Christina Ricci is an American actress and producer. She is known for playing unconventional characters with a dark edge. Ricci is the recipient of several accolades, including a National Board of Review Award for Best Supporting Actress and a Satellite Award for Best Actress, as well as Golden Globe, Primetime Emmy, Screen Actors Guild and Independent Spirit Award nominations. Ricci made her film debut at the age of nine in Mermaids, followed by a breakout role as Wednesday Addams in The Addams Family and its sequel. Subsequent appearances in Casper and Now and Then brought her fame as a "teen icon". At 17, she moved into adult-oriented roles with The Ice Storm, which led to parts in films such as Buffalo'66, Pecker and The Opposite of Sex, she garnered acclaim for her performances in Monster. Her other credits include Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Prozac Nation, Anything Else, Black Snake Moan, Speed Racer, The Smurfs 2. Despite being known predominantly for her work in independent productions, Ricci has appeared in numerous box office hits—to date, her films have grossed in excess of US$1.4 billion.
On television, Ricci appeared as Liza Bump in the final season of Ally McBeal, received acclaim for her guest role on Grey's Anatomy in 2006. She starred as Maggie Ryan on the ABC series Pan Am, produced and starred in the series The Lizzie Borden Chronicles and Z: The Beginning of Everything; as well as voicing characters in several animated films, Ricci provided voices for the video games The Legend of Spyro: Dawn of the Dragon and Speed Racer: The Videogame. In 2010, she made her Broadway debut in Time Stands Still. Ricci married James Heerdegen in October 2013 and gave birth to a son in August 2014, she is the national spokesperson for Abuse & Incest National Network. Ricci was born in Santa Monica, the fourth and youngest child of Sarah and Ralph Ricci, her mother worked as a Ford Agency model during the 1960s, became a real estate agent. Her father had a varied career, including jobs as a gym teacher, drug counsellor, primal scream therapist. Regarding her ancestry, Ricci has stated, "The Italian blood has been bred out of me.
There's an Italian four or five generations back who married an Irish woman and they had all sons. So they married more Irish women, there were more sons, more Irish women. Now I'm Scots-Irish". Ricci's family moved to Montclair, New Jersey, where she grew up attending Edgemont Elementary School, Glenfield Middle School, Montclair High School, Morristown–Beard School, she attended Professional Children's School in New York City. Her siblings are Rafael and Pia. Ricci's parents separated when she was 13, she has not spoken to her father since, she has been vocal about her childhood in interviews her parents' divorce and turbulent relationship with her father. At the age of eight, Ricci was discovered by a local theater critic when she starred in a school production of The Twelve Days of Christmas. Another child was cast in the part, but Ricci devised a plan to secure the role for herself, she recalled, "I've always been a ambitious person I guess that's the first time it reared its ugly head". Soon thereafter, she featured in a pair of spoof commercials on Saturday Night Live.
The first of these featured Ricci as a child at a birthday party in which medical waste fell out of a burst piñata, parodying the then-topical dumping of waste in the rivers of the United States' east coast. This gained Ricci her SAG-AFTRA card. Ricci's big-screen debut was in the 1990 film Mermaids, as Cher's character's youngest daughter, Kate, she appeared—alongside Cher and co-star Winona Ryder—in the music video for "The Shoop Shoop Song", which featured on the film's soundtrack. The following year, she starred as the morbidly precocious Wednesday Addams in Barry Sonnenfeld's The Addams Family, based on the cartoon of the same name, she reprised the role for Addams Family Values. Both films were a commercial success, critics singled out Ricci's performances as highlights, her next project, the live-action adaptation of Casper, was her first in a lead role. The film received mixed reviews. Ricci at the time starred in the adventure film Gold Diggers: The Secret of Bear Mountain, as the younger version of Rosie O'Donnell's character, Roberta, in the coming-of-age drama Now and Then.
The latter is cited as the "female version" of Stand by Me, has gained a cult following since its release. She had a supporting role in Bastard out of Carolina, the directorial debut of Anjelica Huston, whom Ricci had worked with on the Addams Family films. In 1997, Ricci starred in the Disney remake of That Darn Cat, a moderate success at the box office; that year, she made a shift into "legitimate adult roles" with her portrayal of the troubled, sexually curious Wendy Hood in Ang Lee's critically acclaimed art film, The Ice Storm. The part was given to Natalie Portman, who pulled out when her parents decided that the role was too provocative. In his review for Rolling Stone, Peter Travers wrote, "The sight of the young stars fiddling with each other may shock'90s prudes, but Lee handles these moments with dry wit and compassion The adolescent members of the cast do their characters proud, with Ricci a particular standout, her wonderfully funny and touching performance, capturing the def
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Peter Henry Fonda is an American actor. He is the son of Henry Fonda, younger brother of Jane Fonda, father of Bridget and Justin Fonda. Fonda was a part of the counterculture of the 1960s, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for Easy Rider, the Academy Award for Best Actor for Ulee's Gold. For the latter, he won the Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Drama. Fonda won the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film for The Passion of Ayn Rand. Fonda was born in New York City, the only son of actor Henry Fonda and his wife Frances Ford Seymour, he and Jane had a maternal half-sister, Frances de Villers Brokaw, from their mother's first marriage. Their mother committed suicide in a mental hospital when Peter, her youngest, was ten, although he did not discover the circumstances or location of her death until he was 55 years old. On his eleventh birthday, he accidentally shot himself in the abdomen and nearly died.
He stayed for a few months for recovery. Years he referred to this incident while with John Lennon and George Harrison while taking LSD, he said, "I know what it's like to be dead." This inspired The Beatles' song "She Said She Said". Early on, Fonda studied acting in Omaha, his father's home town. While attending the University of Nebraska Omaha, Fonda joined the Omaha Community Playhouse, where many actors had begun their careers. Before he attended the University of Nebraska Omaha, Peter attended the Fay School in Southborough and was a member of the class of 1954, he matriculated to Westminster School, a Connecticut boarding school in Simsbury where he graduated in 1958. Fonda performed at the Cecilwood Theatre in New York in 1960. Fonda found work on Broadway and gained notice in Blood and Stanley Poole, written by James and William Goldman which ran for 84 performances in 1961. Fonda began guest starring on TV shows like Naked City, The New Breed, Wagon Train, The Defenders. Fonda's first film came when producer Ross Hunter was looking for a new male actor to romance Sandra Dee in Tammy and the Doctor.
Fonda was cast in what was a minor hit. He followed this with a support part in The Victors, a bleak look at American soldiers in World War Two, directed by Carl Foreman. Fonda's performance won him a Golden Globe Award for most promising newcomer. Fonda continued to work in television, guest starring in Channing and Trial, The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, 12 O'Clock High, he tested for the role of John F. Kennedy in PT-109. Fonda impressed Robert Rossen, he cast Fonda in what would be Rossen's last movie, alongside Warren Beatty, Jean Seberg and Gene Hackman. Fonda's performance was well reviewed. Rossen signed Fonda to a seven-film contract, to start with an adaptation of Bang the Drum Slowly but Rossen passed away. Fonda graduated to starring roles in The Young Lovers, about out-of-wedlock pregnancy, the sole directorial effort of Samuel Goldwyn Jr. and not popular. By the mid-1960s, Peter Fonda was not a conventional "leading man" in Hollywood; as Playboy magazine reported, Fonda had established a "solid reputation as a dropout".
He had become outwardly nonconformist and grew his hair long and took LSD alienating the "establishment" film industry. Desirable acting work became scarce. Through his friendships with members of the band Byrds, Fonda visited The Beatles in their rented house in Benedict Canyon in Los Angeles in August 1965. While John Lennon, Ringo Starr, George Harrison, Fonda were under the influence of LSD, Lennon heard Fonda say, "I know what it's like to be dead." Lennon used this phrase as the tag line for his song, "She Said She Said", included on the Revolver album. In 1966, Fonda was arrested in the Sunset Strip riot; the band Buffalo Springfield protested the department's handling of the incident in their song "For What It's Worth". Fonda did some singing and in 1968, recorded a 45 for the Chisa label: "November Night" b/w "Catch The Wind", produced by Hugh Masekela. Fonda's first counterculture-oriented film role was as a biker in Roger Corman's B-movie, The Wild Angels. Fonda was to support George Chakiris but graduated to the lead when Chakiris revealed he could not ride a motorcycle, Fonda helped name his character "Heavenly Blues", with Bruce Dern, Nancy Sinatra and Diane Ladd appearing in the film.
In the film, Fonda delivered a "eulogy" at a fallen Angel's funeral service. This was sampled by Psychic TV on their recording "Jack the TAB" LP, it was sampled in the Primal Scream recording "Loaded", in other rock songs. The movie was a massive hit at the box office, screened at the Venice Film Festival, launched the biker movie genre, established Fonda as a movie name. Fonda made a TV pilot, High Noon: The Clock Strikes Noon Again, filmed in December 1965, it was based on the film starring Gary Cooper with Fonda in the role. However it did not become a series. Fonda next played the male lead in Corman's popular film The Trip, a take on the experience and "consequences" of consuming LSD, written by Jack Nicholson, his co stars included Bruce Dern and Jack Nicholson. The movie was another big hit. Fonda travelled to France to appear in the portmanteau horror movie Spirits of the Dead, his segment co-starred Fo
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well