World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Governor of Colorado
The Governor of Colorado is the chief executive of the U. S. state of Colorado. The governor is the head of the executive branch of Colorado's state government and is charged with enforcing state laws; the governor has the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Colorado General Assembly, to convene the legislature, to grant pardons, except in cases of treason or impeachment. The governor is the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. Seven people served as governor of Colorado Territory over eight terms, appointed by the President of the United States. Since statehood, there have been 36 governors; the longest-serving governors were Richard "Dick" Lamm and Roy Romer, who each served 12 years over three terms. The shortest term occurred in March 16 and 17, 1905, when the state had three governors in the span of 24 hours: Alva Adams won the election, but soon after he took office, the legislature declared his opponent, James Peabody, but on the condition that he resign, so that his lieutenant governor, Jesse McDonald, could be governor.
Thus, Peabody served less than a day as governor. The current governor is Democrat Jared Polis, who took office on January 8, 2019; the self-proclaimed Provisional Government of the Territory of Jefferson was organized on November 7, 1859. Jefferson Territory included all of present-day Colorado, but extended about 3 miles farther east, 138 miles farther north, about 50 miles farther west; the territory was never recognized by the federal government in the tumultuous days before the American Civil War. The Jefferson Territory had only one governor, Robert Williamson Steele, a pro-union Democrat elected by popular vote, he proclaimed the territory dissolved on June 6, 1861, several months after the official formation of the Colorado Territory, but only days after the arrival of its first governor. The Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, from parts of the territories of New Mexico and Nebraska, the unorganized territory, the western portion of Kansas Territory; the State of Colorado was admitted to the Union on August 1, 1876.
To serve as governor, one must be at least 30 years old, be a citizen of the United States, have been a resident of the state for at least two years prior to election. The state constitution of 1876 called for election of the governor every two years, with their term beginning on the second Tuesday of the January following the election. An amendment passed in 1956, taking effect in 1959, increased terms to four years. There was no term limit applied to the governor. There is however no limit on the total number of terms one may serve as long as one who has served the two term limit is out of office for four years. Should the office of governor become vacant, the lieutenant governor becomes governor. If both the offices governor and lieutenant governor are vacant, the line of succession moves down through the senior members of the state senate and state house of representatives of the same party as the governor; the lieutenant governor was elected separately from the governor until a 1968 amendment to the constitution made it so that they are elected on the same ticket.
List of Colorado state legislatures Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Law and government of Colorado Governor of Colorado Lieutenant Governor of Colorado General Constitutions Specific Office of the Governor of Colorado
Regis University known as Regis College, is a private, co-educational Roman Catholic, Jesuit university in Denver, Colorado. Regis College was founded by the Society of Jesus in 1877, it is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Universities. Regis is divided into five colleges: Regis College, The Rueckert-Hartman College for Health Professions, the College of Contemporary Liberal Studies, the College of Computer and Information Sciences and the College of Business and Economics; the university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission. In 2013, the Regis University web site stated that it had obtained a top tier ranking as one of the best colleges and universities in the United States in the western region for 22 consecutive years by U. S. News & World Report. In 1877, a group of exiled Italian Jesuits established a small college in New Mexico; the Jesuits named this institution Las Vegas College which would become known as Regis University. In 1884, the Bishop of Denver invited the Jesuits to create a college in Morrison, Colorado where Sacred Heart College was opened.
In 1887, Las Vegas College and Sacred Heart College merged and moved to the present location of Regis University. At the time of the merger, the school was called the College of the Sacred Heart. In 1921, it adopted the name of Regis College in honor of Saint John Francis Regis, a 17th-century Jesuit who worked with prostitutes and the poor in the mountains of Southern France; the preparatory section was separated to become the present-day Regis Jesuit High School. In 1991, it was renamed Regis University. Regis University, in accordance with its Jesuit heritage, has a long tradition of charitable service which includes the Father Woody Projects that originated in the Archdiocese of Denver; this project runs the Father Woody Christmas Party for the homeless. Regis College is a small, liberal arts, undergraduate/graduate, more selective school located on the Lowell Campus, its 1,600 students are high school graduates from over 40 states. Regis University operates a radio station, KRCX Other media programs include a weekly student-run newspaper, the Highlander.
The school fields 12 varsity athletic teams known as the Rangers. Regis is part of the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference. Men's basketball coach, Lonnie Porter, has the record for most won games as a basketball coach in Colorado history. Many students participate in service learning by volunteering with various organizations throughout the Denver area. Regis University played host to the rock icon, Jimi Hendrix, as well as the British rock band Queen, that played their first concert in the United States. Regis academic programs expanded with partnerships with the National University of Ireland and with ITESO, the Jesuit University of Guadalajara, for the first online bilingual joint MBA degree program. Michael Sheeran stepped down as the university's president on June 1, 2012. Sheeran was succeeded by John P. Fitzgibbons, S. J. who became the 24th president of the university. Regis College houses the undergraduate programs; these programs are designed for recent high school graduates, or transfer students, with little or no professional work experience.
Regis college offers a choice of majors, minors and pre-professional tracts. Students wishing to enter the nursing, physical therapy, or pharmacy programs enter Regis College to complete pre-requisite requirements; when Regis absorbed her sister school, Loretto Heights College, the Rueckert Hartman College for Health Professions was born. Regis operates a nationally recognized nursing program, one of the premiere physical therapist programs; the school is divided into three schools and two divisions: Loretto Heights School of Nursing, School of Pharmacy, School of Physical Therapy, Division of Health Services Education and the Division of Counseling and Family Therapy. The college offers three doctoral programs, Doctor of Nursing Practice, Doctor of Physical Therapy, Doctor of Pharmacy. In 2014, the College for Professional Studies was renamed to the College of Contemporary Liberal Studies, with the mission of providing a values-centered Jesuit education designed for the adult learner. CCLS students are working professionals and spouses with work and family commitments seeking a bachelor's or master's degree from an accredited university.
CCLS serves over 9,000 adult students worldwide and offers campus-based and directed study formats. CCLS consists of two distinct schools: the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, the School of Education and Counseling. Both of the schools offers master's degrees and certificate programs. CCLS has been named a Top Military Friendly School for 2012 by GI Jobs. In 2014, the College of Computer and Information Sciences was created in order to provide a specialized education in the computer science industry. CC&IS undergraduate programs in Computer Science, Computer Information Systems, Computer Networking are ABET accredited, they are the only ABET accredited programs of their kind that, in addition to classroom, are offered 100% online. In 2015, the College of Business and Economics was established in order to combine the Regis College Division of Business and the College for Professional Studies School of Management and Master of Nonprofit Management; the College of Business and Economics expects to provide an education and immersion into the business field with emphasis on personal character and ethical decision-making.
The College featu
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou
Cañon City, Colorado
Cañon City is a Home Rule Municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Fremont County, United States. The city population was 16,400 at the 2010 United States Census. Cañon City straddles the easterly flowing Arkansas River and is a popular tourist destination for sightseeing, whitewater rafting, rock climbing; the city is known for its many public parks, fossil discoveries, Skyline Drive, The Royal Gorge railroad, the Royal Gorge, extensive natural hiking paths, the tropical-like weather year-round."In 1994, the United States Board on Geographic Names approved adding the tilde to the official name of Cañon City, a change from Canon City as the official name in its decisions of 1906 and 1975. It is one of the few U. S. cities to have an Ñ in others being La Cañada Flintridge, California. Cañon City was laid out on January 17, 1858, during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, but the land was left idle. A new company "jumped the claim" to the town's site in late 1859, it put up the first building in February 1860.
This town was intended as a commercial center for mining in South Park and the upper Arkansas River. In 1861, the town raised two companies of volunteers to serve with the Second Colorado Infantry during the American Civil War; this regiment fought in skirmishes in nearby New Mexico and as far east as the Indian Territory and Missouri before ending its organization in 1865. In 1862, A. M. Cassaday drilled for petroleum 6 miles north of Cañon City, close to a known oil seep. Cassaday struck oil at the depth of 50 feet, he completed the first commercial oil well west of the Mississippi River, he drilled five or six more wells nearby, he refined kerosene and fuel oil from the petroleum. Cassaday sold the products in Denver. A number of metal ore smelters were built in Cañon City following the discovery of gold at Cripple Creek in 1891; the Cañon City Downtown Historic District is an historic district, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. Cañon City is located in eastern Fremont County at 38°26′48″N 105°13′42″W at an altitude of 5,332 feet.
It sits on the north side of the Arkansas River, just east of where the river exits from Royal Gorge. It is bordered to the south by the unincorporated community of Lincoln Park. Via U. S. Route 50, Pueblo is 39 miles to the east and Poncha Springs is 62 miles to the west. Colorado Springs is 45 miles to the northeast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.5 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.09%, is water. Cañon City sits in the "high desert" land of southern Colorado, the same desert lands of Pueblo and Florence; the city's nickname, "the Climate Capital of Colorado", derives from the combination of unique geography and 5,300-foot elevation protecting the city from harsh weather conditions. The average daily high temperature in January is 14 °F warmer in Cañon City than in Grand Junction though the elevation of Cañon City is higher; the average minimum temperature in January is 20 °F. During July, overnight lows are 59 °F on average. Cañon City has a semi-arid climate.
As Cañon City has grown, the city has both annexed surrounding communities and developed new subdivisions to create the city that exists today. Dawson Ranch Eagle Heights Fireman's Bluff Four Mile Ranch Gold Cañon Meadowbrook Orchard Park South Cañon, a historic neighborhood located on the west side south of the Arkansas River Sunrise Mesa Western Meadows Wolf Park Cañon City is home to many city-owned parks, as well as parks owned by the Cañon City Area Recreation and Park District. Centennial Park known as "Duck Park" Denver & Rio Grande Western Park known as "Depot Park" Greydene Park Magdalene Park Margaret Park Mountain View Park, home of the city's skate park Red Canyon Park, a 500-acre park located 10 miles north of the city Royal Gorge Park, home of the Royal Gorge Bridge and Park Rudd Park Temple Canyon Park Veterans Park, known for Entertainment in the Park concerts during the summer The Cañon City Area Recreation and Park District called the Rec District, was created in 1965 to better serve the community's recreational needs with parks, the R.
C. Icabone Pool, a dog park, an archery range and a ropes course along with a rec district office with a community room; the following parks are operated and owned by the Rec District: John Griffin Park, located near the Sell's Avenue Trailhead of the Riverwalk Harrison Park, the former playground of the former Harrison Elementary School, relocated to a newer, larger school building housing both elementary and middle school students Pathfinder Regional Park, a joint-managed park located in the county between Cañon City and Florence Rouse Park As of the census of 2000, there were 15,431 people, 6,164 households, 3,803 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,284.1 people per square mile. There were 6,617 housing units at an average density of 550.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.15% White, 1.59% African American, 1.04% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.61% from other races, 2.01% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 8.33% of the population.
There were 6,164 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.3% were non-families. 33.7% of all households
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is a member of the U. S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency, which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation.
At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache offices and 15 sub-offices in U. S. consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not conduct unilateral operations in the host countries; the FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of the BOI or BI for short, its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D. C. In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was $8.7 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state and international agencies and partners.
The FBI's top priorities are: Protect the United States from terrorist attacks Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights, Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major white-collar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state and international partners Upgrade technology to enable, further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists; the Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.
The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U. S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would have its own staff of special agents; the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency.
Its first "Chief" was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908; the bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation; the following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation before becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, FBI, he was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.
But as detailed below, his proved to be a controversial tenure as Bureau Director in its years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Early homicide investigations of the new age
1968 United States Senate elections
The 1968 United States Senate elections were elections for the United States Senate which coincided with the presidential election. Although Richard Nixon won the presidential election narrowly, the Republicans picked up five net seats in the Senate. Republicans would gain another seat after the election when Alaska Republican Ted Stevens was appointed to replace Democrat Bob Bartlett. Alabama: J. Lister Hill was replaced by James Allen. Iowa: Bourke B. Hickenlooper was replaced by Harold Hughes. Kansas: Frank Carlson was replaced by Bob Dole. Kentucky: Thruston Ballard Morton was replaced by Marlow W. Cook. Arizona: Carl Hayden was replaced by Barry Goldwater, who gave up Arizona's other Senate seat in 1964 to run for president. Florida: George Smathers was replaced by Edward J. Gurney, the first Republican to represent Florida in the U. S. Senate since Reconstruction. Alaska: Ernest Gruening lost renomination to Mike Gravel, who won the general election. Missouri: Edward V. Long lost renomination to Thomas Eagleton, who won the general election.
California: Thomas Kuchel lost renomination to Max Rafferty, who lost the general election to Alan Cranston. Maryland: Daniel Brewster lost re-election to Charles Mathias, Jr. Ohio: Frank J. Lausche lost renomination to John J. Gilligan, who lost the general election to William B. Saxbe. Oklahoma: A. S. Mike Monroney, lost re-election to Henry Bellmon. Oregon: Wayne Morse, lost re-election to Bob Packwood. Pennsylvania: Joseph S. Clark, lost re-election to Richard Schweiker. Alaska: Bob Bartlett died December 11, 1968, Ted Stevens was appointed December 24, 1968. In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning January 3, 1969. All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats. Incumbent Democrat Carl Hayden did not run for re-election to an eighth term, with his longtime staff member Roy Elson running as the Democratic Party nominee to replace him. Elson was defeated by a wide margin, however, by former U. S. Senator and Republican Presidential nominee Barry Goldwater. Prior to Goldwater's election, the seat had been held for decades by the Democratic Party under Carl Hayden, has thus far remained in Republican Party control since.
Elson had challenged U. S. Senator Paul Fannin in 1964, when Goldwater vacated his seat in order to run for President against Lyndon B. Johnson. Incumbent Republican and Minority Leader Everett Dirksen won re-election to his fourth term over William G. Clark, the Illinois Attorney General. Incumbent Republican Jacob K. Javits won against Democratic challenger Paul O'Dwyer and Conservative Party challenger James L. Buckley in a three-way election. While Javits did not face any challengers for the Republican nomination, he did face a minor one when seeking the Liberal Party of New York's nomination; the general election was fought between the Democratic incumbent Sam Ervin and the Republican nominee Robert Somers. Ervin won re-election with over 60 % of the vote; the first round of the Primary Election was held on May 4, 1968. The runoff for the Republican Party candidates took place on June 1; the 1968 U. S. Senate election for the state of North Dakota was held November 5, 1968; the incumbent, Republican Senator Milton Young and received re-election to his fifth term, defeating North Dakota Democratic-NPL Party candidate Herschel Lashkowitz, the mayor of Fargo, North Dakota since 1954.
Only Young filed as a Republican, the endorsed Democratic candidate was Herschel Lashkowitz of Fargo, North Dakota, serving as the mayor of the city since 1954. Young and Lashkowitz won the primary elections for their respective parties. One independent candidate, Duane Mutch of Larimore, North Dakota filed before the deadline. Mutch was a state senator for the North Dakota Republican Party in the North Dakota Senate from 1959 to 2006 for District 19, he ran as an independent. Incumbent Democratic U. S. Senator Mike Monroney was running for re-election to a fourth term, but was defeated by Republican former Governor Henry Bellmon. Incumbent Democrat Wayne Morse was seeking a fifth term, but narrowly lost re-election to 36 year-old Republican State Representative Bob Packwood race; the Democratic primary was held May 28, 1968. Morse defeated former Representative Robert B. Duncan, former U. S. Congressman from Oregon's 4th congressional district, Phil McAlmond and former aide to opponent Robert B. Duncan.
Incumbent Democrat Joseph Clark sought re-election to another term, but was defeated by Republican nominee Richard Schweiker, member of the U. S. House of Representatives. Incumbent Democrat Fritz Hollings defeated Republican state senator Marshall Parker in a rematch of the election two years earlier to win his first full term. Hollings avoided a primary election. Marshall Parker, the state senator from Oconee County in the Upstate, was persuaded by South Carolina Republicans to enter the race and he did not face a primary challenge. After a close election loss to Fritz Hollingsin 1966, the Republicans felt that Parker might have a chance at defeating Hollings by riding Nixon's coattails in the general election. However, the Republicans did not provide Parker with the financial resources to compete and he subsequently lost by a bigger margin to Hollings than two years prior. Incumbent Republican George Aiken ran for re-election to another term in the United States Senate. Incumbent democrat Gaylord A. Nelson defeated Republican State Senator Jerris Leonard.
"Supplemental Report of