France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Paul Wegener was a German actor and film director known for his pioneering role in German expressionist cinema. At the age of 20, Wegener decided to end his law studies and concentrate on acting, touring the provinces before joining Max Reinhardt's acting troupe in 1906. In 1912, he turned to the new medium of motion pictures and appeared in the 1913 version of The Student of Prague, it was while making this film that he first heard the old Jewish legend of the Golem and proceeded to adapt the story to film, co-directing and co-writing the script with Henrik Galeen. His first version of the tale The Golem was a success and established Wegener's reputation. In 1917, he made a parody of the story called Der Golem und die Tänzerin, but it was his reworking of the tale, The Golem: How He Came into the World which stands as one of the classics of German cinema and helped to cement Wegener's place in cinematic history. Another of his early films was Der Yoghi, in which he played the role of a yogi and young inventor, which provided him with the opportunity to accommodate three of his interests, trick photography, the supernatural and Eastern mysticism.
In 1926 he appeared in his only Hollywood film, Rex Ingram's The Magician, in which he played the Aleister Crowley-esque Oliver Haddo in an adaptation of Somerset Maugham's story, followed by The Strange Case of Captain Ramper in 1927. In 1928, he starred alongside Brigitte Helm in his old collaborator Henrik Galeen's adaptation of Hanns Heinz Ewers' Alraune, playing the Frankenstein-like Professor ten Brinken. In 1932 Wegener made his sound debut in Richard Oswald's black comedy/horror film Unheimliche Geschichten, in which he made fun of himself as well as the whole expressionist movie genre; when in 1933 the National Socialists came to political prominence, theatre companies were disbanded and many of the actors and directors were arrested, persecuted or exiled. However Wegener became an actor of the state and appeared in Nazi propaganda films such as Mein Leben für Irland in 1941 and Kolberg, a 1944–45 propaganda film epic about the Napoleonic Wars. In reality he made an anti-Nazi stance by donating money to resistance groups, hiding vulnerable people in his apartment and writing anti-Hitler slogans on walls.
As the war closed Wegener was one of the first to rebuild cultural life in Berlin. He appeared in the title role in a production of Lessing's "Nathan the Wise" at the Deutsches Theater in Berlin in September 1945. Despite ill-health he became president of an organisation to improve standards for its inhabitants, he was married six times and sixthly to the actress Lyda Salmonova, who became his widow. His fourth wife was Greta Schröder, who had portrayed the leading lady in F. W. Murnau's Nosferatu; the geographer Alfred Wegener was his cousin and the physicist Prof. Peter P. Wegener was his son. Wegener's last film was Der Grosse Mandarin. In July 1948 he reprised his old role as Nathan the Wise at the Deutschen Theatre, but in the first scene he collapsed and the curtain was brought down. Two months on 13 September 1948, he died in his sleep; the Student of Prague The Golem Rübezahl's Wedding The Yogi The Golem and the Dancing Girl Hans Trutz in the Land of Plenty The Foreign Prince The Pied Piper of Hamelin The Galley Slave The Golem: How He Came into the World The Girlfriend of a Big Man Augustus the Strong The Hour of Temptation Moscow-Shanghai Monty Jacobs: Der Schauspieler Paul Wegener.
Verlag Erich Reiß, Berlin Kai Möller, ed.: Paul Wegener. Sein Leben und seine Rollen. Rowohlt, Hamburg 1954 Wolfgang Noa: Paul Wegener. Henschel, Berlin 1964 Herbert Pfeiffer: Paul Wegener. Rembrandt, Berlin 1957 Heide Schönemann: Paul Wegener. Frühe Moderne im Film. Menges, Stuttgart 2003 ISBN 3-932565-14-2 Hans Günther Pflaum:'Kinetische Lyrik. P. W.s "Rübezahls Hochzeit" 1916' in: ed.: Deutsche Augenblicke. Eine Bilderfolge zu einer Typologie des Films Belleville, München 1996 ISBN 3-923646-49-6 Hans Günther Pflaum:'Ins eigene Herz. P. W.s "Student von Prag" 1919' in: Peter Buchka, ed.: Deutsche Augenblicke. Official German Paul Wegener Homepage Paul Wegener on IMDb Image of Paul Wegener Excellent biography with pictures Photographs and literature
Hanns Heinz Ewers
Hanns Heinz Ewers was a German actor, poet and writer of short stories and novels. While he wrote on a wide range of subjects, he is now known for his works of horror his trilogy of novels about the adventures of Frank Braun, a character modeled on himself; the best known of these is Alraune. Born at Düsseldorf, Ewers started to write poetry, his first noticed poem was an obituary tribute to the German Emperor Frederick III. Ewers earned his Abitur in March 1891, he volunteered for the military and joined the Kaiser-Alexander-Gardegrenadier-Regiment No. 1, but was dismissed 44 days because of myopia. Ewers's literary career began with a volume of satiric verse, entitled A Book of Fables, published in 1901; that same year he collaborated with Ernst von Wolzogen in forming a literary vaudeville theatre before forming his own such company, which toured Central and Eastern Europe before the operating expenses and constant interference from censors caused him to abandon the enterprise. A world traveler, Ewers was in South America at the beginning of World War I, relocated to New York City, where he continued to write and publish.
Ewers' reputation as a successful German author and performer made him a natural speaker for the Imperial German cause to keep the United States from joining the war as an ally of Britain. Ewers raised funds for the German Red Cross. During this period, he was involved with the "Stegler Affair". American shipping companies sympathetic to the fight against Imperial Germany aided the British in identifying German-descended passengers traveling to Germany to volunteer for the Kaiser's army. Many were interned in prison camps by the British Navy. Ewers was implicated as a German agent by one of Richard Stegler. After the United States joined the war he was arrested in 1918 as an "active propagandist," as the US government, as well as British and French intelligence agencies asserted that Ewers was a German agent, they evidenced his travels to Spain during 1915 and 1916, both with an alias using a falsified Swiss passport. A travel report in the archives of the German Foreign Office was discovered indicating that he may have been traveling to Mexico to encourage Pancho Villa to hamper the U.
S. military by an attack on the United States. Ewers is associated with the pro-German George Sylvester Viereck, son of the German immigrant and reported illegitimate Hohenzollern offspring Louis Sylvester Viereck, a member of the same Berlin student corps as Ewers. Ewers' activities as an "Enemy Alien" in New York were documented by J. Christoph Amberger in the German historical journal Einst & Jetzt. Amberger indicates arrival records which demonstrate that Ewers entered the United States in the company of a "Grethe Ewers,", identified as his wife. Enemy Alien Office records refer to a recent divorce; the identity of this otherwise undocumented wife has never been established and is missing from most biographies. As a German national he was sent to the internment camp at Georgia. Ewers was never tried as a German agent in the United States. In 1921, he was returned to his native Germany. Ewers's first novel, Der Zauberlehrling, was published in 1910, with an English translation published in America in 1927.
It introduces the character of Frank Braun, like Ewers, is a writer, historian and world traveler with a decidedly Nietzschean morality. The story concerns Braun's attempts to influence a small cult of Evangelical Christians in a small Italian mountain village for his own financial gain, the horrific results which ensue; this was followed in 1911 by Alraune, a reworking of the Frankenstein myth, in which Braun collaborates in creating a female homunculus or android by impregnating a prostitute with the semen from an executed murderer. The result is a young woman without morals. Alraune was influenced by the ideas of the eugenics movement the book Degeneration by Max Nordau. Alraune has been well received by historians of the horror genre. F. Bleiler states the scenes in Alraune set in the Berlin underworld as among the best parts of the novel; the novel was filmed several times, most in a German version with Erich von Stroheim in 1952. Bleiler notes "Both Alraune and The Sorcerer's Apprentice are remarkable for the emotion the author can arouse" and that Ewers' writing is, at its best, "very effective".
However, Bleiler argues Ewers' work is marred by "annoying pretentiousness, a obtrusive and unpleasant author's personality". The third novel of the sequence, written in 1921, concerns Braun's own eventual transformation into a vampire, drinking the blood of his Jewish mistress. Another novel, Der Geisterseher, Ewers' completion of the Friedrich Schiller novel, was published in 1922. Ewers wrote the novel Reiter in deutscher Nacht published in 1932. Ewers wrote numerous short stories, those in Nachtmahr concern "pornography, blood sport and execution". Stories translated into English include the anthologised "The Spider", a tale of black magic based on the s
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
The Student of Prague (1913 film)
The Student of Prague is a 1913 German silent horror film. It is loosely based on "William Wilson", a short story by Edgar Allan Poe, the poem The December Night by Alfred de Musset, Faust; the film was remade under the same title The Student of Prague. Other remakes were produced in 1935 and 2004; the film stars Paul Wegener in his film debut. It is deemed to be the first independent film in history; the film takes place at the University of Prague in 1820, where a poor young man named Balduin is the city's wildest student and greatest swordsman. He becomes smitten with Countess Margit Schwarzenberg after rescuing her from drowning but knows he cannot pursue his love for her because he is poor. A sorcerer named Scapinelli offers Balduin 100,000 pieces of gold in exchange for any item to be found in the student's room. Balduin agrees, thinking he owns nothing, but is astonished when Scapinelli calls forth Balduin's reflection from the mirror and absconds with it. Balduin is haunted by the appearance of his mirror double.
Baron Waldis-Schwarzenberg, cousin to the countess and a rival suitor, challenges Balduin to a duel for her hand. The countess' father begs Balduin not to kill the Baron, as he is the last surviving heir to their family fortune. Balduin is thwarted when his double appears at the duel in his place. Balduin sneaks into Margit’s room and she confesses her true feelings to him. However, she is frightened by the appearance of the double, collapsing in a swoon. Dejected, Balduin returns to his room to retrieve a pistol, he fires at his double, only to drop dead himself. Scapinelli comes into the room takes the contract Balduin signed with him tears it up, throws it like confetti and disappears out the door. Paul Wegener as Balduin John Gottowt as Scapinelli Grete Berger as Countess Margit Lyda Salmonova as Lyduschka Lothar Körner as Count von Schwarzenberg Fritz Weidemann as Baron Waldis-Schwarzenberg The Student of Prague is considered to be the first German art film, it helped lift cinema from its low-class, fairground origins to a viable art form.
It was a commercial success. Audiences flocked to see the film, in part because it tapped into a real sense of dissociation and alienation inherent in a society, struggling with the burgeoning collapse of the German empire; the film's star, Paul Wegener, was an avowed champion of the medium after realizing the potential of cinema to transcend the limits of conventional theater. Cinematographer Guido Seeber utilized groundbreaking camera tricks to create the effect of the Doppelgänger, producing a seamless double exposure. Hanns Heinz Ewers was a noted writer of horror and fantasy stories whose involvement with the screenplay lent a much needed air of respectability to the fledgling art form; the film stimulated interest in the still new field of psychoanalysis. Otto Rank published an extensive plot summary of the film in his article “Der Doppelgänger,” which ran in Sigmund Freud's academic journal Imago in 1914. Examples of the Doppelgänger are most prevalent in literature as a narcissistic defense against sexual love, according to Rank, who described how the mirror image of the student shows up in erotic situations to deny Balduin any progress in his attempts to woo the countess.
The fantastic themes of the film went on to become a major influence on Weimar cinema, continuing the exploration of social change and insecurity in the aftermath of World War I. Expressionism grew out of the tormented psyches of artists and writers coming to terms with their individual experiences; the use of chiaroscuro was established on the set of The Student of Prague, but was carried further by Weimar productions like Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari; the film is referenced in the detective story "The Image in the Mirror" by Dorothy Sayers, in which Lord Peter Wimsey helps clear Mr. Duckworthy, a man wrongly suspected of murder. Among other things Duckworthy tells: "When I was seven or eight, my mother took me with her to see a film called "The Student of Prague", it was a costume piece about a young man at the university who sold himself to the devil, one day his reflection came stalking out of the mirror on its own, went about committing dreadful crimes, so that everybody thought it was him.".
Media related to Der Student von Prag at Wikimedia Commons The Student of Prague on IMDb The Student of Prague at AllMovie The Student of Prague at Rotten Tomatoes