Sky Sports is a group of subscription-television sports channels operated by the satellite pay-TV company Sky, a division of Comcast. Sky Sports is the dominant subscription television sports brand in Ireland, it has played a major role in the increased commercialisation of British sport since 1991, sometimes playing a large role in inducing organisational changes in the sports it broadcasts, most notably when it encouraged the Premier League to break away from the Football League in 1992. Sky Sports Main Event, Premier League, Cricket, Golf, F1, Arena are available as a premium package on top of the basic Sky package; these channels are available as premium channels on nearly every satellite, cable and IPTV broadcasting system in the UK and Ireland. Sky Sports News, Sky Sports Racing, Sky Sports Mix are all provided as part of basic packages; the Sky Sports network is managed by Barney Francis. British Satellite Broadcasting operated The Sports Channel, which launched in April 1990. In the BSB years, it shared the same frequency with its underpromoted sister channel, the Computer Channel, which broadcast in the mornings when the Sports Channel was off-air.
BSB merged with Sky Television plc to form British Sky Broadcasting. Sky Television had co-founded another sports network known as Eurosport with the European Broadcasting Union. Eurosport was the subject of a complaint by a competitor, who argued that the venture had the effect of restricting and distorting competition in the sports market. Sky pulled out of the venture, the channel was sold to the TF1 Group and merged with Screensport; the Sports Channel was renamed Sky Sports on 20 April 1991, began broadcasting to Sky viewers via the newly launched Astra 1B satellite on that date, alongside its existing transmissions on BSB's Marcopolo satellite. The channel was sold as one of the major draws of the Sky system and aired sports such as rugby and golf in 1991, before acquiring rights to German and Italian league football in 1996; the channel was encrypted but broadcast free-to-view, requiring an analogue VideoCrypt decoder, but no paid subscription, to be viewed. Since VideoCrypt decoders were only available within the UK, this measure was intended to prevent viewing of the service outside the UK and Ireland.
However, it was following the formation of the Premier League for the 1992/93 football season, believed to have been assisted by the promise of higher TV payments, that Sky Sports became well known. By bidding £304m, BSkyB beat the BBC and ITV to acquire the live and exclusive Premier League football broadcasting rights for the United Kingdom and Ireland for a five-year period. In doing so, they had taken live top-flight English league football from terrestrial and free-to-air television for the first time ever. At this point, Sky Sports became a subscription channel, available with a monthly subscription on a standalone basis, or at a reduced price if taken with Sky's movie channels. On 19 August 1994, a secondary channel called. On 1 November 1995, Sky launched. However, the channel ceased broadcasting after only a year on the air. On 16 August 1996, Sky launched Sky Sports 3, the original channel was renamed to Sky Sports 1. Sky Sports acquired the rights to Scottish football and the League Cup.
With the launch of the Sky Digital satellite platform in October 1998, Sky Sports launched Sky Sports News—a channel carrying rolling sports news coverage, in March 1999, followed by Sky Sports Xtra in April. During a Premier League match on 22 August 1999, Sky Sports launched an interactive television service known as Sky Sports Active via the digital platform, allowing viewers to watch matches with access to additional on-screen statistics, a choice of alternate camera angles and replays. Sky expected to extend the interactive services to other sports the following year. Sky Sports' football coverage was at the centre of controversy in January 2011 when footage emerged of presenters Andy Gray and Richard Keys making comments perceived as sexist. On 25 January 2011, Gray was sacked over the comments. On 25 January 2011, fellow reporter Andy Burton was suspended by Sky due to his involvement in the sexist comments made about a female assistant referee, Sian Massey, which involved Gray and Keys.
However, unlike Gray and Keys, Burton returned to his regular duties at Sky. Om 29 July 2011, it was announced that Sky Sports had acquired rights to Formula One racing from 2012 through 2018, with the BBC to share free-to-air rights to half of the events, have highlights rights for the remainder. Sky subsequently announced that it would introduce a new channel dedicated to its coverage, Sky Sports F1, which would air practices and advert-free coverage of each race. Sky extended its contract in 2016, to last through 2024. On 12 August 2014, Sky launched a new channel called Sky Sports 5, which would be dedicated to European football, including UEFA European Championship qualifiers, La Liga and others. On 24 August 2016, Sky launched Sky Sports Mix, a new channel designed to offer a sampling of content from the full range of Sky Sports networks to those who are not subscribers. On Sky, the channel is included as a basic channel with all plans, was available on certain Virgin Media packages on-launch.
On 18 July 2017, Sky re-aligned it
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
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Ulster University the University of Ulster, is a multi-campus public university located in Northern Ireland. It is referred to informally and unofficially as Ulster, or by the abbreviation UU, it is the largest university in Northern Ireland and the second-largest university on the island of Ireland, after the federal National University of Ireland. Established in 1968 as the New University of Ulster, it merged with Ulster Polytechnic in 1984, incorporating its four Northern Irish campuses under the University of Ulster banner; the university incorporated its four campuses in 1984. The university has branch campuses in both London and Birmingham, an extensive distance learning provision; the university rebranded as Ulster University from October 2014 and this included a revised visual identity. It has one of the highest further study and employment rates in the UK, with over 92 per cent of graduates being in work or further study six months after graduation; the university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, Universities Ireland and Universities UK.
The New University of Ulster incorporated Magee College founded in 1865 in Derry. Magee College was a college of the Royal University of Ireland from 1880 and became associated with the University of Dublin when the Royal University was dissolved in 1908 and replaced by the National University of Ireland. In 1953 Magee College became Magee University College. NUU was instigated. In 1963, the Robbins Committee recommended a substantial expansion of higher education in Great Britain triggered by the Anderson Report of 1960, which increased consumer demand by instigating a grants scheme. In the same year, a committee of eight chaired by Sir John Lockwood, Master of Birkbeck College, was appointed to review facilities for university and higher technical education in Northern Ireland, it adopted the aims and principles of Robbins, but aimed to take account of the different economic and educational structure of Northern Ireland. It was hoped by groups led by the University for Londonderry Committee that Magee would become Northern Ireland's second university after The Queen's University of Belfast.
However, this did not happen and instead it was subsumed into the New University as a result of the unwillingness of the Unionist government at Stormont to have the second university sited in overwhelmingly nationalist Derry, in which "The Troubles" were just beginning to break out. The decision caused an outcry at the time. However, in a history of the University of Ulster it is pointed out that the submission of Magee University College to the Lockwood Committee was far from satisfactory, its claims to preferment were based, the Committee felt that those claims could become a source of embarrassment undermining the credibility of a future new university with a diverse intake. The Magee submission failed to take sufficient account of the'locations' criteria of the University Grant Committee. Magee University College itself failed to impress members of the Lockwood Committee during their visit, it manifested an administrative structure, "eccentric, unique …, workable". The atmosphere was one of "complacency", "lack of dynamism" and it failed to articulate "any clear ideas about how the College should develop or what shape any future university in Londonderry should take".
The Committee noted Magee's "cramped physical situation" and "circumscribed mental outlook", turned instead to the Coleraine proposal. It did not deem Magee worthy of being included as a constituent college in the proposed new institution, though subsequently a role was found for it. Following a review of higher education in Northern Ireland under the chairmanship of Sir Henry Chilver in 1982 the direct-rule government decided to merge NUU with the Ulster Polytechnic to form the University of Ulster The merger took effect on 1 October 1984. Whilst the university was established in 1968 it can trace its roots back to 1845 when Magee College was endowed in Derry, 1849, when the School of Art and Design was inaugurated in Belfast. Campus One, the Virtual Campus of the university, was launched on 8 October 2001 which facilitated the provision on undergraduate and postgraduate level courses via distance learning; the university now refers to this as distance learning. The university had a laboratory named'The University of Ulster Freshwater Laboratory' at Traad Point on the shore of Lough Neagh in Ballymaguigan.
The Freshwater Laboratory, although not a campus, was a site of the university and consisted of on-campus accommodation and testing labs. Courses offered were in agriculture, the wildlife of Lough Neagh, water testing and other aquatic courses; the site is now owned by Magherafelt District Council. By 2010, the area had become popular with the locals for camping and sailing. In autumn 2011 Vice-Chancellor Barnett announced a programme of financial restructuring with the aim of reducing the number of staff employed by the University from 3,150 to 3,000. Staff at the University expressed concern about the proposed means and impact of the restructuring, citing "the use of the threat
David William Feherty is a former professional golfer on the European Tour and PGA Tour. Since retiring, he has worked as a television personality. In 2011, he introduced a self-titled interview series on Golf Channel, subsequently joined NBC Sports full-time in 2016. Feherty turned professional in 1976 and spent most of his playing career in Europe, where he won five times and finished in the top ten twice in the European Tour's Order of Merit, placing tenth in 1989 and eighth in 1990, he spent 1994 and 1995 playing on the PGA Tour in the U. S. and the best result on the tour was a second-place finish at the 1994 New England Classic. His combined career earnings exceeded $3 million. Feherty represented Ireland in international competition and captained the victorious 1990 Alfred Dunhill Cup team. Feherty played for Europe on the 1991 Ryder Cup team. Feherty was born in County Down, Northern Ireland, he lives with their five children in Dallas, Texas. They have one daughter, born in 1998. Anita Feherty has two sons from a former marriage.
Until 1995 he was married to a South African beauty queen. They have two sons. Feherty has had a long struggle with depression and alcoholism, which he publicly addressed in 2006. In an interview with Golf Magazine about his problems, Feherty said "I used alcohol to mask my inner demons"; the outspoken columnist took a shot at actor and noted Scientologist Tom Cruise, who has said that therapy and drugs are useless and that depression can be cured by physical exercise: "Actually, some sort of exercise would have helped me. If I kicked the shit out of Tom Cruise, I'd feel a lot better about myself." Along with George Lopez, Feherty hosted the Lopez-Feherty Foundation Anti-Pro-Am in November 2005. In 2008, Feherty was hit by a truck while cycling, he suffered three broken ribs. He was hospitalised for a few days with a tube in his chest, he resumed his broadcast duties at the 2008 Masters Tournament. Feherty became a naturalised citizen of the United States on 23 February 2010. In 2012, Feherty was awarded the third-highest honor within the Department of the Army Civilian Awards, the Outstanding Civilian Service Award, for substantial contributions to the U.
S. Army community through his work with the Troops First Foundation. On 29 July 2017, Feherty's oldest son, died after a drug overdose on his 29th birthday. Feherty describes himself as a "diehard atheist". In 1997, Feherty retired from the tours and joined CBS Sports as an on-course reporter and golf analyst. Feherty is a contributor to Golf Magazine and has his own column in the back of the magazine called Sidespin, he is the New York Times and Booksense best-selling author of four books, A Nasty Bit of Rough, Somewhere in Ireland a Village Is Missing an Idiot, An Idiot for All Seasons, David Feherty's Totally Subjective History of the Ryder Cup. On 21 June 2011, Feherty premiered his own weekly primetime talk show called Feherty on the Golf Channel. Feherty is a co-announcer on EA Sports' Tiger Woods PGA Tour series with Jim Nantz, Bill Macatee. Dallas, Texas, he is a periodic guest on Dallas' sports radio station, KTCK. He appears in advertisements for the Cobra golf company, showing off his trampolining and cheerleading skills in the advert, to show off the company's Speed drivers and woods.
In September 2005, Feherty guest-starred in the Season 6 episode of Dear. In the 18 April 2009, issue of D Magazine, Feherty was one of five writers to comment on George W. Bush's move to Dallas. In his article, Feherty uses the article to speak on politics. Criticism was aimed at Feherty for this suggestive comment about House Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Senate Leader Harry Reid: From my own experience visiting the troops in the Middle East, I can tell you this, though: despite how the conflict has been portrayed by our glorious media, if you gave any U. S. soldier a gun with two bullets in it, he found himself in an elevator with Nancy Pelosi, Harry Reid, Osama bin Laden, there's a good chance that Nancy Pelosi would get shot twice, Harry Reid and bin Laden would be strangled to death." Feherty made the following controversial remarks and described his politics as such: "As for me, my politics are somewhere in the middle—and way outside both wings. I believe in the death penalty for pro-lifers, child molesters, those opposed to gay marriage, for stupid dancing in the end zone.
I believe in the abolition of the Pickens Plan. I'd lower the legal drinking age and raise the driving age to 18 nationwide, make Kinky Friedman governor of Texas, make all schools and private, start earlier with one hour of physical exercise." CBS Sports distanced itself from Feherty's comments:We want to be clear that this column for a Dallas magazine is an unacceptable attempt at humor and is not in any way condoned, endorsed or approved by CBS Sports... David Feherty is an insightful and sometimes humorous commentator for CBS Sports' golf coverage...however, his attempt at humor in this instance went over the line, his comments were inappropriate. We hope he will use better judgment in the future." On his nightly cable news television show Countdown, Keith Olbermann went as far as to say the "soon to be ex-CBS Sports golf analyst David Feherty", based on comments Feherty made in the D-magazine article, leaving the audience with the impression CBS Sports was about to let Feherty go for his remarks.
About two weeks Feherty announced the PGA Tour's Valero Texas Open, in San Antonio for CBS. In August 2015, Feherty left CBS following his final event with the network—The Barcla
Lisbellaw is a village in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland, about 5 miles east of Enniskillen. In 2008 it had an estimated population of 1,277 people; the village is built around the Church of Ireland parish church, built in the 18th century. The steep main street houses two grocery shop, a hairdressing salon, two pubs, a post office, a dentist's surgery, a beauty salon, a butcher, two mechanics, a pharmacy, a health store distributor, a chip shop, a hardware store, as well as the Church of Ireland parish centre, the Methodist and Presbyterian churches; the Roman Catholic church building and a Plymouth Brethren gospel hall lie just off the main street. Just outside the village is Carrybridge, a marina on Upper Lough Erne. Lisbellaw railway station opened on August 16, 1858 and shut down on 1 October 1957. Lisbellaw is classified as a village by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. A census performed on April 29, 2001 revealed a population of 1,046 people living in Lisbellaw. Of these: 24.0% were aged under 16 years and 16.7% were aged 60 and over 48.7% of the population were male and 51.3% were female 91.9% were from a Protestant and other Christian background 7.3% of the population were from a Catholic Community Background 5.7% of people aged 16–74 were unemployed Market Houses in Northern Ireland Enniskillen.com Culture Northern Ireland
Bangor Grammar School
Bangor Grammar School, is a Northern Irish voluntary grammar school for boys in Bangor, County Down. It was founded in 1856 by the Conservative politician, Col The Hon. Robert Ward PC MP and is one of eight Northern Irish schools represented on the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference. Old boys of the school are known as Grammarians. Endowment for the school came from the will of local gentleman and politician Col The Hon. Robert Ward PC of Castle Ward; the Hon. Ward was the fourth son of 1st Viscount Bangor and grandson of Michael Ward MP; the Hon. Ward bequeathed £1,000 to be, "…expended in building and endowing a School-house for the education of boys in Mathematics and Navigation…", in his family home town and parliamentary constituency. Established as Bangor Endowed School, the school was situated on the site of the modern day Bank of Ireland building on the corner of Main Street and Central Avenue. By the turn of the 20th century the school had changed its name to Bangor Grammar School and because of a growth in school population moved from site to site over a number of years.
With the help of Mr W. K. Crosby, the school moved to a new site on College Avenue, in the northeast of Bangor in 1906; the facade visible from College Avenue is a combination of two buildings: Crosby House, which dates back to 1905 and was named after the school's benefactor. Despite Northern Ireland not being subject to conscription like the rest of the United Kingdom, a significant number of Grammarians volunteered for the British Armed Forces and fought in both World Wars, in particular the Second World War; the school population was comparatively small at this time, reaching just 200 pupils in 1930 as opposed to 936 pupils in 2008. Two commemorative plaques are erected in the school assembly hall listing the names off all ex-pupils that died whilst serving in the British Armed Forces during both World Wars; the school's Debating Society minutes present a record of motions brought to the house concerning key events of the times, including a motion concerning the Munich Agreement and the veracity of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's assertion that it would secure, "…peace for our time."
A three-year campaign to gain funding from the Department of Education for a new school building for Bangor Grammar School came to a successful end on 1 March 2006, when funding was granted. Building on the new site started in 2011, the school moved to Gransha Road for the term beginning January 2013. Bangor Grammar School has a Latin school song, it was written in 1950 by Miss Elsie Patton and set to music by Dr Emery, the school's music teacher. It is sung on competitive events and Scripture Union weekends, it has become customary for it to be sung at the conclusion of Senior Debating Society meetings. Bangor Grammar has won the rugby Ulster Schools Cup on five occasions and has appeared in nine finals; the school is therefore ranked as seventh in terms of overall success in the competition. The late 1980s saw a successful period for the school, appearing in four finals from 1985 to 1988 and winning three of them. Members of the school's 1st XV capped at international level include Don Whittle, Mark McCall, Jan Cunningham, Kieron Dawson, Kenny Hooks, Dick Milliken and Roger Clegg.
Players who have played at professional level include Paul McKenzie. Bangor Grammar have won All Ireland schools titles in hockey; the most notable hockey player from the school include Olympic Gold medalist and bronze medalist Stephen Martin. In 2005, a badminton double was achieved in the Ulster Finals of the Minors Division 2 and the Seniors Ulster Cup; the Minors beat RBAI in the League Final 4–2 and the Seniors won 4–2. The Seniors were in the Division 2 final but were beaten by Belfast Royal Academy, a Division 1 team. Former Northern Ireland International football player Keith Gillespie attended Bangor Grammar; the Debating Society is Bangor Grammar's oldest society, having been established in 1927 by A. L. Hawtin. Providing an insight into past pupil's opinions are the minutes of the society, which have been maintained since its inception; the Senior Debating Team defeated Abbey Christian Brothers from Newry in the final of the Northern Ireland Schools Debating Competition on 22 April 2016.
This was the fourth time. The Senior Debating Team on 24 April 2009 defeated Our Lady's and St Patrick's of Knock in the final of the Northern Ireland Schools Debating Competition, won Schools Cup in 2004, the Best Speaker's Shield in 2006, has been a finalist a record eleven times; the Senior Debating Society is run by Mr. S. J. Wolfenden; the Junior Debating society is presided over by Mr M Dickson. Bangor Grammar School employed Mr Ian Hunter, BA, MSc, CertEd, LTCL, LGSM as its first Director of Music in 1969, it was a post that he held for 32 years before retiring in 2001. Mr Hunter's replacement was Mr Jonathan Rea, MA. Mr Rea resigned in summer 2012 in order to pursue a freelance career, both as a director and composer/arranger. In 2015 a permanent successor, Mr Paul O'Reilly, B. Mus, PGCE, LRSM, was appointed Head of Department; the school has a long musical history with its concert band playing at many events throughout the year including Speech Day, the Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols and the Spring Concert.
The concert band plays annually at Bloo
Bangor, County Down
Bangor is a town in County Down, Northern Ireland. It is a seaside resort on the southern side of Belfast Lough and within the Belfast Metropolitan Area, it functions as a commuter town for the Greater Belfast area, which it is linked to by the A2 road and the Belfast-Bangor railway line. Bangor is situated 13.6 miles east from the heart of Belfast, not far from George Best Belfast City Airport. Bangor is part of the North Down constituency. Tourism is important to the local economy in the summer months, plans are being made for the long-delayed redevelopment of the seafront; the largest plot of private land in the area, the Clandeboye Estate, located a few miles from the town centre, belongs to the Marchioness of Dufferin and Ava. Bangor hosts the Royal Ballyholme yacht clubs. Bangor Marina is one of the largest in both Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland, holds Blue Flag status; the town is twinned with Bregenz in Virginia Beach in the United States. The town was called Inver Beg after the now culverted stream which ran past the abbey.
The name Bangor is derived from the Irish word Beannchor meaning a horned or peaked curve or a staked enclosure, as the shape of Bangor Bay resembles the horns of a bull. It may be linked to Beanna, Irish for cliffs; the area was known as The Vale of Angels, as Saint Patrick once rested there and is said to have had a vision filled with angels. The shield is emblazoned with two ships, which feature the Red Hand of Ulster on their sails, denoting that Bangor is in the province of Ulster; the blue and white stripes on the shield show. Supporting the shield are two sharks, signifying Bangor's links with the sea; each is charged with a gold roundel. The arms are crested by a haloed St Comgall, founder of the town's abbey, an important figure in the spread of Christianity; the motto reads the archaic form of the town's name in Irish. Bangor has a long and varied history, from the Bronze Age people whose swords were discovered in 1949 or the Viking burial found on Ballyholme beach, to the Victorian pleasure seekers who travelled on the new railway from Belfast to take in the sea air.
The town has been the site of a monastery renowned throughout Europe for its learning and scholarship, the victim of violent Viking raids in the 8th and 9th centuries, the new home of Scottish and English planters during the Plantation of Ulster. The town has prospered as an important port, a centre of cotton production, a Victorian and Edwardian holiday resort. Today it is a large retail centre and a commuter town for Belfast, though the remnants of the town's varied past still shape its modern form; the Annals of Ulster mentions that the monastery of Bangor was founded by Saint Comgall in 555 and was where the Antiphonarium Benchorense was written, a copy of which can be seen in the town's heritage centre. The monastery had such widespread influence that the town is one of only four places in Ireland to be named in the Hereford Mappa Mundi in 1300; the monastery, situated where the Church of Ireland Bangor Abbey stands at the head of the town, became a centre of great learning and was among the most eminent of Europe's missionary institutions in the Early Middle Ages, although it suffered at the hands of Viking raiders in the 8th century and the 9th century.
Saint Malachy was elected Abbot of the monastery in 1123, a year before being consecrated Bishop of Connor. His extensive travels around Europe inspired him to rejuvenate the monasteries in Ireland, he replaced the existing wooden huts with stone buildings. Despite the decline of the monastery, its influence can still be observed in the modern town. Bangor's founder, was born in Antrim in 517. A soldier, he took monastic vows and was educated for his new life, he is next seen in the Irish annals as a hermit on Lough Erne, however his rule was so severe that seven of his fellow monks died. He was persuaded to establish a house at Bangor in the Vale of the Angels; the earliest Irish annals give 558 as the date of Bangor's commencement. At Bangor, Comgall instituted a rigid monastic rule of incessant fasting. Far from turning people away, this ascetic rule attracted thousands; when Comgall died in 602, the annals report. Bangor Mór, named "the great Bangor" to distinguish it from its British contemporaries, became the greatest monastic school in Ulster as well as one of the three leading lights of Celtic Christianity.
The others were Iona, the great missionary centre founded by Columba, Bangor on the Dee, founded by Dinooth. Throughout the sixth century, Bangor became famous for its choral psalmody. "It was this music, carried to the continent by the Bangor missionaries in the following century". Divine services of the seven hours of prayer were carried out throughout Bangor's existence, however the monks went further and carried out the practice of laus perennis. In the twelfth century, Bernard of Clairvaux spoke of Comgall and Bangor, statin