National Assembly (Armenia)
The National Assembly of the Republic of Armenia informally referred to as the Parliament of Armenia is the legislative branch of the government of Armenia. Before 1995, It was referred to as the Supreme Council of Armenia and known as the Supreme Soviet of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic under Soviet rule; the National Assembly is a unicameral body. The National Assembly consists of at least 101 seats, but with additional seats allocated it may grow to about 200 seats in rare cases; the President of the National Assembly is Ararat Mirzoyan. According to a law adopted in 2016, parties need to pass a 5% threshold and coalitions 7% to be included in the distribution of mandates; the election system reserves 50% of votes cast in favor of each party to be distributed via party lists. Out of these, four mandates will be assigned to national minorities first of all. A party list can not include over 70% of representatives of the same sex and its every four consecutive entries shall include members of both sexes.
Another 50% of votes received by each party is distributed among their territorial lists submitted in 13 electoral districts. If neither party wins over 50% of mandates, a second round of elections is held. After the first round, the two best-placed parties participate in the second round. All mandates received during the first round are preserved; the party that wins the second round is given an additional number of mandates to reach 54% of all seats. If any party or coalition wins over two-thirds of the mandates in the first round of elections sufficient additional mandates will be distributed among all other parties to ensure that at least one-third of all seats are given to parties other than the winning one. Avetik Sahakyan 1 August 1918 – 1 August 1919 Avetis Aharonyan 1 August 1919 – 4 November 1920 Hovhannes Kajaznuni 4 November 1920 – 2 December 1920 Levon Ter-Petrosyan 4 August 1990 – 11 November 1991 Babken Ararktsyan 24 December 1991 – 27 July 1995 Babken Ararktsyan 27 July 1995 – 4 February 1998 Khosrov Harutyunyan 4 February 1998 – 11 June 1999 Karen Demirchyan 11 June 1999 – 27 October 1999 Armen Khachatryan 2 November 1999 – 12 June 2003 Artur Baghdasaryan 12 June 2003 – 1 June 2006 Tigran Torosyan 1 June 2006 – 26 September 2008 Hrayr Karapetyan 26 September 2008 – 29 September 2008 Hovik Abrahamyan 28 September 2008 – 21 November 2011 Samvel Nikoyan 6 December 2011 - 31 May 2012 Hovik Abrahamyan 31 May 2012 – 13 April 2014 Galust Sahakyan 29 April 2014 – 18 May 2017 Ara Babloyan 18 May 2017 – 14 January 2019 Ararat Mirzoyan 14 January 2019 – present Babken Ararktsyan 1990 – 1991 Gagik Harutyunyan 1990 – 1991 Ara Sahakian 1991 – 1998 Artashes Tumanyan 1991 – 1995 Karapet Rubinyan 1995 – 1998 Albert Bazeyan 1998 – 1999 Yuri Bakhshyan 1998 – 1999 Ruben Miroyan 1999 Gagik Aslanian 1999 – 2003 Tigran Torosyan 1999 – 2006 Vahan Hovhannisyan 2003 – 2008 Ishkhan Zakarian 2007 Arevik Petrosyan 2007 – 2010 Hrayr Karapetyan 2008 – 2009 Samvel Nikoyan 2009 – 2012 Samvel Balasanyan 2010 – 2012 Hermine Naghdalyan 2012 – 2017 Eduard Sharmazanov 2011 – 2019 Arpine Hovhannisyan 2017 – 2019 Mikayel Melkumyan 2017 – 2019 Alen Simonyan 2019 – present Lena Nazaryan 2019 – present Vahe Enfiajyan 2019 – present The National Assembly has eleven standing committees: Standing Committee on Defense and Security Standing Committee on Economic Affairs Standing Committee on European Integration Standing Committee on Financial and Budgeting Affairs Standing Committee on Foreign Relations Standing Committee on Health Care and Social Affairs Standing Committee on Human Rights and Public Affairs Standing Committee on Science, Culture, Diaspora and Sport Standing Committee on State and Legal Affairs Standing Committee on Territorial Administration, Local Self-Government and Environment Standing Committee on Territorial Integration Ad-hoc committees are special temporary committees established by the decision of the National Assembly to discuss certain draft laws, or investigate certain issues, events or facts and to submit conclusions to the National Assembly.
The aim of these committees is to draw attention to exceptional cases that are not covered by the standing committees. According to the Constitution of Armenia, Article 73 “If appropriate, interim committees may be established as prescribed by the law on the Rules of Procedure of the National Assembly for preliminary discussion of certain draft laws or for submitting to the National Assembly opinions, statements on certain issues and facts”. Following the consideration and definition in the Constitution the Law on Rules of Procedure of the National Assembly defines all the issues concerning the add-hoc committees. More according to the article 22 of the mentioned law, add-hoc committees are created by the decision of the National Assembly; the decision should contain information relating to the tasks and procedures of an add-hoc committee, meaning that the committee should operate only in strict limitations set to the spheres of its investigation, the resources it may gain access to and to the timeframes.
The ultimate reason for existence of such committees is to deliver a report on its finding during a session of the National Assembly. Based on these reports, the Deputy may create a draft resolution in 2 days and if agreed by the Lead Committee, the resolution may be included in the draft agenda for upcoming four-day session. One of the current add-hoc committees of the National Assembly of Armenia is the Committee on Ethics; this is not a classical add-hoc committee as it does exist during every session o
In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism, as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; the two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory. Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; the term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau; this book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work". According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, in the medieval Christian Church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the "Diggers" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, as well as Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe; as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto; the 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. The event generated a great deal of theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated; the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace and land" which tapp
Armenia the Republic of Armenia, is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located in Western Asia on the Armenian Highlands, it is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh and Azerbaijan to the east, Iran and Azerbaijan's exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Armenia is a multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia; the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great in the 1st century BC and became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion in the late 3rd or early 4th century AD. The official date of state adoption of Christianity is 301; the ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century. Under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the kingdom fell in 1045 and Armenia was soon after invaded by the Seljuk Turks.
An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the traditional Armenian homeland composed of Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia came under the rule of the Ottoman and Iranian empires ruled by either of the two over the centuries. By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, while most of the western parts of the traditional Armenian homeland remained under Ottoman rule. During World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. In 1918, following the Russian Revolution, all non-Russian countries declared their independence after the Russian Empire ceased to exist, leading to the establishment of the First Republic of Armenia. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1922 became a founding member of the Soviet Union.
In 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the world's oldest national church, as the country's primary religious establishment; the unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD. Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Artsakh, proclaimed in 1991; the original native Armenian name for the country was Հայք, however it is rarely used. The contemporary name Հայաստան became popular in the Middle Ages by addition of the Persian suffix -stan.. However the origins of the name Hayastan trace back to much earlier dates and were first attested in circa 5th century in the works of Agathangelos, Faustus of Byzantium, Ghazar Parpetsi and Sebeos.
The name has traditionally been derived from Hayk, the legendary patriarch of the Armenians and a great-great-grandson of Noah, according to the 5th-century AD author Moses of Chorene, defeated the Babylonian king Bel in 2492 BC and established his nation in the Ararat region. The further origin of the name is uncertain, it is further postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina; the Ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a lineal descendant of Hayk.
The Table of Nations lists Aram as the son of Shem, to whom the Book of Jubilees attests, "And for Aram there came forth the fourth portion, all the land of Mesopotamia between the Tigris and the Euphrates to the north of the Chaldees to the border of the mountains of Asshur and the land of'Arara." Jubilees 8:21 apportions the Mountains of Ararat to Shem, which Jubilees 9:5 expounds to be apportioned to Aram. The historian Flavius Josephus states in his Antiquities of the Jews, "Aram had the Aramites, which the Greeks called Syrians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded Trachonitis and Damascus: this country lies between Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia. Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the mountains of Ararat. There is evidence of an early civilisation in Armenia in the Bronze Age and earlier, dating to about 4000 BC. Archaeological surveys in 2010 and 2011 at the Areni-1 cave complex have resulted in the discovery of the world's earliest known leather shoe and wine-producing facility.
According to the story of Hayk, the legendary founder of Armenia, around 2107 BC Hayk fought against Belus, the Babylonian God of War, at Çavuştepe along the Engil river to establish the first Armenian state. This event coinc
Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative and industrial center of the country, it has been the capital since 1918, the fourteenth in the history of Armenia and the seventh located in or around the Ararat plain. The city serves as the seat of the Araratian Pontifical Diocese; the history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. Erebuni was "designed as a great administrative and religious centre, a royal capital." By the late ancient Armenian Kingdom, new capital cities were established and Yerevan declined in importance. Under Iranian and Russian rule, it was the center of the Erivan Khanate from 1736 to 1828 and the Erivan Governorate from 1850 to 1917, respectively. After World War I, Yerevan became the capital of the First Republic of Armenia as thousands of survivors of the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire arrived in the area.
The city expanded during the 20th century as Armenia became part of the Soviet Union. In a few decades, Yerevan was transformed from a provincial town within the Russian Empire to Armenia's principal cultural and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government. With the growth of the Armenian economy, Yerevan has undergone major transformation. Much construction has been done throughout the city since the early 2000s, retail outlets such as restaurants and street cafés, which were rare during Soviet times, have multiplied; as of 2011, the population of Yerevan was 1,060,138, just over 35% of the Republic of Armenia's total population. According to the official estimate of 2016, the current population of the city is 1,073,700. Yerevan was named the 2012 World Book Capital by UNESCO. Yerevan is an associate member of Eurocities. Of the notable landmarks of Yerevan, Erebuni Fortress is considered to be the birthplace of the city, the Katoghike Tsiranavor church is the oldest surviving church of Yerevan and Saint Gregory Cathedral is the largest Armenian cathedral in the world, Tsitsernakaberd is the official memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, several opera houses, museums and other cultural institutions.
Yerevan Opera Theatre is the main spectacle hall of the Armenian capital, the National Gallery of Armenia is the largest art museum in the Republic of Armenia and shares a building with the History Museum of Armenia, the Matenadaran repository contains one of the largest depositories of ancient books and manuscripts in the world. One theory regarding the origin of Yerevan's name is the city was named after the Armenian king, Yervand IV, the last leader of the Orontid Dynasty, founder of the city of Yervandashat. However, it is that the city's name is derived from the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni, founded on the territory of modern-day Yerevan in 782 BC by Argishti I; as elements of the Urartian language blended with that of the Armenian one, the name evolved into Yerevan. Scholar Margarit Israelyan notes these changes when comparing inscriptions found on two cuneiform tablets at Erebuni: The transcription of the second cuneiform bu of the word was essential in our interpretation as it is the Urartaean b, shifted to the Armenian v.
The original writing of the inscription read «er-bu-ni». In other words b was placed between two vowels; the true pronunciation of the fortress-city was Erebuny. Early Christian Armenian chroniclers attributed the origin of the name Yerevan to a derivation from an expression exclaimed by Noah, in Armenian. While looking in the direction of Yerevan, after the ark had landed on Mount Ararat and the flood waters had receded, Noah is believed to have exclaimed, "Yerevats!". In the late medieval and early modern periods, when Yerevan was under Turkic and Persian rule, the city was known in Persian as Iravân; this name is still used by Azerbaijanis. The city was known as Erivan under Russian rule during the 19th and early 20th centuries; the city was renamed back to Yerevan in 1936. Up until the mid-1970s the city's name was spelled Erevan, more than Yerevan, in English sources; the principal symbol of Yerevan is Mount Ararat, visible from any area in the capital. The seal of the city is a crowned lion on a pedestal with the inscriptit in the upper part.
The emblem is a rectangular shield with a blue border. On 27 September 2004, Yerevan adopted an anthem, "Erebuni-Yerevan", written by Paruyr Sevak and composed by Edgar Hovhanisyan, it was selected in new flag that would best represent the city. The chosen flag has a white background with the city's seal in the middle, surrounded by twelve small red triangles that symbolize the twelve historic capitals of Armenia; the flag includes the three colours of the Armenian National flag. The lion is portrayed on the orange background with blue edging; the territory of Yerevan has been inhabited since the 2nd half of the 4th millennium BC. The southern part of the city known as Sheng
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
2003 Armenian presidential election
The 2003 Armenian Presidential election took place in Armenia on 19 February and 5 March 2003. No candidate received a majority in the first round of the election with the incumbent President Robert Kocharyan winning under 50% of the vote. Therefore, a second round was held and Kocharyan defeated Stepan Demirchyan with official results showed him winning just over 67% of the vote; however both the opposition and international observers said that the election had seen significant amounts of electoral fraud and the opposition did not recognise the results of the election. Robert Kocharyan had been elected president in the 1998 presidential election defeating Karen Demirchyan; the election had been held when Levon Ter-Petrossian was forced to resign as President after agreeing to a plan to resolve the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, which his ministers, including Kocharyan, had refused to accept. On the 7 August 2002 the Central Election Commission of Armenia announced that the presidential election would be held on the 19 February 2003, with nominations required by 6 December 2002.
Candidates had to supply 40,000 signatures of support. President Kocharyan had announced that he would be running for re-election and the opposition parties attempted to agree on a united candidate to oppose him but were unsuccessful. Former President Levon Ter-Petrossian contemplated running in the election but decided not to stand. 15 people announced that they would stand in election, but in the end 9 candidates stood in the first round of the presidential election. Reporting in the media was seen as being one-sided, with a media monitoring organisation saying that President Kocharyan received about five times as much coverage during the campaign as all the other eight candidates combined. Kocharyan campaigned on the record of economic growth during his presidency and got support from several political parties, while his campaign was run by the defence minister Serzh Sargsyan. Kocharyan's leading opponent was Stepan Demirchyan, the leader of the People's Party of Armenia and the son of Karen Demirchyan, a former Soviet leader of Armenia and speaker of the Armenian parliament, assassinated in 1999.
Demirchyan ran in the election as an anti-corruption candidate. The other leading candidate was Artashes Geghamyan a former mayor of Yerevan, from the National Unity party. Opinion polls in the run up to the election showed President Kocharyan as to win the 50% required in order to avoid a second round. Early results showed Kocharyan winning over half of the vote, but the final results of the first round showed that he had just failed to meet that target and so was forced into a second round against Stepan Demirchyan; this was first time any incumbent president in the Commonwealth of Independent States had failed to win in the first round of an election. See-through ballot boxes were used to try to minimise any fraud in the election; however the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, which had sent 200 election monitors to observe the election, described the lead up to the election as having "fell short of international standards in several key respects". Opposition observers at polling stations reported that ballot stuffing in favour of President Kocharyan had taken place and one member of the OSCE observers was reported as having described the election as "a disaster".
Some opposition supporters called on Demirchyan to boycott the second round but despite taking part in protests over the conduct of the first round he did participate in the election. Most of the opposition parties rallied behind Demirchyan in the election and a television debate took place between the two candidates. Kocharyan called on voters in the second round to give him "a convincing victory that no-one can question"; the official results saw President Kocharyan winning just over two thirds of vote in the second round and thus he was re-elected. As in the first round the OSCE reported significant amounts of electoral fraud and numerous supporters of Demirchyan were arrested before the second round took place. Demirchyan described the election as having been rigged and called on his supporters to rally against the results. Tens of thousands of Armenians protested in the days after the election against the results and called on President Kocharyan to step down; however Kocharyn was sworn in for a second term in early April and the constitutional court upheld the election, while recommending that a referendum be held within a year to confirm the election result.
2008 Armenian presidential election protests 2011 Armenian protests 2013 Armenian protests 2003թ. Նախագահական ընտրությունները Internews Armenia Ապրիլի 12. 2004թ A1plus
National Polytechnic University of Armenia
The National Polytechnic University of Armenia, is a technical university located in Yerevan, Armenia. Established as the Karl Marx Institute of Polytechnic in 1933, it provides educational and research programs in various fields of technology and science related to engineering; the university includes a Central Campus in Yerevan and Branch Campuses located in Gyumri and Kapan. There are more than 8,000 students and more than 750 faculty members; the university was founded by the Soviet government in 1933 as the Karl Marx Institute of Polytechnic including 2 faculties with 107 students. With the development of the industrial sector in the Armenian SSR, the university has grown, to include around 25,000 students during the 1980s. With the independence of Armenia in 1991, the name was changed to the State Engineering University of Armenia. In November 2014, the university was renamed as the National Polytechnic University of Armenia by the decision of the government of Armenia; as of 2016, the university has campuses in 3 Armenian cities other than Yerevan: Gyumri Vanadzor Kapan As of 2016, the university has the following faculties: Yerevan: Faculty of Chemical technologies and environmental engineering Faculty of Electrotechnic Faculty of Mechanical engineering Faculty of Energy Faculty of Radio technologies and communication systems Faculty of Cybernetics Faculty of Computer systems and informatics Faculty of Mining and metallurgy Faculty of Transportation systems Faculty of Mechanical sciences Faculty of Applied mathematics and physicsThe university provides online studies as well.
Gyumri campus:Faculty of Technologies and sectoral economics Faculty of Natural sciences and communication systemsThe Gyumri campus provides online studies as well. Vanadzor campus named after Petros Melkonyan:Faculty of Technologies and sectoral economics Faculty of Natural sciences and communication systemsThe Vanadzor campus provides online studies as well. Kapan campus:Faculty of Technologies and sectoral economics Faculty of Natural sciences and communication systems As of 2016, the National Polytechnic University of Armenia has international cooperation with the following universities and institutions: China Jilin University Shanghai Institute of Electric Power Huazhong University of Science and Technology Finland Central Ostrobothnia Polytechnic France Ecole Supérieure d’Ingénieurs de Marseille Paris 12 Val de Marne University Aix-Marseille University University of the Mediterranean Université de Droit, d’Economie et des Sciences Chamber of commerce Germany Technische Universität Ilmenau Institute of Optoelectronics Technische Universität Darmstadt and Stuttgart Greece Aristotle University of Thessaloniki National Technical University of Athens Technological Educational Institute of Piraeus Italy Sapienza University of Rome University of Rome Tor Vergata Portugal Technical University of Lisbon Russia Moscow Institute of Energetics Bauman Moscow State Technical University Moscow Technical University of Communication and Informatics Spain University of Granada Autonomous University of Barcelona University of Alicante Sweden Royal Institute of Technology Lund University Syria Damascus University Ukraine Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute Ukrainian State Academy of Light Industry United Kingdom Brunel University London Queen's University Belfast University of Huddersfield United States California State Polytechnic University, Pomona New Jersey Institute of Technology Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis Southern University Grambling State University and Southern University New Orleans Hovhannes Babajanyan, 1934-1936 Hmayak Ghondakhchyan, 1936-1937 Ashot Melikjanyan, 1937 Misak Petrosyan, 1937-1946 Petros Melkonyan, 1946-1965 Ashot Aslanyan, 1965-1966 Artsrun Gasparyan, 1966-1980 Rafayel Movsisyan, 1980-1988 Yuri Sargsyan, 1988-2006 Vostanik Marukhyan, 2006-2011 Ara Avetisyan, 2011-2014 Hovhannes Tokmajyan, 2014-2015 Vostanik Marukhyan, 2015-current Karen Demirchyan, former speaker of the National Assembly of Armenia.
Robert Kocharyan, former president of Armenia. Aram Sargsyan, 9th prime minister of Armenia Andranik Margaryan, former prime minister of Armenia. Hrant Vardanyan, Armenian businessman. Tigran Torosyan, former speaker of the National Assembly of Armenia. Gevorg Emin, Armenian poet and writer. Vartan Oskanian, former Minister of Foreign Affairs of Armenia. Davit Gharibyan, Armenian model, actor and showman. Levon Mnatsakanyan, former defence minister of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic 1933 February 27. According to the Resolution of the Government of Soviet Armenia, the two Yerevan Institutes of Civil Engineering and Chemical Technology were merged and 1933. 1933 March 1 Yerevan Polytechnic Institute was established with two faculties: Faculty of Civil Engineering and Faculty of Chemical Technology. 1933 March 14. In commemoration of 50 years after Karl Marx's death, the institute was renamed to Yerevan Karl Marx Polytechnic Institute. 1939 Industrial Correspondence Education Institute joined YPI, becoming its Department of Correspondence Education.
1942 September 1 The faculty of Electrical Engineering was founded. 1944 September 1 The faculty of Mechanical Engineering was founded. 1946 Autumn The first Students’ Scientific Conference of the institute took place. 1947 The Students' Scientific Association of YPI was established. 1953 The Faculty of Mining was founded. 1956 The library reading-hall of YPI with 45 thousand books was opened. 1957 May 1. The first issue of the newspaper §. 1959 Leninakan and Kirovakan Branches of YPI were founded. 1961 The Faculty of Automatics and Computing Technics was founded. 1964 The chamber music band of YPI was created. 1966 The Faculty of