Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Slavery in the United States
Slavery had been practiced in British North America from early colonial days, and was legal in all Thirteen Colonies at the time of the Declaration of Independence in 1776. By the time of the American Revolution, the status of slave had been institutionalized as a racial caste associated with African ancestry, when the United States Constitution was ratified, a relatively small number of free people of color were among the voting citizens. During and immediately following the Revolutionary War, abolitionist laws were passed in most Northern states, most of these states had a higher proportion of free labor than in the South and economies based on different industries. They abolished slavery by the end of the 18th century, some with gradual systems that kept adults as slaves for two decades. But the rapid expansion of the industry in the Deep South after the invention of the cotton gin greatly increased demand for slave labor. Congress during the Jefferson administration prohibited the importation of slaves, effective in 1808, domestic slave trading, continued at a rapid pace, driven by labor demands from the development of cotton plantations in the Deep South.
More than one million slaves were sold from the Upper South, which had a surplus of labor, New communities of African-American culture were developed in the Deep South, and the total slave population in the South eventually reached 4 million before liberation. As the West was developed for settlement, the Southern state governments wanted to keep a balance between the number of slave and free states to maintain a balance of power in Congress. The new territories acquired from Britain and Mexico were the subject of major political compromises, by 1850, the newly rich cotton-growing South was threatening to secede from the Union, and tensions continued to rise. When Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 election on a platform of halting the expansion of slavery, the first six states to secede held the greatest number of slaves in the South. Shortly after, the Civil War began when Confederate forces attacked the US Armys Fort Sumter, four additional slave states seceded. In the early years of the Chesapeake Bay settlements, colonial officials found it difficult to attract and retain laborers under the frontier conditions.
Most laborers came from Britain as indentured servants, having signed contracts of indenture to pay with work for their passage, their upkeep and training and these indentured servants were young people who intended to become permanent residents. In some cases, convicted criminals were transported to the colonies as indentured servants, the indentured servants were not slaves, but were required to work for four to seven years in Virginia to pay the cost of their passage and maintenance. Historians estimate that more than half of all immigrants to the English colonies of North America during the 17th and 18th centuries came as indentured servants. The number of indentured servants among immigrants was particularly high in the South, many Germans, Scots-Irish, and Irish came to the colonies in the 18th century, settling in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and further south. The planters in the South found that the problem with indentured servants was that many left after several years, just when they had become skilled.
In addition, an economy in England in the late 17th
The term is applied to the abolitionists, both black and white and enslaved, who aided the fugitives. Various other routes led to Mexico or overseas, an earlier escape route running south toward Florida, a Spanish possession, existed from the late 17th century until shortly after the American Revolution. However, the now generally known as the Underground Railroad was formed in the late 1700s. One estimate suggests that by 1850,100,000 slaves had escaped via the Railroad, British North America, where slavery was prohibited, was a popular destination, as its long border gave many points of access. Most former slaves settled in Ontario, more than 30,000 people were said to have escaped there via the network during its 20-year peak period, although U. S. Census figures account for only 6,000. Numerous fugitives stories are documented in the 1872 book The Underground Railroad Records by William Still, the resulting economic impact was minuscule, but the psychological influence on slaveholders was immense.
With heavy lobbying by Southern politicians, the Compromise of 1850 was passed by Congress after the Mexican–American War, because the law required sparse documentation to claim a person was a fugitive, slave catchers kidnapped free blacks, especially children, and sold them into slavery. Southern politicians often exaggerated the number of escaped slaves and often blamed escapes on Northerners interfering with Southern property rights. The law deprived suspected slaves of the right to themselves in court. In a de facto bribe, judges were paid a fee for a decision that confirmed a suspect as a slave than for one ruling that the suspect was free. Many Northerners who might have ignored slave issues in the South were confronted by local challenges that bound them to support slavery. This was a primary grievance cited by the Union during the American Civil War, the escape network was not literally underground nor a railroad. It was figuratively underground in the sense of being an underground resistance and it was known as a railroad by way of the use of rail terminology in the code.
The Underground Railroad consisted of meeting points, secret routes and safe houses, escaped slaves would move north along the route from one way station to the next. Conductors on the railroad came from various backgrounds and included blacks, white abolitionists, former slaves. Without the presence and support of black residents, there would have been almost no chance for fugitive slaves to pass into freedom unmolested. To reduce the risk of infiltration, many associated with the Underground Railroad knew only their part of the operation. Conductors led or transported the fugitives from station to station, a conductor sometimes pretended to be a slave in order to enter a plantation
Native Americans in the United States
In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.
Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.
Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians
Manumission, from manumit /ˌmænjəˈmɪt/, is the act of a slave owner freeing his or her slaves. Different approaches developed, each specific to the time and place of a slave system. The motivations of slave owners in manumitting slaves were complex and varied, manumission may present itself as a sentimental and benevolent gesture. One typical scenario was the freeing in the masters will of a servant after long years of service. A trusted bailiff might be manumitted as a gesture of gratitude, for working as agricultural laborers or in workshops. Such feelings of benevolence may have been of value to slave owners themselves as it allowed them to focus on a component in the human traffic of slavery. In general, it was common for older slaves to be given freedom. Legislation under the early Roman Empire put limits on the number of slaves that could be freed in wills, freeing slaves could serve the pragmatic interests of the owner. The prospect of manumission worked as an incentive for slaves to be industrious, Roman slaves were paid a wage with which they could save up to, in effect, buy themselves.
Manumission contracts found in abundance at Delphi specify in detail the prerequisites for liberation. Manumission was not always charitable or altruistic, in one of the stories in the Arabian Nights, in the Sir Richard Francis Burton translation, a slave owner threatens to free his slave for lying to him. The slave says, thou shall not manumit me, for I have no handicraft whereby to gain my living, greek slaves were generally not permitted to become citizens on being manumitted, being merely allowed to remain as a metic. Even in freedom, the ex-slave could be bound to some continuing duty to the master and were required to live nearby the former master. Breaches of these conditions could lead to beatings, prosecution at law, sometimes extra payments were specified by which a freed slave could liberate himself from these residual duties. But ex-slaves were able to own property outright, and their children were free of all constraint, under Roman law, a slave had no personhood and was protected under law mainly as his or her masters property.
In ancient Rome, a slave who had been manumitted was a libertus, a freed slave customarily took his or her former owners family name, that is, the nomen of his or her masters gens. The former owner became his or her patron, as a client, the freed person retained certain obligations to his or her master, who in turn owed mutual favors. A freed slave could acquire multiple patrons, a freed slave became a citizen
Liberia /laɪˈbɪəriə/, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its west, Guinea to its north and it covers an area of 111,369 square kilometres and has a population of 4,503,000 people. English is the language and over 20 indigenous languages are spoken. The countrys capital and largest city is Monrovia, forests on the coastline are composed mostly of salt-tolerant mangrove trees, while the more sparsely populated inland has forests opening onto a plateau of drier grasslands. The climate is equatorial, with significant rainfall during the May–October rainy season, Liberia possesses about forty percent of the remaining Upper Guinean rainforest. It was an important producer of rubber in the early 20th century, the Republic of Liberia began as a settlement of the American Colonization Society, who believed African Americans would face better chances for freedom in Africa than in the United States. The country declared its independence on July 26,1847, the U. S.
did not recognize Liberias independence until during the American Civil War on February 5,1862. The African American settlers carried their culture with them to Liberia, Liberia maintained and kept its independence during the European colonial era. In addition, President William Tubman encouraged economic changes, Liberia was a founding member of the League of Nations, United Nations and the Organisation of African Unity. Five years of rule by the Peoples Redemption Council and five years of civilian rule by the National Democratic Party of Liberia were followed by the First. These resulted in the deaths and displacement of more than half a million people, a peace agreement in 2003 led to democratic elections in 2005. Recovery proceeds but about 85% of the population live below the poverty line. The Pepper Coast, known as the Grain Coast, has been inhabited by peoples of Africa at least as far back as the 12th century. Mende-speaking people expanded westward from the Sudan, forcing many smaller ethnic groups southward toward the Atlantic Ocean, the Dei, Kru and Kissi were some of the earliest documented peoples in the area.
This influx was compounded by the decline of the Western Sudanic Mali Empire in 1375, additionally, as inland regions underwent desertification, inhabitants moved to the wetter coast. These new inhabitants brought skills such as spinning, cloth weaving, iron smelting and sorghum cultivation. Shortly after the Mane conquered the region, the Vai people of the former Mali Empire immigrated into the Grand Cape Mount County region, the ethnic Kru opposed the influx of Vai, forming an alliance with the Mane to stop further influx of Vai. People along the coast built canoes and traded with other West Africans from Cap-Vert to the Gold Coast, arab traders entered the region from the north, and a long-established slave trade took captives to north and east Africa
Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O. It is widely mined and is used as a fertilizer, and as the constituent in many forms of plaster, blackboard chalk. Mohs scale of hardness, based on scratch Hardness comparison. It forms as a mineral and as a hydration product of anhydrite. The word gypsum is derived from the Greek word γύψος, because the quarries of the Montmartre district of Paris have long furnished burnt gypsum used for various purposes, this dehydrated gypsum became known as plaster of Paris. Upon addition of water, after a few tens of minutes plaster of Paris becomes regular gypsum again, causing the material to harden or set in ways that are useful for casting, Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān, spear stone, referring to its crystalline projections. Gypsum may act as a source of sulfur for plant growth, which was discovered by J. M. Mayer, american farmers were so anxious to acquire it that a lively smuggling trade with Nova Scotia evolved, resulting in the so-called Plaster War of 1820.
In the 19th century, it was known as lime sulfate or sulfate of lime. Gypsum is moderately water-soluble and, in contrast to most other salts, it exhibits retrograde solubility, when gypsum is heated in air it loses water and converts first to calcium sulfate hemihydrate, and, if heated further, to anhydrous calcium sulfate. As for anhydrite, its solubility in saline solutions and in brines is dependent on NaCl concentration. Gypsum crystals are found to contain water and hydrogen bonding. Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals, and transparent, selenite contains no significant selenium, both substances were named for the ancient Greek word for the Moon. Selenite may occur in a silky, fibrous form, in case it is commonly called satin spar. Finally, it may be granular or quite compact, in hand-sized samples, it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. A very fine-grained white or lightly tinted variety of gypsum, called alabaster, is prized for ornamental work of various sorts, in arid areas, gypsum can occur in a flower-like form, typically opaque, with embedded sand grains called desert rose.
It forms some of the largest crystals found in nature, up to 12 m long, Gypsum is a common mineral, with thick and extensive evaporite beds in association with sedimentary rocks. Deposits are known to occur in strata from as far back as the Archaean eon, Gypsum is deposited from lake and sea water, as well as in hot springs, from volcanic vapors, and sulfate solutions in veins. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins is commonly hydrated to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures and it is often associated with the minerals halite and sulfur
Nathaniel Parker Willis
Nathaniel Parker Willis, known as N. P. Willis, was an American author and editor who worked with several notable American writers including Edgar Allan Poe and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. He became the highest-paid magazine writer of his day, for a time, he was the employer of former slave and future writer Harriet Jacobs. His brother was the composer Richard Storrs Willis and his sister Sara wrote under the name Fanny Fern, born in Portland, Willis came from a family of publishers. His grandfather Nathaniel Willis owned newspapers in Massachusetts and Virginia, and his father Nathaniel Willis was the founder of Youths Companion, Willis developed an interest in literature while attending Yale College and began publishing poetry. After graduation, he worked as a correspondent for the New York Mirror. He eventually moved to New York and began to build his literary reputation, working with multiple publications, he was earning about $100 per article and between $5,000 and $10,000 per year. In 1846, he started his own publication, the Home Journal, shortly after, Willis moved to a home on the Hudson River where he lived a semi-retired life until his death in 1867.
Willis embedded his own personality into his writing and addressed his readers personally, specifically in his travel writings, including his sister in her novel Ruth Hall, occasionally described him as being effeminate and Europeanized. Willis published poems, and a play. Despite his intense popularity for a time, at his death Willis was nearly forgotten, Nathaniel Parker Willis was born on January 20,1806, in Portland, Maine. His father Nathaniel Willis was a newspaper proprietor there and his grandfather owned newspapers in Boston and his mother was Hannah Willis from Holliston, Massachusetts and it was her husbands offer to edit the Eastern Argus in Maine that caused their move to Portland. Williss younger sister was Sara Willis Parton, who would become a writer under the pseudonym Fanny Fern. His brother, Richard Storrs Willis, became a musician and music journalist known for writing the melody for It Came Upon the Midnight Clear and his other siblings were Lucy Douglas, Louisa Harris, Julia Dean, Mary Perry, Edward Payson, and Ellen Holmes.
In 1816, the moved to Boston, where Williss father established the Boston Recorder and, nine years later, the Youths Companion. The elder Williss emphasis on religious themes earned him the nickname Deacon Willis, after attending a Boston grammar school and Phillips Academy at Andover, Nathaniel Parker Willis entered Yale College in October 1823 where he roomed with Horace Bushnell. Willis credited Bushnell with teaching him the technique for sharpening a razor by drawing it from heel to point both ways. The two cross frictions correct each other, at Yale, he further developed an interest in literature, often neglecting his other studies. He graduated in 1827 and spent time touring parts of the United States, in Montreal, he met Chester Harding, with whom he would become a lifelong friend
A slouch hat is a wide-brimmed felt or cloth hat most commonly worn as part of a military uniform, although not always, with a chinstrap. Australia has had a hat as standard issue headwear since the late Victorian era. Today it is worn by personnel from a number of countries, although it is primarily associated with Australia. In the United States it was called the Kossuth hat. During the American Civil War the headgear was common among both Confederate and Union troops in the Western Theater, although not always with its brim turned up at the side. During the Spanish–American War, as commander of the Rough Riders, the name slouch hat refers to the fact that one side droops down as opposed to the other which is pinned against the side of the crown. It was introduced into Australia around 1885, although it traces its military use back to Austrian skirmishers, the modern slouch hat is derived from the black Corsican hat – historically used in the Austrian army during the Napoleonic Wars. The headwear saw primary use by 15 battalions of Austrian Jägers and it featured an upturned brim, leather chinstrap, the regular infantry saw limited use of the Corsican hat from years 1803–06 and 1811–36.
The slouch hat in gray felt was worn by the Schutztruppe, different coloured puggarees were worn by the Germans in South West Africa, German East Africa, German West Africa, German New Guinea and China. The hat had its brim pinned up on the side with a cockade in the national colors and was worn with the home uniform as well. German colonial police units in South West Africa wore a khaki hat with a small national cockade on the front. This slouch hat is worn by the Australian military today. A Unit Colour Patch is worn by members of the Australian Army on their hat to indicate which unit they are from. The 2nd Gurkha Rifles became the first Gurkha regiment to adopt the slouch hat when they were issued with the Australian variant in 1901. The Gurkha terai hat is created by fusing two hats into one to make the hat more rigid and is worn at an angle, tilted to the right. The Chindits and other units of Field Marshal William Slims British Fourteenth Army, on 22 December 1890, the military commanders of the separate Australian Colonies prior to the Federation of Australia met to discuss the introduction of the khaki uniform throughout Australia.
They agreed that all Australian Forces with the exception of the Artillery would wear the slouch hat and it was to be looped up on one side—Victoria and Tasmania on the right and the other colonies on the left. This was done so that rifles could be held at the slope without damaging the brim, after Federation, the slouch hat became standard Australian Army headgear in 1903 and since it has developed into an important national symbol
Cavefish or cave fish, known as hypogean fish, is a generic term for freshwater fish adapted to life in caves. Being aquatic, they are a part of the group known as stygofauna. The approximately 170 species of cavefish are found in all continents, although widespread as a group, many cavefish species have very small ranges and are seriously threatened. Cavefish are members of a range of families and do not form a monophyletic group. Typical adaptions found in cavefish are reduced eyes and pigmentation, many aboveground fish may enter caves on occasion, but obligate cavefish are extremophiles with a number of unusual adaptions known as troglomorphism. In five species, the Mexican tetra, shortfin molly, Oman garra, Aspidoras albater and Pterocryptis bucccata, living in darkness and eyes are useless and typically reduced in cavefish. Other examples are a loss of scales, swim bladder and behaviors such as types of display. The loss can be complete or only partial, for example resulting in small eyes, in some cases, blind cavefish may still be able to see, juvenile Mexican tetras of the cave form are able to sense light via certain cells in the pineal gland.
In the most extreme cases, the lack of light has changed the rhythm of the cavefish. In the Mexican tetra of the form and in Phreatichthys andruzzii the circadian rhythm lasts 30 hours and 47 hours. This may help them to save energy, without sight, other senses are used and these may be enhanced. Examples include the line for sensing vibrations, electroreception. Cavefish are quite small with few species surpassing 15 cm in length, at up to 40 cm, the blind cave eel is the longest known cavefish. Some deep sea and deep river fish have similar to the cavefish, including reduced eyes. Although the approximately 170 obligate cavefish species are found in most continents, there are strong geographic patterns, cavefish are strongly linked to regions with karst, which commonly result in underground sinkholes and subterranean rivers. With almost 100 species, by far the greatest diversity is in Asia, in contrast, only 9 species are known from Africa and 5 from Oceania. Europe has stygofauna, and in 2017 a cave loach was discovered by divers in a cave labyrinth called the Danube-Aach System in southern Germany.
On a country level, China has the greatest diversity, followed by Brazil, Mexico, United States of America, no other country has more than 4 cavefish species
Historic Locust Grove
Historic Locust Grove is a 55-acre 18th-century farm site and National Historic Landmark situated in eastern Jefferson County, Kentucky. The site is owned by the Louisville Metro government, and operated as an interpretive site by Historic Locust Grove. The main feature on the property is the ca.1790 Georgian mansion that was the home of the Croghan family and gathering place for George Rogers Clark and Clark, and U. S. Presidents. In addition to the mansion there is the Visitors Center that houses a shop, museum. The site was founded in 1790 by William Croghan and his wife Lucy Clark Croghan, Lucy was the sister of the younger William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition and the older George Rogers Clark, former surveying partner of William Croghan. Locust Grove became the only still in existence west of the Appalachian Mountains to have sheltered Lewis. In the Fall of 2006, Locust Grove commemorated the 200th anniversary of Lewis, George Rogers Clark lived at the site in the final years of his life, from 1809 to 1818.
The property was adjacent to Springfield, the home of Colonel Richard Taylor and his son, following the death of William Croghan, the estate passed to John C. Croghan, notable for his purchase of Mammoth Cave in 1838, in the winter of 1844, the farm was the site of the efforts of African-American slave Stephen Bishop to produce a map of Mammoth Cave. The resulting map was published in 1845, and remained the most complete and accurate map of the period until modern survey techniques were applied in 1908 and it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1986