Mayen are outside the county division and ruled directly on national level, the capital Oslo is considered both a county and a municipality. In 2017 the government decided to abolish the current counties and to them with fewer, larger administrative regions. Below is a list of the Norwegian counties as they have been since 1919, note that the counties are administered both by appointees of the national government and to a lesser extent by their own elected bodies. The county numbers are from the numbering system ISO 3166-2, NO. The number 13 was dropped from the system when the city of Bergen was merged into Hordaland in 1972, from the consolidation to a single kingdom, Norway was divided into a number of geographic regions that had its own legislative assembly or Thing, such as Gulating and Frostating.
The second-order subdivision of these regions was into fylker, such as Egdafylke and Hordafylke, in 1914, the historical term fylke was brought into use again to replace the term amt introduced during the union with Denmark. Current day counties often, but not necessarily, correspond to the historical areas. Finnmark, the Faroe Islands, the Orkney Islands, the Hebrides, Isle of Man and Greenland were Norwegian skattland, from the end of the 12th century, Norway was divided into several syssel. The head of the various syssel was the syslemann, who represented the king locally, the following shows a reconstruction of the different syssel in Norway c. 1300, including sub-syssel where these seem established, from 1308, the term len in Norway signified an administrative region roughly equivalent to todays counties. The historic len was an important administrative entity during the period of Dano-Norwegian unification after their amalgamation as one state, which lasted for the period 1536–1814. At the beginning of the 16th century the political divisions were variable, up to 1660 the four principal len were headquartered at the major fortresses Bohus Fortress, Akershus Fortress, Bergenhus Fortress and the fortified city of Trondheim.
The sub-regions corresponded to the districts for the Lutheran church in Norway. Båhus len Akershus len Trondheim len Bergenhus len These four principal len were in the 1530s divided into approximately 30 smaller regions. From that point forward through the beginning of the 17th century the number of subsidiary len was reduced, from 1660 Norway had nine principal len comprising 17 subsidiary len, Len written as län continues to be used as the administrative equivalent of county in Sweden to this day. Each len was governed by a lenman, with the royal decree of February 19,1662, each len was designated an amt and the lenmann was titled amtmann, from German Amt, reflecting the bias of the Danish court of that period
Districts of Norway
The country Norway is historically divided into a number of districts. Many districts have deep roots, and only partially coincide with todays administrative units of counties and municipalities. The districts are defined by geographical features, often valleys, mountain ranges, plains, or coastlines, many such regions were petty kingdoms up to the early Viking age. A high percentage of Norwegians identify themselves more by the district live in or come from. Thus and regional commonality in folk culture tended to correspond to those same geographical units, the construction of railroads between distant parts of the country. The opening of dozens of new airports all over the country through the 1960s and 1970s, the release of private cars from government rationing and import restrictions from the 1950s onwards. A concrete display of the Norwegian habit of identifying themselves by district can be seen in the many regional costumes, called bunad, the following list is non-exhaustive and partially overlapping.
The first name is the name in Bokmål, the second Nynorsk, helgeland Lofoten Ofoten Salten Vesterålen See Finnmark, Hålogaland and Troms
Oluf Rygh was a noted Norwegian archaeologist and historian. Oluf Rygh is recognized as one of the founders of professional archaeology in Norway, Oluf Rygh was born in Verdal. His parents were Peder Strand Rygh and Ingeborg Marie Bentsen and he was the older brother of Evald Rygh and Karl Ditlev Rygh. Oluf Rygh attended the Trondhjem Cathedral School in 1850 and went to the University of Christiania to study philology, in 1858, while a teacher at Nissens Skole in Christiania, he was a research fellow for history. Later he was a professor of philology and Scandinavian languages. Rygh was professor of history at the Royal Frederick University between 1866 and 1875 and he was director of Oldsaksamlingen from 1862 and professor of Nordic archaeology from 1875 – the first professor of archaeology at any Scandinavian university. He led excavation of the Tune ship 1867 and his work Norske Oldsaker published in 1885 is recognized for its detailed illustrations and even today is still a significant reference source.
From 1879 to 1899 he chaired the Norwegian Historical Association, Oluf Rygh is best known for creation of Norske Gaardnavne, which is a 19 volume set of books based on a manuscript prepared from 1897 to 1924. It inspired similar research in Sweden and Denmark, Rygh died in 1899 at Ulefoss in Holla, Telemark. At the time of his death, only three and one half volumes had been published, the street Oluf Ryghs gate at Fagerborg has been named after him. His more significant publications include,1869 – Om den ældre Jernalder i Norge 1877 – Om den yngre Jernalder i Norge 1885 – Norske Oldsaker 1897 – Norske Gaardnavne
Steinkjer Church is a parish church in the municipality of Steinkjer in Nord-Trøndelag county, Norway. It is located in the town of Steinkjer, the church is part of the Steinkjer parish in the Nord-Innherad deanery in the Diocese of Nidaros. The church was consecrated on 25 March 1965 and it seats about 600 people and this non-traditional church design incorporates wood and glass. It was designed by Olav S. Platou in 1965, the church has a 38-metre tall free-standing square bell tower near the main entrance. The exterior front of the church has a square white cement facade. The church interior has white walls and the floor is red brick. The ceiling inside the church is shaped like the cross-section of a church bell, the roof is supported by simple columns made of pine which are stained dark. This represents a stark contrast to the walls and pillars. The length of the church is underlined by the low windows on the long side, Steinkjer Church is inspired by churches in Italy, San Michele, San Frediano, and San Martino.
Jakob Weidemann designed 11 different stained glass windows in the church
Steinkjer is a city and municipality in the Nord-Trøndelag county, Norway. It is part of the Innherad region, the city is located on the inner part of the Trondheim fjord. Steinkjer is the largest city in the county, and the municipality is the countys second-most populous after it was passed by Stjørdal in 2008, the city is the administrative place of Nord-Trøndelag County Council. Other populated areas in Steinkjer include the villages of Bartnes, Binde, Byafossen, Følling, Lerkehaug, Mære, Sunnan, Vassaunet and Vellamelen. The village of Steinkjer in the municipality of Stod was declared a town in 1857, the initial population of Steinkjer was 1,150. Over time as the town grew, land was annexed from the neighboring municipalities and it started on 1 January 1902 when an unpopulated area from Ogndal was taken for future growth of Steinkjer. Then in 1941, an area was taken from Ogndal to add to Steinkjer, again in 1948, an area was transferred from Ogndal and another area was transferred from Egge.
The town is named after the old Steinkjer farm, since it is built on its ground, the first element is steinn which means stone or rock. The last element is ker which means a barrier made for catching fish, the coat-of-arms is from modern times, they were granted on 8 March 1957. The arms show a star with six points on a blue background. The original meaning of the star was that six main roads crossed in Steinkjer, after the municipal reorganization, the arms were re-granted, but the meaning has slightly changed. Steinkjer now formed the centre of the municipality and the points are directed to the six districts in the municipality, Egge, Ogndal, Sparbu. The Church of Norway has nine parishes within the municipality of Steinkjer and it is part of the Nord-Innherad deanery and the Diocese of Nidaros. The Steinkjer area has been populated since the Stone Age, as shown by the Bølareinen rock carving, which depicts an almost life-sized reindeer, there are other rock carvings in the area as well, as in Bardal, the oldest up to 6,000 years old.
The Steinkjer area was one of the strongest powerbases in early Viking age, Mære was one of the best known Norse religious places with sacrifices and seasonal gatherings before Christianity came to Norway. Steinkjer has survived two major disasters in modern history, the first was a town-wide fire in the year 1900, which burned down much of the southern parts of the town. The second disaster happened on 21 and 22 April 1940, when the town was struck by Luftwaffe bombers during the Norwegian Campaign, most of the town was destroyed, but no lives were lost. This attack destroyed a part of Steinkjer, and many priceless historical buildings were lost
Steinkjer Station is a railway station located in the town of Steinkjer in the municipality of Steinkjer in Nord-Trøndelag county, Norway. The station is located on the Nordland Line, serving local and express trains northbound through Innherred and on to Nordland, and southbound to Trondheim. The staffed station sits adjacent to the E6 highway, the station is at the northern terminus of the Trøndelag Commuter Rail to Trondheim. An hourly service runs on this line. Steinkjer Station was built as part of Hell–Sunnan Line and opened on 15 November 1905 along with the rest of the north of Verdal. The original name of the station was Steinkjær but on 5 June 1925, the spelling was changed to the present Steinkjer