The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Sciences Po Lille
Sciences Po Lille - Institut d'études politiques de Lille referred to as Sciences Po Lille, is located in Lille, France and is part of the Conférence des Grandes Écoles. It was created as one of the French Institutes of Political Studies; the school's focus is on educating France's political and diplomatic personnel, but its academic focus spans not only the political and economic sciences, but law, finance, urban policy and journalism. Sciences Po Lille was created by decree in 1991; as all IEP, it aims to give its students training in the civil service, but it specialises in European and International studies. The institute has an agreement with the renowned school of Journalism Ecole Supérieure de Journalisme de Lille, it proposes selective dual degrees with universities in Spain and Germany. The curriculum at the IEP is at the crossroads of law, economics, political science and sociology. Students spend one year abroad. Entrance to the IEP can be achieved through selective exams. At the time of its establishment in 1991, Sciences Po Lille was located in the premises of the École Supérieure de Journalisme de Lille, 50 rue Gauthier de Châtillon.
Built in the 19th century, the building was located in the quartier latin of Lille, which used to be where all Lille's universities were located. The building turned out to be too small for both schools. Thus, in 1996, in order to keep growing, Sciences Po Lille moved into a bigger building, this time located in a working-class district called Moulins; the choice of this district was political. The municipality of Lille wished to enhance social diversity in the neighbourhood. Sciences Po Lille's students being from high income and educational backgrounds, its presence in the Moulins district was seen as a way to reinvigorate this southern part of Lille. Sciences Po Lille's new address became 84 rue de Trévise, near the metro station Porte de Valenciennes; the building is a former factory made of red bricks. To cope with the quick development of the school, a new relocation took place in January, 2017. Sciences Po Lille came back to its original area and established its campus rue Auguste-Angelier in the old quartier Latin of Lille.
This building of downtown Lille is 8200 square meters. It provides 40 rooms and a 1500 square meter library. Sciences Po Lille is one of the most selective French écoles. Students wishing to attend Sciences Po Lille must pass selective and competitive entrance exams composed of a general knowledge test, an history test, a language test; the rate of admission is, as with all Grandes écoles low: between 5 and 15% of candidates are admitted. There are two admission procedures for the Undergraduate Program; the two of them are collectively organized by Sciences Po Lille and six other Sciences Po: the "Concours Commun 1ere année". More than 10,000 high schoolers take this exam each year, only 1000 of them are admitted to one of the 7 Sciences Po of Lille, Aix-en-Provence, Rennes, Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Toulouse. Among them, 150 successful candidates get into Sciences Po Lille; the "Concours Filières Intégrées". This exam is organized to select the future students of the dual degrees with the university of Salamanca, the university of Kent and the university of Münster.
They consist of a written test in Contemporary Questions and a Language test. After which there is an oral test in the language of the program, where only half of the selected students will be chosen to go through; the "Concours Commun 2e année" Admission procedures for Graduate Programs: Procedure for French students. The selection process is done through an exam. About 60 students per year enroll directly in one of Sciences Po Lille's Master's programs without having attended the undergraduate program. International Graduate Admissions Procedure. Admission is based on the holistic assessment of each candidate's academic and professional background. International applicants are required to submit the following documents: a cover letter, two recommendation letters, a resume written in French, the copy of the applicant's academic degree, the student's academic record of the last three years prior to the application, a French Language Certificate. Special Entrance Exam for Chinese Applicants; this exam gives access to a limited number of Master's programs (Corporate and Government Communication.
The exam takes place in January in Shanghai. In order to be eligible for this exam, candidates must have a bachelor's degree, a B2 level in French language, a 90 TOEFL IBT/750 TOEIC/6 IELTS score; the exam is structured in two phases: a 4-hour written exam on a current political issue dealing with the world economy and international relations. Tuitions are based on the income of the student's family, they range from 0 euro to 3.200 euros a year. To tuition must be added health insurance, which costs about 200 euros for the full year. Sciences Po Lille's Master's programs a
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history; the university secularized, by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education. Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, enables students to design specialized concentrations or engage in dual degree programs. Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, the Tuck School of Business, the Guarini School of Graduate and Advanced Studies.
The university has affiliations with the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute for Public Policy, the Hopkins Center for the Arts. With a student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.9% for the Class of 2023. Situated on a terrace above the Connecticut River, Dartmouth's 269-acre main campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England; the university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its undergraduate focus, strong Greek culture, wide array of enduring campus traditions, its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I. Dartmouth is included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings, has been cited as a leading university for undergraduate teaching and research by U. S. News & World Report.
In 2018, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate," "arts-and-sciences focused," "doctoral university" in the country that has "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity." In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouth graduates ranked 41st in terms of the most sought-after and valued in the world. The university has produced many prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U. S. Senate and the U. S. House of Representatives, 24 U. S. governors, 10 billionaire alumni, 10 U. S. Cabinet secretaries, 3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 U. S. Supreme Court justices, a U. S. vice president. Other notable alumni include 79 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, numerous MacArthur Genius fellows, Fulbright Scholars, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 corporations, high-ranking U. S. diplomats, scholars in academia and media figures, professional athletes, Olympic medalists. Dartmouth was founded by Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister from Columbia, who had sought to establish a school to train Native Americans as Christian missionaries.
Wheelock's ostensible inspiration for such an establishment resulted from his relationship with Mohegan Indian Samson Occom. Occom became an ordained minister after studying under Wheelock from 1743 to 1747, moved to Long Island to preach to the Montauks. Wheelock founded Moor's Indian Charity School in 1755; the Charity School proved somewhat successful, but additional funding was necessary to continue school's operations, Wheelock sought the help of friends to raise money. The first major donation to the school was given by Dr. John Phillips in 1762, who would go on to found Phillips Exeter Academy. Occom, accompanied by the Reverend Nathaniel Whitaker, traveled to England in 1766 to raise money from churches. With these funds, they established a trust to help Wheelock; the head of the trust was a Methodist named William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth. Although the fund provided Wheelock ample financial support for the Charity School, Wheelock had trouble recruiting Indians to the institution because its location was far from tribal territories.
In seeking to expand the school into a college, Wheelock relocated it to Hanover, in the Province of New Hampshire. The move from Connecticut followed a lengthy and sometimes frustrating effort to find resources and secure a charter; the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, John Wentworth, provided the land upon which Dartmouth would be built and on December 13, 1769, issued a royal charter in the name of King George III establishing the College. That charter created a college "for the education and instruction of Youth of the Indian Tribes in this Land in reading, writing & all parts of Learning which shall appear necessary and expedient for civilizing & christianizing Children of Pagans as well as in all liberal Arts and Sciences and of English Youth and any others." The reference to educating Native American youth was included to connect Dartmouth to the Charity School and enable use of the Charity School's unspent trust funds. Named for William Legge, 2nd Earl of Dartmouth—an important supporter of Eleazar Wheelock's earlier efforts but who, in fact, opposed creation of the College and never donated to it—Dartmouth is the nation's ninth oldest college and the last institution of higher learning established under Colonial rule.
The College granted its first degrees in 1771. Given the limited success of the Charity School, Wheelock intended his ne
The Grandes Écoles of France are higher education establishments that are outside the main framework of the French public university system. The Grandes Écoles are selective and prestigious institutions. Most Grandes Écoles select students for admission as graduates of bachelor degree programs, while others select students at the third year of undergraduate-level study, based chiefly on the student's national ranking in competitive written and oral exams. Candidates for the national exams have completed two years of dedicated preparatory classes for admission. Grandes écoles differ from public universities in France, which have a legal obligation to accept in the first year of undergraduate studies all candidates of the region who hold a corresponding baccalauréat.. Grande écoles do not have large student bodies: most give admission to few hundred students each year. Arts et Métiers ParisTech has the largest student population, with 6,000 students. Studying in some grandes écoles after passing the competitive exams is considered part of public service.
Students pay low or no fees, are paid monthly stipends by some institutions. They are committed to ten years of public service; the business schools charge higher fees. Economically disadvantaged students in grandes écoles may have access to grants and subsidies, just as they would at a public university; the phrase'Grande École' originated in 1794 after the French Revolution, when the National Convention created the École normale supérieure, the mathematician Gaspard Monge and Lazare Carnot created the École centrale des travaux publics and the abbot Henri Grégoire created the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. The model was the military academy at Mézières, of which Monge was an alumnus; the system of competitive entry was a means to open up higher education to more candidates based on merit. Some schools included in the category have roots in the 17th and 18th century and are older than the phrase'Grande École', dated 1794, their forerunners were schools aimed at graduating civil servants, such as technical officers, mine supervisors and road engineers, shipbuilding engineers.
Five military engineering academies and graduate schools of artillery were established in the 17th century in France, such as the école de l'artillerie de Douai and the école du génie de Mézières, wherein mathematics and sciences were a major part of the curriculum taught by first-rank scientists such as Pierre-Simon Laplace, Charles Étienne Louis Camus, Étienne Bézout, Sylvestre-François Lacroix, Siméon Denis Poisson, Gaspard Monge. In 1802 Napoleon created the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint Cyr, considered a Grande École, although it trains only army officers. During the 19th century, a number of higher education Grandes écoles were established to support industry and commerce, such as École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne in 1816, Ecole Supérieure de Commerce de Paris, L'institut des sciences et industries du vivant et de l'environnement in 1826, École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in 1829. Between 1832 and 1870, the Central School of Arts and Manufactures produced 3,000 engineers, served as a model for most of the industrialized countries.
Until 1864, a quarter of its students came from abroad. Conversely, the quality of French technicians astonished southeastern Europe, the Near East, Belgium; the system of grandes écoles expanded, enriched in 1826 by the Ecole des Eaux et Forêts at Nancy, the Ecole des Arts Industriels at Lille in 1854, the Ecole Centrale Lyonnaise in 1857, the National Institute of Agronomy, reconstituted in 1876 after a fruitless attempt between 1848 and 1855. The training of the lower grades of staff, who might today be called ‘production engineers’, was assured to an greater extent by the development of Ecoles d’Arts et métiers, of which the first was established at Châlons-sur-Marne in 1806 and the second at Angers in 1811, with a third at Aix-en-Provence in 1841; each had room for 300 pupils. There is no doubt that in the 1860s France had the best system of higher technical and scientific education in Europe. During the latter part of the 19th century and in the 20th century, more Grandes écoles were established for education in businesses as well as newer fields of science and technology, including Rouen Business School in 1871, Sciences Po Paris in 1872, École nationale supérieure des télécommunications, Hautes Études Commerciales, Ecole Supérieure des Sciences Economiques et Commerciales École supérieure d'électricité and Supaero.
Since France has had a unique dual higher education system, with small and middle-sized specialized graduate schools operating alongside the traditional university system. Some fields of study are nearly exclusive to one part of this dual system, such as medicine in universités only, o
University of California, Santa Cruz
The University of California, Santa Cruz is a public research university in Santa Cruz, California. It is one of 10 campuses in the University of California system. Located 75 miles south of San Francisco at the edge of the coastal community of Santa Cruz, the campus lies on 2,001 acres of rolling, forested hills overlooking the Pacific Ocean and Monterey Bay. Founded in 1965, UC Santa Cruz began as a showcase for progressive, cross-disciplinary undergraduate education, innovative teaching methods and contemporary architecture. While still retaining its reputation for strong undergraduate support and student political activism, it has since evolved into a modern research university with a wide variety of both undergraduate and graduate programs; the residential college system, which consists of ten small colleges, is intended to combine the student support of a small college with the resources of a major university. Although some of the original founders had outlined plans for an institution like UCSC as early as the 1930s, the opportunity to realize their vision did not present itself until the City of Santa Cruz made a bid to the University of California Regents in the mid-1950s to build a campus just outside town, in the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains.
The Santa Cruz site was selected over a competing proposal to build the campus closer to the population center of San Jose. Santa Cruz was selected for the beauty, rather than the practicality, of its location and its remoteness led to the decision to develop a residential college system that would house most of the students on-campus; the formal design process of the Santa Cruz campus began in the late 1950s, culminating in the Long Range Development Plan of 1963. Construction had started by 1964, the university was able to accommodate its first students in 1965; the campus was intended to be a showcase for contemporary architecture, progressive teaching methods, undergraduate research. According to founding chancellor Dean McHenry, the purpose of the distributed college system was to combine the benefits of a major research university with the intimacy of a smaller college. UC President Clark Kerr shared a passion with former Stanford roommate McHenry to build a university modeled as "several Swarthmores" in close proximity to each other.
Roads on campus were named after UC Regents. Although the city of Santa Cruz exhibited a strong conservation ethic before the founding of the university, the coincidental rise of the counterculture of the 1960s with the university's establishment fundamentally altered its subsequent development. Early student and faculty activism at UCSC pioneered an approach to environmentalism that impacted the industrial development of the surrounding area; the lowering of the voting age to 18 in 1971 led to the emergence of a powerful student-voting bloc. A large and growing population of politically liberal UCSC alumni changed the electorate of the town from predominantly Republican to markedly left-leaning voting against expansion measures on the part of both town and gown. Plans for increasing enrollment to 19,500 students and adding 1,500 faculty and staff by 2020, the anticipated environmental impacts of such action, encountered opposition from the city, the local community, the student body. City voters in 2006 passed two measures calling on UCSC to pay for the impacts of campus growth.
A Santa Cruz Superior Court judge invalidated the measures, ruling they were improperly put on the ballot. In 2008, the university, city and neighborhood organizations reached an agreement to set aside numerous lawsuits and allow the expansion to occur. UCSC agreed to local government scrutiny of its north campus expansion plans, to provide housing for 67 percent of the additional students on campus, to pay municipal development and water fees. George Blumenthal, UCSC's 10th Chancellor, intends to mitigate growth constraints in Santa Cruz by developing off-campus sites in Silicon Valley; the NASA Ames Research Center campus is planned to hold 2,000 UCSC students – about 10% of the entire university's future student body as envisioned for 2020. In April 2010, UC Santa Cruz opened its new $35 million Digital Arts Research Center; the $72 million Coastal Biology Building opened on 21 October 2017 on the Coastal Science Campus. The new campus houses the Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Department and faculty interested in the study of ocean and freshwater environments, marine sciences and evolution, plant sciences.
UC Santa Cruz is extending its environmental leadership in coastal science with a robust new program that will welcome its first cohort of students in Fall 2018. The Graduate Program in Coastal Science and Policy will train advocates and develop government and community responses to pressing sustainability issues; the 2,000-acre UCSC campus is located 75 miles south of San Francisco, in the Ben Lomond Mountain ridge of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Elevation varies from 285 feet at the campus entrance to 1,195 feet at the northern boundary, a difference of about 900 feet; the southern portion of the campus consists of a large, open meadow, locally known as the Great Meadow. To the north of the meadow lie most of the campus' buildings, many of them among redwood groves; the campus is bounded on the south by the city's upper-west-side neighborhoods, on the east by Harvey West Park and the Pogonip open space preserve, on the north by Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park near the town of Felton, on the west by Gray
Gilford John Ikenberry is a theorist of international relations and United States foreign policy, a professor of Politics and International Affairs in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. After receiving his BA from Manchester University and his PhD from the University of Chicago in 1985, Ikenberry became an assistant professor at Princeton, where he remained until 1992, he moved to the University of Pennsylvania, where he taught from 1993 to 1999, serving as co-director of the Lauder Institute from 1994 to 1998, while since 1996 he has been Visiting Professor at the Catholic University of Milan in Italy. In 2001, he moved to Georgetown University, becoming the Peter F. Krogh Professor of Geopolitics and Global Justice in the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service, he returned to Princeton in 2004, recruited by Dean Anne-Marie Slaughter, becoming the Albert G. Milbank Professor of Politics and International Affairs in the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs there.
Ikenberry is a Global Eminence Scholar at Kyung Hee University in Seoul, Korea. In 2013-2014 Ikenberry was the 72nd Eastman Visiting Professor at Oxford. Ikenberry served on the State Department's Policy Planning staff from 1991 to 1992, he was a Senior Associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace from 1992 to 1993, a Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars from 1998 to 1999, a non-resident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution from 1997 to 2002. He has worked for several projects of the Council on Foreign Relations. Ikenberry is known for vehement criticism of what he described as the "neoimperial grand strategy" of the United States under the Bush administration, his critique is a pragmatic one, arguing not that the U. S. should eschew imperialism as a matter of principle, but rather, that it is not in a position to succeed at an imperial project. He contends that such a strategy, rather than enabling a successful War on Terrorism and preserving international peace, will end up alienating American allies, weakening international institutions, provoking violent blowback, including terrorism, internationally, as well as being politically unsustainable domestically.
Instead, in his article "The Rise of China and the Future of the West", Foreign Affairs, Ikenberry suggests strengthening and re-investing in the existing institutions and rules of U. S.-led western order. He argues that the first thing that U. S. must do is to reestablish itself as a foremost supporter of the global system that underpins the Western order. In this view, when other countries see the U. S. using its power to strengthen the existing rules and institutions, US authority will be strengthened because they will become more inclined to work in collaboration with U. S. power. Secondly, the U. S. should update the key post-war security pacts, such as NATO and Washington’s East Asian alliances. When the U. S. provides security, the U. S. allies, in return, will operate within the western order. Thirdly, the U. S. should renew its support for wide-ranging multilateral institutions. Economically speaking, building on the agreements of the WTO, concluding the current Doha Round of trade talks that seek to extend market opportunities and trade liberalization to developing countries are possible examples.
Fourthly, the U. S. should make sure that the order is all-encompassing, meaning there shouldn’t be any space left for other rising countries to build up their own “minilateral” order. Lastly, U. S. must support efforts to integrate rising developing countries into key global institutions. Less formal bodies, like G-20 and various other intergovernmental networks, can provide alternative avenues for voice and representation. In After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, the Rebuilding of Order after Major Wars, Ikenberry explores how the United States utilized its hegemony after both World Wars to shape future world order. In both cases, the U. S. attempted to institutionalize its power through the creation of a constitutional order, by which political order was organized around agreed-upon legal and political institutions that operate to allocate rights and limit the exercise of power. In the process, the United States agreed to "tame" its power by placing it within institutions and the set of rules and rights with which this came.
One of the advantages for the United States in doing so was locking itself into a guaranteed position for years to come. In the event that its power waned in the future, the institutional framework it created would nonetheless remain intact. Following World War 1, the distribution of power was skewed towards the United States. President Woodrow Wilson possessed the power to set the terms of peace, the manner in which the post-war order was constructed, he sought to do so through a model based on upholding collective security and sparking a democratic revolution across the European continent based on American ideals. Great Britain and France were worried about America's preponderance of power, sought to tie the United States to the continent. Both sides attempted to meet at a middle ground, with European nations gaining security and financial considerations while the United States would institutionalize its power through the League of Nations and maintain its presence on the continent for decades to come.
Woodrow Wilson's envisioned order encountered major obstacles, including the failure of the United States to join the League of Nations. Furthermore, the imposition of war guilt and stiff penalties on Germany through the terms set by the Treaty of Versailles set in place conditions favorable for Hitler to rise to power. Compared to the end of the first World War, the United States was mo
International relations or international affairs — also referred to as international studies, global studies, or global affairs — is the study of interconnectedness of politics and law on a global level. Depending on the academic institution, it is either a field of political science, an interdisciplinary academic field similar to global studies, or an independent academic discipline in which students take a variety of internationally focused courses in social science and humanities disciplines. In all cases, the field studies relationships between political entities such as sovereign states, inter-governmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, other non-governmental organizations, multinational corporations, the wider world-systems produced by this interaction. International relations is an academic and a public policy field, so can be positive and normative, because it analyses and formulates the foreign policy of a given state; as political activity, international relations dates from the time of the Greek historian Thucydides, and, in the early 20th century, became a discrete academic field within political science.
In practice, international relations and international affairs forms a separate academic program or field from political science, the courses taught therein are interdisciplinary. For example, international relations draws from the fields of politics, international law, communication studies, demography, sociology, criminology and gender studies; the scope of international relations encompasses issues such as globalization, diplomatic relations, state sovereignty, international security, ecological sustainability, nuclear proliferation, economic development, global finance and human rights. The history of international relations can be traced back to thousands of years ago; the history of international relations based on sovereign states and many more types are traced back to the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, a stepping stone in the development of the modern state system. Prior to this the European medieval organization of political authority was based on a vaguely hierarchical religious order.
Contrary to popular belief, Westphalia still embodied layered systems of sovereignty within the Holy Roman Empire. More than the Peace of Westphalia, the Treaty of Utrecht of 1713 is thought to reflect an emerging norm that sovereigns had no internal equals within a defined territory and no external superiors as the ultimate authority within the territory's sovereign borders; the centuries of 1500 to 1789 saw the rise of the independent, sovereign states, the institutionalization of diplomacy and armies. The French Revolution added to this the new idea that not princes or an oligarchy, but the citizenry of a state, defined as the nation, should be defined as sovereign; such a state in which the nation is sovereign would thence be termed a nation-state. The term republic became its synonym. An alternative model of the nation-state was developed in reaction to the French republican concept by the Germans and others, who instead of giving the citizenry sovereignty, kept the princes and nobility, but defined nation-statehood in ethnic-linguistic terms, establishing the if fulfilled ideal that all people speaking one language should belong to one state only.
The same claim to sovereignty was made for both forms of nation-state. The particular European system supposing the sovereign equality of states was exported to the Americas and Asia via colonialism and the "standards of civilization"; the contemporary international system was established through decolonization during the Cold War. However, this is somewhat over-simplified. While the nation-state system is considered "modern", many states have not incorporated the system and are termed "pre-modern". Further, a handful of states have moved beyond insistence on full sovereignty, can be considered "post-modern"; the ability of contemporary IR discourse to explain the relations of these different types of states is disputed. "Levels of analysis" is a way of looking at the international system, which includes the individual level, the domestic state as a unit, the international level of transnational and intergovernmental affairs, the global level. What is explicitly recognized as international relations theory was not developed until after World War I, is dealt with in more detail below.
IR theory, has a long tradition of drawing on the work of other social sciences. The use of capitalizations of the "I" and "R" in international relations aims to distinguish the academic discipline of international relations from the phenomena of international relations. Many cite Sun Tzu's The Art of War, Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, Chanakya's Arthashastra, as the inspiration for realist theory, with Hobbes' Leviathan and Machiavelli's The Prince providing further elaboration. Liberalism draws upon the work of Kant and Rousseau, with the work of the former being cited as the first elaboration of democratic peace theory. Though contemporary human rights is different from the type of rights envisioned under natural