Airbus SE, from 2000 to 2014 known as the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company, is a European multinational aerospace corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France and Spain. It designs and sells civil and military aerospace products worldwide and manufactures in the European Union and various other countries; the company has three divisions: Commercial Aircraft and Space, Helicopters, the third being the largest in its industry in terms of revenues and turbine helicopter deliveries. The company's main civil aeroplane business is based in Blagnac, France, a suburb of Toulouse, with production and manufacturing facilities in the European Union but in China and the United States. Final assembly production is based in France; the company produces and markets the first commercially viable digital fly-by-wire airliner, the Airbus A320, the world's largest passenger airliner, the A380. The 10,000th aircraft, an A350, was delivered to Singapore Airlines on 14 October 2016.
The global Airbus fleet have performed more than 110 million flights, totaling over 215 billion kilometres and carrying 12 billion passengers. Airbus's corporate headquarters is located in Leiden and the main office is located in Toulouse, France; the company is led by CEO Guillaume Faury and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. The current company is the product of consolidation in the European aerospace industry tracing back to the formation of the Airbus Industrie GIE consortium in 1970. In 2000, the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company NV was established. In addition to other subsidiaries pertaining to security and space activities, EADS owned 100% of the pre-existing Eurocopter SA, established in 1992, as well as 80% of Airbus Industrie GIE. In 2001, Airbus Industrie GIE was reorganised as a simplified joint-stock company. In 2006, EADS acquired. EADS NV was renamed Airbus Group NV and SE in 2014, 2015, respectively. Due to the dominance of the Airbus SAS division within Airbus Group SE, these parent and subsidiary companies were merged in January 2017, keeping the name of the parent company.
The company was given its present name in April 2017. The logos of Airbus Industrie GIE and Airbus SAS displayed a stylised turbine symbol, redolent of a jet engine, a font similar to Helvetica Black; the logo colours were reflected in the standard Airbus aircraft livery in each period. The EADS logo between 2000 and 2010 combined the logos of the merged companies, DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG and Aérospatiale-Matra, after which these elements were removed and a new font with 3D shading was chosen; this font was retained in the logos of Airbus Group NV and Airbus Group SE Airbus SE: The Airbus product line started with the A300, the world's first twin-aisle, twin-engined aircraft. A shorter, re-winged, re-engined variant of the A300 is known as the A310. Building on its success, Airbus launched the A320 notable for being the first commercial jet to use a fly-by-wire control system; the A320 has been, continues to be, a great commercial success. The A318 and A319 are shorter derivatives with some of the latter under construction for the corporate business jet market as Airbus Corporate Jets.
A stretched version is known as the A321. The A320 family's primary competitor is the Boeing 737 family; the longer-range widebody products— the twin-jet A330 and the four-engine A340— have efficient wings, enhanced by winglets. The Airbus A340-500 has an operating range of 16,700 kilometres, the second longest range of any commercial jet after the Boeing 777-200LR. All Airbus aircraft developed since have cockpit systems similar to the A320, making it easier to train crew. Production of the four-engine A340 was ended in 2011 due to lack of sales compared to its twin-engine counterparts, such as the Boeing 777. Airbus is studying a replacement for the A320 series, tentatively dubbed NSR, for "New Short-Range aircraft"; those studies indicated a maximum fuel efficiency gain of 9–10% for the NSR. Airbus however opted to enhance the existing A320 design using new winglets and working on aerodynamical improvements; this "A320 Enhanced" should have a fuel efficiency improvement of around 4–5%, shifting the launch of an A320 replacement to 2017–2018.
On 24 September 2009, the COO Fabrice Bregier stated to Le Figaro that the company would need from €800 million to €1 billion over six years to develop the new aircraft generation and preserve the company technological lead from new competitors like the Chinese Comac C919, scheduled to operate by 2015–2020. In July 2007, Airbus delivered its last A300 to FedEx, marking the end of the A300/A310 production line. Airbus intends to relocate Toulouse A320 final assembly activity to Hamburg, A350/A380 production in the opposite direction as part of its Power8 organisation plan begun under ex-CEO Christian Streiff. Airbus supplied replacement parts and service for Concorde until its retirement in 2003; the Airbus Corporate Jets modifies new aircraft for private and corporate customers. It has a model range that parallels the commercial aircraft offered by the company, ranging from the A318 Elite to the double-deck Airbus A380 Prestige. Following the entry of the 737 based Boeing Business Jet, Airbus joined the business jet market with the A319 Corporate Jet in 1997.
Although the term Airbus Corporate jet was used only for the A319CJ, it is now us
Premium AEROTEC is an aerospace manufacturing business, headquartered in Augsburg in Germany. It is a subsidiary of Airbus. Premium AEROTEC started as a division of EADS. Aerotec has factories in: Augsburg, founded in 1916 by Bayerische Rumpler Werke Bremen, founded in 1905 by Deutsche Schiffs- und Maschinenbau AG Nordenham, Germany Varel, founded in 1936 as Motorenwerk Varel. Premium AEROTEC is a tier-one supplier to Airbus. Fuselage sections for the Airbus A400M. Other customers are being sought. Premium AEROTEC Airbus Group
The technical meaning of maintenance involves functional checks, repairing or replacing of necessary devices, machinery, building infrastructure, supporting utilities in industrial, business and residential installations. Over time, this has come to include multiple wordings that describe various cost-effective practices to keep equipment operational. Together, these functions are referred to as Maintenance and overhaul. MRO is used for Maintenance and operations. Over time, the terminology of maintenance and MRO has begun to become standardized; the United States Department of Defense uses the following definitions: Any activity—such as tests, replacements and repairs—intended to retain or restore a functional unit in or to a specified state in which the unit can perform its required functions. All action taken to restore it to serviceability, it includes inspections, servicing, classification as to serviceability, repair and reclamation. All repair action taken to keep a force in condition to carry out its mission.
The routine recurring work required to keep a facility in such condition that it may be continuously used, at its original or designed capacity and efficiency for its intended purpose. Maintenance is connected to the utilization stage of the product or technical system, in which the concept of maintainability must be included. In this scenario, maintainability is considered as the ability of an item, under stated conditions of use, to be retained in or restored to a state in which it can perform its required functions, using prescribed procedures and resources. In some domains like aircraft maintenance, terms maintenance and overhaul include inspection, rebuilding and the supply of spare parts, raw materials, sealants and consumables for aircraft maintenance at the utilization stage. In international civil aviation maintenance means: The performance of tasks required to ensure the continuing airworthiness of an aircraft, including any one or combination of overhaul, replacement, defect rectification, the embodiment of a modification or a repair.
This definition covers all activities for which aviation regulations require issuance of a maintenance release document. The basic types of maintenance falling under MRO include: Preventive maintenance known as PM Corrective maintenance where equipment is repaired or replaced after wear, malfunction or break down. Predictive maintenance, which uses sensor data to monitor a system continuously evaluates it against historical trends to predict failure before it occurs. ReinforcementArchitectural conservation employs MRO to preserve, restore, or reconstruct historical structures with stone, glass and wood which match the original constituent materials where possible, or with suitable polymer technologies when not. Preventive maintenance is "a routine for periodically inspecting" with the goal of "noticing small problems and fixing them before major ones develop." Ideally, "nothing breaks down."The main goal behind PM is for the equipment to make it from one planned service to the next planned service without any failures caused by fatigue, neglect, or normal wear, which Planned Maintenance and Condition Based Maintenance help to achieve by replacing worn components before they fail.
Maintenance activities include partial or complete overhauls at specified periods, oil changes, minor adjustments, so on. In addition, workers can record equipment deterioration so they know to replace or repair worn parts before they cause system failure; the New York Times gave an example of "machinery, not lubricated on schedule" that functions "until a bearing burns out." Preventive maintenance contracts are a fixed cost, whereas improper maintenance introduces a variable cost: replacement of major equipment. Preventive maintenance or preventative maintenance has the following meanings: The care and servicing by personnel for the purpose of maintaining equipment in satisfactory operating condition by providing for systematic inspection and correction of incipient failures either before they occur or before they develop into major defects; the work carried out on equipment in order to avoid its malfunction. It is a routine action taken on equipment in order to prevent its breakdown. Maintenance, including tests, adjustments, parts replacement, cleaning, performed to prevent faults from occurring.
Other terms and abbreviations related to PM are: scheduled maintenance planned maintenance, which may include scheduled downtime for equipment replacement planned preventive maintenance is another name for PM breakdown maintenance: fixing things only when they break. This is known as "a reactive maintenance strategy" and may involve "consequential damage." Planned preventive maintenance, more referred to as planned maintenance or scheduled maintenance, is any variety of scheduled maintenance to an object or item of equipment. Planned maintenance is a scheduled service visit carried out by a competent and suitable agent, to ensure that an item of equipment is operating and to therefore avoid any unscheduled breakdown and downtime; the key factor as to when and why this work is being done is timing, involves a service, resource or facility being unavailable. By contrast, co
Méaulte is a commune in the Somme department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. The commune is situated on some 20 miles northeast of Amiens. Henry Potez, aeroplane maker, was born in Méaulte, he built a factory here and began making Potez aeroplanes in 1924. Today, the factory is part of the pan-European group Airbus Communes of the Somme department INSEE Méaulte on the Quid website
The Goodrich Corporation the B. F. Goodrich Company, was an American manufacturing company based in Charlotte, North Carolina. Founded in Akron, Ohio in 1870 as Goodrich, Tew & Co. by Benjamin Franklin Goodrich, the company name was changed to the "B. F. Goodrich Company" in 1880, to BFGoodrich in the 1980s, to "Goodrich Corporation" in 2001. A rubber manufacturing company known for automobile tires, the company diversified its manufacturing businesses throughout the twentieth century, sold off its tire business in 1986 to focus on its other businesses, such as aerospace and chemical manufacturing; the BF Goodrich brand name continues to be used by Michelin, who acquired the tire manufacturing business in 1988. Following acquisition by United Technologies, Goodrich became a part of UTC Aerospace Systems. In 1869 Benjamin Goodrich purchased the Hudson River Rubber Company, a small business in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York; the following year Goodrich accepted an offer of $13,600 from the citizens of Akron, Ohio, to relocate his business there.
The company grew to be one of the largest tire and rubber manufacturers in the world, helped in part by the 1986 merger with Uniroyal. This product line was sold to Michelin in 1988, the company merged with Rohr, Coltec Industries, TRW Aeronautical Systems in 2002; the sale of the specialty chemicals division and subsequent change to the current name completed the transformation. In 2006, company sales were $5.8 billion, of which 18%, 16% and 12% of total revenues were accounted for by the U. S. government and Boeing, respectively. Though BFGoodrich is a popular brand name of tires, the Goodrich Corporation exited the tire business in 1988; the tire business and use of the name was sold to Michelin. Before the sale to Michelin, Goodrich ran television and print ads showing an empty blue sky, to distinguish themselves from the similar-sounding Goodyear tire company; the tag line was, "See that blimp up in the sky? We're the other guys!" The company was sometimes confused with Mr. Goodwrench as the two last names were similar when B.
F. Goodrich tires were featured on many General Motors trucks. In 1869 Benjamin Goodrich purchased the Hudson River Rubber Company, a small business in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York; the following year Goodrich accepted an offer of $13,600 from the citizens of Akron, Ohio, to relocate his business there. In March 1912, the Diamond Rubber Company, founded by the owner of the Diamond Match Company, was bought out by and merged with the B. F. Goodrich Company; the Diamond brand name and product line were retained and a subsidiary Diamond Rubber Company created for the marketing and manufacturing of them. B. F. Goodrich sold radios from the 1930s to the 1950s, under the brand name "Mantola"; these radios were made by a variety of manufacturers for B. F. Goodrich. In 1936 the company entered the Mexican market in Goodrich-Euzkadi. Goodrich ranked 67th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts; the Troy, Ohio plant was purchased in 1946 from Waco. Since Goodrich has manufactured wheels and brakes for a variety of aircraft.
Among these are commercial, military and business programs. This successful operation lies at the core of Goodrich's business. Competitors include the aerostructures divisions of companies such as Honeywell, Messier-Bugatti, Aircraft Braking Systems, SNECMA; the Hood Rubber Company was sold before the Great Depression as a division of the B. F. Goodrich Company. By 1986 B. F. Goodrich had become an S&P 500-listed company in diverse business, including tire and rubber fabrication. B. F. Goodrich made high-performance replacement tires. In August 1986, one of its biggest competitors in the tire business, Uniroyal Inc. was taken private when it merged with the tire segment of the B. F. Goodrich Company, in a joint venture private partnership, to become the Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company. B. F. Goodrich Company held a 50% stake in the new tire company; the new Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company headquarters was established at the former B. F. Goodrich corporate headquarters, within its 27-building downtown complex in Akron, Ohio which contained Goodrich's original factory.
In the autumn of 1987 B. F. Goodrich Company shut down several manufacturing operations at the site, most of the complex remained vacant until February 1988, when B. F. Goodrich announced plans to sell the vacant part of the complex to the Covington Capital Corporation, a group of New York developers. In 1987, its first full year of operation, the new Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company generated $2 billion in sales revenue, with profits of $35 million; the merger soon proved to be difficult. In June 1988 B. F. Goodrich sold its 50% stake for $225 million; the buyers were a group of investors led by Clayton & Dubilier, Inc. a private New York investment firm. At the same time, B. F. Goodrich received a warrant to purchase indirectly up to 7% of the equity in Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company; as part of the June 1988 sale deal, the new held tire company acquired publicly held debt of $415 million. In 1988, Michelin Group, a subsidiary of the French tire company Michelin et Cie proposed to acquire the Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company and took actions towards acquiring a stake.
By May 1990, Michelin Group had completed its buyout of Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company from Clayton & Dubilier of New York. The deal was valued at about US$1.5 billion. B. F. Goodrich surrendered its 7% warrant to Michelin Group, received $32.5 million additional revenue from the sale. B. F. Goodrich by exited the tire business in line with its plan to build its
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Hong Kong Aircraft Engineering Company Limited, better known as HAECO, is one of the world’s leading independent aircraft engineering and maintenance groups. It is one of the largest Maintenance and Overhaul service providers in terms of capacity. Established in 1950, the HAECO Group consists of 18 subsidiaries and affiliates, employing over 17,000 staff in Hong Kong, Mainland China and the United States. In 2012, HAECO was awarded the “Leading Independent Organisation” by Aviation Week and voted as the “Best Airframe MRO Provider – Asia” at the Aircraft Technology Engineering & Maintenance Awards. HAECO's roots predate the company's official establishment, reaching back to the years following World War II when the Swire Group identified the aviation industry as an area of great potential. With no experience in aviation but every confidence in the expert engineering skills gained in the Taikoo Dockyard, Swire formed the Pacific Air Maintenance & Supply Company, which would merge with Jardine Air Maintenance to become HAECO in November 1950.
In its first decade of operation, HAECO trebled its workforce. The company's offerings grew as it introduced overhaul services for turboprop aircraft and built its first engine test bed. Highlighting its success, HAECO was floated on the Hong Kong stock market in 1965. Meanwhile, capacity development continued. By 1965, HAECO was equipped to service the Convair 880M introduced by Cathay Pacific Airways, in 1968 the company began the construction of Asia's largest aircraft maintenance hangar. In the 70s, the era of the jumbo jet brought more changes. HAECO broadened its capabilities to encompass a range of wide-body aircraft and jet engine types, such as the L1011 TriStar series equipped with Rolls-Royce RB211 engines; the company became an official member of the Swire Group when Swire Pacific increased its shareholding to 51% in 1975. HAECO's high standards and rapid turnaround times on major overhaul contracts saw an increasing amount of business from international airlines, including its first aircraft conversion, upgrading a L1011-1 Tristar to a L1011-150.
The 90s saw the formation of HAECO's joint ventures, including TAECO in Xiamen, HAESL in Hong Kong. In 1998, HAECO moved to a brand new HK$1.4 billion facility at the then-new Hong Kong International Airport in Chek Lap Kok. HAECO began work on its third, it opened additional MRO and component facilities in Singapore and Bahrain as well as in Xiamen and Jinjiang, China. In Xiamen, TAECO performed its first Boeing 747-200 passenger to all-freighter conversion, in 2005 converted the world's first 747-400 Boeing Converted Freighter for Cathay Pacific. On 23 October 2013, HAECO announced the Group would acquire TIMCO Aviation Services for $388.8 million. The acquisition was completed on 7 February 2014, adding North American MRO airframe, line services, engine overhaul and cabin solutions to its portfolio. Additional operations were launched in Chek Lap Kok, San Antonio, Shanghai, Tianjin and Chongqing. HAECO is one of the world’s leading aeronautical engineering groups providing a comprehensive range of services encompassing: Airframe Maintenance Cabin Reconfiguration / Integration Services Cabin Completion Centre / Design Engineering Component Services Engine Overhaul Fleet Technical Management Freighter Conversion Inventory Technical Management Line Maintenance Parts Manufacturing Technical Training HAECO ITM Limited Hong Kong Aero Engine Services Limited —— HAESL Goodrich Asia-Pacific Limited HAECO Americas HAECO Private Jet Solutions, LLC Taikoo Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd —— HAECO Xiamen/ TAECO Goodrich TAECO Aeronautical Systems Co Ltd —— Goodrich TAECO Honeywell TAECO Aerospace Co Ltd —— Honeywell TAECO Taikoo Engine Services Co Ltd —— TEXL Taikoo Spirit AeroSystems Composite Co Ltd —— Taikoo Spirit Dunlop Taikoo Aircraft Tyres Co Ltd —— Dunlop Taikoo Taikoo Aircraft Engineering Co Ltd —— STAECO Sichuan Aircraft Maintenance Engineering Co Ltd —— SMECO HAECO Component Overhaul —— HAECO Component Overhaul Taikoo Landing Gear Services Company Limited —— HAECO Landing Gear Services Shanghai Taikoo Aircraft Engineering Services Co Ltd —— HEACO Shanghai Singapore HAECO Pte.
Ltd Singapore Aero Engine Services Pte. Ltd —— SAESL Aircraft Maintenance and Engineering Corporation another aircraft maintenance company headquartered in Beijing, China HAECO HAECO Group Website HAESL Website