Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
University of London
The University of London is a collegiate federal research university located in London, England. As of October 2018, the university contains 18 member institutions, central academic bodies and research institutes; the university has over 52,000 distance learning external students and 161,270 campus-based internal students, making it the largest university by number of students in the United Kingdom. The university was established by royal charter in 1836, as a degree-awarding examination board for students holding certificates from University College London and King's College London and "other such other Institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as shall be established for the purpose of Education, whether within the Metropolis or elsewhere within our United Kingdom", allowing it to be one of three institutions to claim the title of the third-oldest university in England, moved to a federal structure in 1900, it is now incorporated by its fourth royal charter and governed by the University of London Act 1994.
It was the first university in the United Kingdom to introduce examinations for women in 1869 and, a decade the first to admit women to degrees. In 1948 it became the first British university to appoint a woman as its vice chancellor; the university's colleges house the oldest teaching hospitals in England. For most practical purposes, ranging from admissions to funding, the constituent colleges operate on an independent basis, with many awarding their own degrees whilst remaining in the federal university; the largest colleges by enrolment as of 2016/17 are UCL, King's College London, Queen Mary, the London School of Economics, Royal Holloway, Goldsmiths, each of which has over 9,000 students. Smaller, more specialist, colleges are the School of Oriental and African Studies, St George's, the Royal Veterinary College, London Business School, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the Royal Central School of Speech and Drama, the Royal Academy of Music, the Courtauld Institute of Art, the Institute of Cancer Research.
Imperial College London was a member from 1907 before it became an independent university in 2007, Heythrop College was a member from 1970 until its closure in 2018. City is the most recent constituent college, having joined on 1 September 2016; as of 2015, there are around 2 million University of London alumni across the world, including 12 monarchs or royalty, 52 presidents or prime ministers, 84 Nobel laureates, 6 Grammy winners, 2 Oscar winners, 3 Olympic gold medalists and the "Father of the Nation" of several countries. University College London was founded under the name “London University” in 1826 as a secular alternative to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which limited their degrees to members of the established Church of England; as a result of the controversy surrounding UCL's establishment, King's College London was founded as an Anglican college by royal charter in 1829. In 1830, UCL applied for a royal charter as a university; this was rejected, but renewed in 1834. In response to this, opposition to "exclusive" rights grew among the London medical schools.
The idea of a general degree awarding body for the schools was discussed in the medical press. And in evidence taken by the Select Committee on Medical Education. However, the blocking of a bill to open up Oxford and Cambridge degrees to dissenters led to renewed pressure on the Government to grant degree awarding powers to an institution that would not apply religious tests as the degrees of the new University of Durham were to be closed to non-Anglicans. In 1835, the government announced the response to UCL's petition for a charter. Two charters would be issued, one to UCL incorporating it as a college rather than a university, without degree awarding powers, a second "establishing a Metropolitan University, with power to grant academical degrees to those who should study at the London University College, or at any similar institution which his Majesty might please hereafter to name". Following the issuing of its charter on 28 November 1836, the new University of London started drawing up regulations for degrees in March 1837.
The death of William IV in June, resulted in a problem – the charter had been granted "during our Royal will and pleasure", meaning it was annulled by the king's death. Queen Victoria issued a second charter on 5 December 1837; the university awarded its first degrees in 1839, all to King's College. The university established by the charters of 1836 and 1837 was an examining board with the right to award degrees in arts and medicine. However, the university did not have the authority to grant degrees in theology, considered the senior faculty in the other three English universities. In medicine, the university was given the right to determine which medical schools provided sufficient medical training. In arts and law, by contrast, it would examine students from UCL, King's College, or any other school or college granted a royal warrant giving the government control of which colleges could affiliate to the university. Beyond the right to submit students for examination, there was no other connection between the affiliated colleges and the university.
In 1849 the university held its first graduation ceremony at Somerset House following a petition to the senate from the graduates, who had received their degrees without any ceremony. About 250 students graduated at this ceremony; the London academic robes of this period were distinguished by their "rich velvet facings". The list of affiliated colleges g
Demotic is the ancient Egyptian script derived from northern forms of hieratic used in the Nile Delta, the stage of the Egyptian language written in this script, following Late Egyptian and preceding Coptic. The term was first used by the Greek historian Herodotus to distinguish it from hieratic and hieroglyphic scripts. By convention, the word "Demotic" is capitalized; the Demotic script was referred to by the Egyptians as sš n šꜥ.t "document writing", which the second-century scholar Clement of Alexandria called ἐπιστολογραφική "letter-writing", while early Western scholars, notably Thomas Young referred to it as "Enchorial Egyptian". The script was used for more than a thousand years, during that time a number of developmental stages occurred, it is written and read from right to left, while earlier hieroglyphs could be written from top to bottom, left to right, or right to left. Parts of the demotic Greek Magical Papyri were written with a cypher script. Early Demotic developed in Lower Egypt during the part of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty found on steles from the Serapeum at Saqqara.
It is dated between 650 and 400 BCE, as most texts written in Early Demotic are dated to the Twenty-sixth Dynasty and the subsequent rule as a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, known as the Twenty-seventh Dynasty. After the reunification of Egypt under Psamtik I, Demotic replaced Abnormal Hieratic in Upper Egypt during the reign of Amasis II, when it became the official administrative and legal script. During this period, Demotic was used only for administrative and commercial texts, while hieroglyphs and hieratic were reserved for religious texts and literature. Middle Demotic is the stage of writing used during the Ptolemaic Kingdom. From the 4th century BC onwards, Demotic held a higher status, as may be seen from its increasing use for literary and religious texts. By the end of the 3rd century BC, Koine Greek was more important, as it was the administrative language of the country. From the beginning of Roman rule of Egypt, Demotic was progressively less used in public life. There are, however, a number of literary texts written in Late Demotic from the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, though the quantity of all Demotic texts decreased towards the end of the second century.
In contrast to the way Latin eliminated minority languages in the western part of the Empire and the expansion of Koine Greek led to the extinction of Egyptian, it did not replace Demotic entirely. After that, Demotic was only used for a few ostraca, subscriptions to Greek texts, mummy labels, graffiti; the last dated example of the Demotic script is dated to December 11, 452 and consists of a graffito on the walls of the temple of Isis at Philae. Demotic is a development of the Late Egyptian language and shares much with the Coptic phase of the Egyptian language. In the earlier stages of Demotic, such as those texts written in the Early Demotic script, it represented the spoken idiom of the time. But, as it was used for only literary and religious purposes, the written language diverged more and more from the spoken form, leading to significant diglossia between the Late Demotic texts and the spoken language of the time, similar to the use of classical Middle Egyptian during the Ptolemaic Period.
The Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799. It is inscribed with three scripts: the Greek alphabet and Egyptian hieroglyphs. There are 32 lines of Demotic, the middle of the three scripts on the stone; the Demotic was deciphered before the hieroglyphs, starting with the efforts of Antoine Isaac Silvestre de Sacy. Scholars were able to translate the hieroglyphs by comparing the Greek words, which could be translated, the hieroglyphs, in addition to their existing knowledge of Coptic. Egyptologists and papyrologists who specialize in the study of the Demotic stage of Egyptian script are known as Demotists; the table below shows some derivative similarities from hieroglyphs to Demotic to the surviving Coptic alphabet. Transliteration of Ancient Egyptian Tale of Setne Khamwas and Si-Osire Betrò, Maria Carmela. Hieroglyphics: The Writings of Ancient Egypt. New York. Pp. 34–239. ISBN 978-0-7892-0232-1. Johnson, Janet H.. Thus Wrote'Onchsheshonqy: An Introductory Grammar of Demotic. Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, No. 45.
Chicago: The Oriental Institute. Demotic and Abnormal Hieratic Texts List of all Demotic texts in Trismegistos Chicago Demotic Dictionary The American Society of Papyrologists Directory of Institutions and Scholars Involved in Demotic Studies Demotic Texts on the Internet Thus Wrote'Onchsheshonqy: An Introductory Grammar of Demotic by Janet H. Johnson Demotische Grammatik by Wilhelm Spiegelberg
Agatha Christie: An Autobiography
An Autobiography is the title of the recollections of crime writer Agatha Christie published posthumously by Collins in the UK and by Dodd, Mead & Company in the US in November 1977 two years after the writer's death in January 1976. The UK edition retailed at £7.95 and the US edition at $15.00. It is by some considerable margin the longest of her works, the UK first edition running to 544 pages, it was translated and published in Greek, Polish and Spanish. Christie provides a foreword and an epilogue to the book in which she clearly states the beginning and end of the composition; the book was started on 2 April 1950 at the expedition house at Nimrud where she was working on the excavation of that ancient city with her second husband, the archaeologist Max Mallowan. The narrative was completed on 11 October 1965 at one of the Mallowans' homes, Winterbrook House in Wallingford, Berkshire where Christie's death occurred eleven years later. Collins included a preface to the book in which they admitted that repetitions and inconsistencies had been “tidied up” but they continued to impress on readers that the text had been composed over a fifteen-year period and was left untouched by Christie for the remainder of her life.
Christie's official biography revealed that the truth was more complicated and while many notes and short diaries had been made between 1950 and 1965, Christie's intention had been for a more ad-hoc series of smaller books in the style of the 1946 publication Come Tell Me How You Live. In the early 1960s Christie was being approached more and more for permission to write biographies of her, all such requests being turned down. In February 1962 she informed her literary agent, Edmund Cork of Hughes Massie, that she did not want any account of her life written, but three years she seemed to recognise the inevitability of such works being composed and, determined to undercut such efforts, started work in earnest to bring her notes into a more cohesive narrative, although she remained determined that publication would not occur during her lifetime; the writing was finished by the end of 1966 with the draft being sent to Cork for his suggestions and a request for a copy to be typed for Christie's daughter Rosalind Hicks in order that she could offer her opinions.
After Christie's death in 1976, the text was edited by Philip Ziegler of Collins in conjunction with Rosalind and her husband, Anthony. There is no record of Christie herself making any further alterations to the text in her lifetime. In the 1965 epilogue she stated that, "now that I have reached the age of seventy-five, it seems the right moment to stop…I live now on borrowed time, waiting in the ante-room for the summons that will come…I am ready now to accept death." There is no mention of her works, the award of the DBE in 1971 or successes such as the 1974 film of Murder on the Orient Express. She admitted that she didn't follow a strict chronological and detailed order of the events of her life, instead wanting to "plunge my hand into a lucky dip and come up with a handful of assorted memories"; the published work does follow a chronological order. Upon publication there was an expectation that an explanation would be offered of her famous 1926 disappearance but none is forthcoming; the publisher's preface anticipates any disappointment felt when they admit to this omission on the first page but state, "the references elsewhere to an earlier attack on amnesia give the clue to the true course of events."Christie was enamoured all her life with the happiness of her childhood and her loving relationship with her mother and this is reflected in the text of An Autobiography.
Within the 544 pages, the first appearance of her first husband, Archie Christie, does not take place until page 212 and the death of Christie's mother in April 1926, does not occur until page 346. Christie deals sympathetically with her first husband, relating details of the initial happiness of their courtship and married life and devoting an entire chapter to the events of their round the world trip between 20 January to 1 December 1922. Christie tells of the events of 1926 with the death of her mother, her slow breakdown, her husband's adultery and the end of her marriage in just seven pages admitting when she begins the passage that, "The next year of my life is one I hate recalling" and concluding, "So, after illness, came sorrow and heartbreak. There is no need to dwell on it. I stood out for a year, but he did not. So ended my first married life." In contrast, Christie's official biography devotes three entire chapters out of twenty-six to the events of that year. Christie confines the events of 1945 to 1965 to just twenty-three pages.
Most of her works are mentioned in passing but no great detail is given of any of them apart from the ones that are firm milestones in her career. Her concentration is on the people in her life. By not writing at length about some of her works she caused some annoyance or disappointment, such as that described by Hubert Gregg, the director of six of her plays who, in his 1980 memoir Agatha Christie and All That Mousetrap, spoke with some disparagement of Christie, stating at one point, "She owed an enormous debt to Peter Saunders
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history. In particular, it played a large part in the Second World War where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain; the RAF's mission is to support the objectives of the British Ministry of Defence, which are to "provide the capabilities needed to ensure the security and defence of the United Kingdom and overseas territories, including against terrorism. The RAF describes its mission statement as "... an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission". The mission statement is supported by the RAF's definition of air power.
Air power is defined as "the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events". Today the Royal Air Force maintains an operational fleet of various types of aircraft, described by the RAF as being "leading-edge" in terms of technology; this consists of fixed-wing aircraft, including: fighter and strike aircraft, airborne early warning and control aircraft, ISTAR and SIGINT aircraft, aerial refueling aircraft and strategic and tactical transport aircraft. The majority of the RAF's rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces. Most of the RAF's aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. Although the RAF is the principal British air power arm, the Royal Navy's Fleet Air Arm and the British Army's Army Air Corps deliver air power, integrated into the maritime and land environments. While the British were not the first to make use of heavier-than-air military aircraft, the RAF is the world's oldest independent air force: that is, the first air force to become independent of army or navy control.
Following publication of the "Smuts report" prepared by Jan Smuts the RAF was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. At that time it was the largest air force in the world. After the war, the service was drastically cut and its inter-war years were quiet, with the RAF taking responsibility for the control of Iraq and executing a number of minor actions in other parts of the British Empire; the RAF's naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924 but handed over to Admiralty control on 24 May 1939. The RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War; the RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed "Article XV squadrons" for service with RAF formations.
Many individual personnel from these countries, exiles from occupied Europe served with RAF squadrons. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations approximately a quarter of Bomber Command's personnel were Canadian. Additionally, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe. In what is the most prolonged and complicated air campaign in history, the Battle of Britain contributed to the delay and subsequent indefinite postponement of Hitler's plans for an invasion of the United Kingdom. In the House of Commons on 20 August, prompted by the ongoing efforts of the RAF, Prime Minister Winston Churchill eloquently made a speech to the nation, where he said "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".
The largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command. While RAF bombing of Germany began immediately upon the outbreak of war, under the leadership of Air Chief Marshal Harris, these attacks became devastating from 1942 onward as new technology and greater numbers of superior aircraft became available; the RAF adopted night-time area bombing on German cities such as Hamburg and Dresden, developed precision bombing techniques for specific operations, such as the "Dambusters" raid by No. 617 Squadron, or the Amiens prison raid known as Operation Jericho. Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, as technological advances in air warfare saw the arrival of jet fighters and bombers. During the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Between 26 June and the lifting of the Russian blockade of the city on 2 May, the RAF provided 17% of the total supplies delivered du
Armant, is a town located about 12 miles south of Thebes. It was an important Middle Kingdom town, enlarged during the Eighteenth Dynasty, it is located today in the Luxor Governorate on the west bank of the Nile. Montu was an Egyptian god whose name means "nomad". Montu was associated with raging bulls and war, he was said to manifest himself in a white bull with a black face, referred to as the Bakha. Egypt's greatest general-kings called themselves the sons of Montu. In the famous narrative of the Battle of Kadesh, Ramesses II was said to have seen the enemy and "raged at them like Montu, Lord of Thebes". A temple dedicated to Montu existed at Hermonthis as early as the Eleventh dynasty, which originated at Hermonthis. Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II is the earliest builder known with certainty. Important additions were made during the New Kingdom. Destroyed during the Late Period, a new temple was started in the reign of Nectanebo II and was continued by the Ptolemies. Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XV Caesarion added a birth house with a sacred lake.
The building remained visible until the Nineteenth Century, when it was recycled to build a sugar factory. Only the remains of the pylon of Thutmose III are visible today. Two gates, one of them built by Antoninus Pius, have been found; the Bucheum, the burial place of the sacred Buchis bulls of Hermonthis, is on the desert edge north of the city. The earliest bull burial dates to Nectanebo II, the complex remained in use until the mid 4th century AD; the burial place of the Mother of Buchis cows has been located. Extensive cemeteries of all periods are found in the neighbourhood of Hermonthis. Under Cleopatra VII, Hermonthis became the capital of the 4th Upper Egyptian nome; the city remained in use during the Coptic era. Menthu Bakha
Francis Kingdon-Ward, born Francis Kingdon Ward was an English botanist, plant collector and author. He published most of his books as Frank Kingdon-Ward and this hyphenated form of his name stuck, becoming the surname of his wives and two daughters, it became a nom-de-plume for his sister Winifred Mary Ward by default. Son of Harry Marshall Ward and Selina Mary Ward, née Kingdon. In Myanmar he met and conducted some research into forestry and plants in the country with native botanist Chit Ko Ko. Among his collections were the first viable seed of Meconopsis betonicifolia, Primula florindae and Rhododendron wardii, a yellow flowered species. A species of lizard, Calotes kingdonwardi, is named in his honor, he is commemorated in Ward's trogon, Harpactes wardi. He survived many accidents on his expeditions including being impaled on a bamboo spike, falling off a cliff, lost for two days with no food, tent crushed by a tree in a storm, he was close to the epicentre of an earthquake on 15 August 1950 during an expedition in Assam.
In addition to his professional activities as a botanist, in the 1930s Kingdon-Ward served as a spy for the British India Office. In 1935, Kingdon-Ward was arrested by Tibetans after he crossed the Sela pass into the Tawang tract despite being refused permission to do so by the Tibetan authorities who were administering Tawang. Tibetans protested this violation of their border to the British mission visiting Lhasa. Kingdon-Ward was released, but this incident led the British to investigate the status of the border, it was discovered that the entire Tawang tract had been ceded to British India by Tibet by the Simla Convention negotiated by Sir Henry McMahon with the Tibetans in 1914. In 1923 he moved to Hatton Gore, a big house on the east side of Hatton Road, London, he built there a big rockery looking like a bend in a river ravine in the Himalayas. He sold the house due to a loss, he was married twice, first to Florinda Norman-Thompson on 11 April 1923. Florinda Kingdon-Ward had a brief political career which included standing as a Liberal Party candidate for Parliament at the 1950 UK General Election in Lewes.
Towards the end of his career he was still active, his greatest "swansong" plant was Lilium mackliniae, found jointly with his second wife after whom it is named. At age 68 he climbed to over 1,730–2,590 metres above sea level in the Ukhrul district of Manipur and was still discovering new species of plants on his last expedition in 1956, including Roscoea australis, the most southerly representative of its genus. Frank Kingdon-Ward died on 8 April 1958 aged 72, he went into a coma from which he never recovered. He was buried in the churchyard at Grantchester, he wrote 25 books accounts of his expeditions. The titles and publishers are as follows: On the Road to Tibet Shanghai Mercury Ltd. Shanghai Land of the Blue Poppy Cambridge University Press In Farthest Burma Seeley Service and Co Mystery Rivers of Tibet Seeley Service and Co From China to Hkamti Long Edward Arnold and Co The Romance of Plant Hunting Edward Arnold and Co Riddle of the Tsangpo Gorges Edward Arnold and Co Rhododendrons for Everyone The Gardener's Chronicle Ltd Plant Hunting on the Edge of the World Victor Gollancz Plant Hunting in the Wilds Figurehead The Loom of the East Martin Hopkinson Ltd A Plant Hunter in Tibet Jonathan Cape The Romance of Gardening Jonathan Cape Plant Hunter's Paradise Jonathan Cape Assam Adventure Jonathan Cape Modern Exploration Jonathan Cape About This Earth Jonathan Cape Commonsense Rock Gardening Jonathan Cape Burma's Icy Mountains Jonathan Cape Rhododendrons Latimer House Footsteps in Civilization Jonathan Cape Plant Hunter in Manipur Jonathan Cape Berried Treasure Ward Lock and Co. Ltd.
London and Melbourne Return to the Irrawaddy Andrew Melrose Pilgrimage for Plants George C. Harrap and Co. Ltd His sister, Winifred Mary Ward, was a founder of the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists and wrote several books on speech therapy. Frank Kingdon-Ward's own works, as listed above Frank Kingdon-Ward – Last of the Great Plant Hunters, Charles Lyte, John Murray Publishers Ltd, ISBN 978-0-7195-4735-5 Frank Kingdon-Ward, timeline of events. 1885–1958 Biography of Frank Kingdon-Ward Francis Kingdon-Ward Brief biography with much useful material not covered here Forgotten Travellers: In the Land of the Blue Poppy Essay on F. Kingdon Ward In the Footsteps of Kingdon Ward: photos of the Salween river, Tibet Timeline of Frank Kingdon-