Analytic philosophy is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century. The term can refer to one of several things: As a philosophical practice, it is characterized by an emphasis on argumentative clarity and precision making use of formal logic, conceptual analysis, and, to a lesser degree and the natural sciences; as a historical development, analytic philosophy refers to certain developments in early 20th-century philosophy that were the historical antecedents of the current practice. Central figures in this historical development are Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, G. E. Moore, Gottlob Frege, the logical positivists. In this more specific sense, analytic philosophy is identified with specific philosophical traits, such as: The logical-positivist principle that there are not any philosophical facts and that the object of philosophy is the logical clarification of thoughts; this may be contrasted with the traditional foundationalism, which considers philosophy to be a special science that investigates the fundamental reasons and principles of everything.
Many analytic philosophers have considered their inquiries as continuous with, or subordinate to, those of the natural sciences. This is an attitude that begins with John Locke, who described his work as that of an "underlabourer" to the achievements of natural scientists such as Newton. During the 20th century, the most influential advocate of the continuity of philosophy with science was Willard Van Orman Quine; the principle that the logical clarification of thoughts can be achieved only by analysis of the logical form of philosophical propositions. The logical form of a proposition is a way of representing it, to reduce it to simpler components if necessary, to display its similarity with all other propositions of the same type. However, analytic philosophers disagree about the correct logical form of ordinary language; the neglect of generalized philosophical systems in favour of more restricted inquiries stated rigorously, or ordinary language. According to a characteristic paragraph by Russell: Modern analytical empiricism differs from that of Locke and Hume by its incorporation of mathematics and its development of a powerful logical technique.
It is thus able, in regard to certain problems, to achieve definite answers, which have the quality of science rather than of philosophy. It has the advantage, in comparison with the philosophies of the system-builders, of being able to tackle its problems one at a time, instead of having to invent at one stroke a block theory of the whole universe, its methods, in this respect, resemble those of science. In the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand and Scandinavia, the majority of university philosophy departments today identify themselves as "analytic" departments. Analytic philosophy is understood in contrast to other philosophical traditions, most notably continental philosophies such as existentialism and phenomenology, Thomism and Marxism. British idealism, as taught by philosophers such as F. H. Bradley and Thomas Hill Green, dominated English philosophy in the late 19th century. With reference to this intellectual basis the initiators of analytic philosophy, G. E. Moore and Bertrand Russell, articulated early analytic philosophy.
Since its beginning, a basic goal of analytic philosophy has been conceptual clarity, in the name of which Moore and Russell rejected Hegelianism for being obscure—see for example Moore's "A Defence of Common Sense" and Russell's critique of the doctrine of internal relations. Inspired by developments in modern logic, the early Russell claimed that the problems of philosophy can be solved by showing the simple constituents of complex notions. An important aspect of British idealism was logical holism—the opinion that there are aspects of the world that can be known only by knowing the whole world; this is related to the opinion that relations between items are internal relations, that is, properties of the nature of those items. Russell, along with Wittgenstein, in response promulgated logical atomism and the doctrine of external relations—the belief that the world consists of independent facts. Russell, during his early career, along with his collaborator Alfred North Whitehead, was much influenced by Gottlob Frege, who developed predicate logic, which allowed a much greater range of sentences to be parsed into logical form than was possible using the ancient Aristotelian logic.
Frege was influential as a philosopher of mathematics in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. In contrast to Edmund Husserl's 1891 book Philosophie der Arithmetik, which argued that the concept of the cardinal number derived from psychical acts of grouping objects and counting them, Frege argued that mathematics and logic have their own validity, independent of the judgments or mental states of individual mathematicians and logicians. Frege further developed his philosophy of logic and mathematics in The Foundations of Arithmetic and The Basic Laws of Arithmetic, where he provided an alternative to psychologistic accounts of the concept of number. Like Frege, Russell argued that mathematics is reducible to logical fundamentals in The Principles of Mathematics, his book written with Whitehead, Principia Mathematica, encouraged many philosophers to renew their interest in the
Ruth Barcan Marcus
Ruth Barcan Marcus was an American academic philosopher and logician best known for her work in modal and philosophical logic. She developed the first formal systems of quantified modal logic and in so doing introduced the schema or principle known as the Barcan formula.. Marcus, who published as Ruth C. Barcan, was, as Don Garrett notes "one of the twentieth century’s most important and influential philosopher-logicians". Timothy Williamson, in a 2008 celebration of Marcus' long career, states that many of her "main ideas are not just original, clever, beautiful, fascinating, influential, way ahead of their time, but — I believe — true." Ruth Barcan graduated magna cum laude from New York University in 1941, majoring in mathematics and philosophy. She went to graduate school at Yale, obtaining her M. A. in 1942. and her PHd in 1946. She was a visiting professor at Northwestern University from 1950 until 1953 and, again, in 1959, she served as assistant, as associate, professor at the newly founded Roosevelt University, between 1956 and 1963.
From 1964 to 1970, Marcus was a professor of philosophy at the University of Illinois at Chicago. She was professor of philosophy at Northwestern University from 1970 until 1973 when she was appointed as the Reuben Post Halleck Professor of Philosophy at Yale University until retiring, as a professor emerita, in 1992, she would continue to teach, during winter semesters, at the University of California, Irvine until 1997. Amongst other professional offices held during her career, she served as Chair of the Board of Officers for the American Philosophical Association and as President of both the Association for Symbolic Logic and of the International Institut de Philosophie; the discussed Barcan formula is introduced as an axiom in QML. In her earliest published work, the publication of the first axiomatic study of modal logic with quantifiers, Marcus published under her maiden name Ruth C. Barcan, it features these three articles: "A Functional Calculus of First Order Based on Strict Implication", Journal of Symbolic Logic, "The Deduction Theorem in a Functional Calculus of First Order Based on Strict Implication", "The Identity of Individuals in a Strict Functional Calculus of Second Order".
The first systems of quantified modal logic, which extended some propositional modal systems of Clarence Irving Lewis to first and second order. Lewis gives Marcus special recognition in his "Notes on the Logic of Intension" printed in Structure and Meaning: Essays in Honor of Henry M. Sheffer. Here Lewis recognizes Barcan Marcus as the first logician to extend propositional logic as a higher order intensional logic. Marcus proposed the view in the philosophy of language according to which proper names are what Marcus termed mere "tags". According to her tag theory of names, these "tags" are used to refer to an object, the bearer of the name; the meaning of the name is regarded. This view contrasts for example with Bertrand Russell's description theory of proper names as well as John Searle's cluster description theory of names which prevailed at the time; this view of proper names has been identified by Quentin Smith with the theory of reference given in Saul Kripke's Naming and Necessity. However, in a recent laudatio to Ruth Barcan Marcus, Professor Timothy Williamson says: One of the ideas in them that resonates most with current philosophy of language is that of proper names as mere tags, without descriptive content.
This is not Kripke's idea of names as rigid designators, designating the same object with respect to all relevant worlds, for'rigidified' definite descriptions are rigid designators but still have descriptive content. Rather, it is the idea developed by David Kaplan and others, that proper names are directly referential, in the sense that they contribute only their bearer to the propositions expressed by sentences in which they occur; the philosopher of language Stephen Neale has argued against Professor Smith's claim in the Times Literary Supplement. Marcus formally proved the necessity of identity in 1946 and informally argued for it in 1961, thereafter thus rejecting the possibility of contingent identity. See Journal of Symbolic Logic, 12: pp 12–15 Marcus prefers an interpretation where the domain of the interpretation comprises individual entities in the actual world, she suggests that for some uses an alternative substitutional semantics is warranted. She provides arguments against possibilia.
See "Dispensing with Possibilia". Marcus defines a consistent set of moral principles as one in which there is some "possible world " in which they are all obeyable; that they may conflict in the actual world is not a mark of inconsistency. As in the case of necessity of identity, there was a resistance to this interpretation of moral conflict, her argument counts against a received view that systems of moral rules are inconsistent. It is proposed that believing is a relationship of an agent to a possible state of affairs under specified internal an
University of Oslo
The University of Oslo, until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University, is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. Until 1 January 2016 it was the largest Norwegian institution of higher education in terms of size, now surpassed only by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology; the Academic Ranking of World Universities has ranked it the 58th best university in the world and the third best in the Nordic countries. In 2015, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranked it the 135th best university in the world and the seventh best in the Nordics. While in its 2016, Top 200 Rankings of European universities, the Times Higher Education listed the University of Oslo at 63rd, making it the highest ranked Norwegian university; the university has 27,700 students and employs around 6,000 people. Its faculties include Theology, Medicine, Mathematics, natural sciences, social sciences and Education; the university's original neoclassical campus is located in the centre of Oslo.
Most of the university's other faculties are located at the newer Blindern campus in the suburban West End. The Faculty of Medicine is split between several university hospitals in the Oslo area; the university was founded in 1811 and was modeled after the University of Copenhagen and the established University of Berlin. It was named for King Frederick VI of Denmark and Norway and received its current name in 1939; the university is informally known as Universitetet, having been the only university in Norway, until 1946 and was referred to as "The Royal Frederick's", prior to the name change. The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded in the university's Atrium, from 1947 to 1989, making it the only university in the world to be involved in awarding a Nobel Prize. Since 2003, the Abel Prize is awarded in the Atrium. Five researchers affiliated with the university have been Nobel laureates. In 1811, a decision was made to establish the first university in the Dano-Norwegian Union, after an agreement was reached with King Frederik VI, who had earlier believed that such an institution might encourage political separatist tendencies.
In 1813, The Royal Frederik's University was founded in a small city at that time. Circumstances changed one year into the commencement of the university, as Norway proclaimed independence. However, independence was somewhat restricted, as Norway was obliged to enter into a legislative union with Sweden based on the outcome of the War of 1814. Norway retained its own constitution and independent state institutions, although royal power and foreign affairs were shared with Sweden. At a time when Norwegians feared political domination by the Swedes, the new university became a key institution that contributed to Norwegian political and cultural independence; the main initial function of The Royal Frederick University was to educate a new class of upper-echelon civil servants, as well as parliamentary representatives and government ministers. The university became the centre for a survey of the country—a survey of culture, language and folk traditions; the staff of the university strove to undertake a wide range of tasks necessary for developing a modern society.
Throughout the 1800s, the university's academic disciplines became more specialised. One of the major changes in the university came during the 1870s when a greater emphasis was placed upon research, the management of the university became more professional, academic subjects were reformed, the forms of teaching evolved. Classical education came under increasing pressure; when the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the university became important for producing educated experts in a society which placed increasing emphasis on ensuring that all its citizens enjoy a life of dignity and security. Education, health services and public administration were among those fields that recruited personnel from the university's graduates. Research changed qualitatively around the turn of the century as new methods, scientific theories and forms of practice changed the nature of research, it was decided that teachers should arrive at their posts as qualified academics and continue academic research alongside their role as teachers.
Scientific research—whether to launch or test out new theories, to innovate or to pave the way for discoveries across a wide range of disciplines—became part of the increased expectations placed on the university. Developments in society created a need for more and more specialised and practical knowledge, not competence in theology or law, for example; the university strove to meet these expectations through increasing academic specialisation. The position of rector was established by Parliament in 1905 following the Dissolution of the Union. Waldemar Christofer Brøgger became the university's first rector. Brøgger vacillated between a certain pessimism and a powerfully energetic attitude regarding how to procure finances for research and fulfill his more general funding objectives. With the establishment of the national research council after World War II, Brøgger's vision was fulfilled; this coincided with a massive rise in student enrollment during the 1960s, which again made it difficult to balance research with the demands for teaching.
In the years leading up to 1940, research was more linked with the growth of the nation, with progress an
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv University is a public research university in Tel Aviv, Israel. With over 30,000 students, the University is the largest in the country. Located in northwest Tel Aviv, the University is the center of teaching and research of the city, comprising 9 faculties, 17 teaching hospitals, 18 performing arts centers, 27 schools, 106 departments, 340 research centers, 400 laboratories. Besides being the largest university in Israel, it is the biggest Jewish university in the world, it compromises nine faculties, 106 departments, 90 research institutes. It originated in 1956; the original 170-acre campus has been expanded and now makes up 220 acres in Tel Aviv’s Ramat Gan neighborhood. It ranks among the top academic institutions in the world by the Shanghai Ranking, Times Higher Education, the QS World University Rankings. TAU's origins date back to 1956, when three research institutes – the Tel Aviv School of Law and Economics, the Institute of Natural Sciences, the Institute of Jewish Studies – joined together to form Tel Aviv University.
Operated by the Tel Aviv municipality, the university was granted autonomy in 1963. The Ramat Aviv campus, covering an area of 170-acre, was established that same year; the university maintains academic supervision over the Center for Technological Design in Holon, the New Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo and the Afeka College of Engineering in Tel Aviv. The Wise Observatory is located in Mitzpe Ramon. Faculties Katz Faculty of the Arts Fleischman Faculty of Engineering Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences Entin Faculty of Humanities Buchmann Faculty of Law Wise Faculty of Life Sciences Sackler Faculty of Medicine Gordon Faculty of Social Sciences Coller School of ManagementIndependent schools Porter School of Environmental Studies Buchmann-Mehta School of Music David Azrieli School of Architecture Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine Miller School of Education Shapell School of Social Work TAU International Sagol School of NeuroscienceInstitutes and centers A full list of Tel Aviv University's over 130 research institutes and centers is available here.
TAU International affords thousands of students from across the globe the opportunity to study at Tel Aviv University. All TAU International programs are conducted in English. Programs include Semester or Year Abroad, Degree Programs, Specialized Programs, such as the International LL. M at the Faculty of Law. Students in the Undergraduate or Semester Abroad Programs are given the option of housing at the Einstein Dorms, just outside the university. Undergraduate programs: B. S. in Electrical and Electronics Engineering via the International Engineering School International B. A. degree in Liberal Arts and HumanitiesGraduate programs: In May 2007, New York University and Tel Aviv University approved a plan to establish an NYU Study Abroad Campus in Israel based at Tel Aviv University. The Center for World University Rankings ranked Tel Aviv University 81st in the world and third in Israel in its 2016 CWUR World University Rankings, they have ranked it as 56 in 2012. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2012 placed Tel Aviv University among the world's top 90 universities.
The ratings reflect an overall measure of esteem that combines data on the institutions' reputation for research and teaching. This achievement positioned TAU on the same level as Brown University in Rhode Island and Leiden University in the Netherlands. In 2013 QS World University Rankings ranked Tel Aviv University 196th in the world, making it the second-highest ranked university in Israel, its subject rankings were: 202nd in Arts and Humanities, 295th in Engineering and Technology, 193rd in Life Sciences and Medicine, 208th in Natural Science, 240th in Social Sciences and Management. In 2016 QS World University Rankings ranked Tel Aviv University 22nd in the world for citations per faculty, the indicator that measures a university's research impact; this makes Tel Aviv University the leading university in Israel in terms of research. In 2015 the Academic Ranking of World Universities gave Tel Aviv University the following subject rankings: 20th in Computer Science, 51-75 in Mathematics, 76-100 in Physics and 76-100 Economics/Business.
In 2016 it was ranked as 51-75 in Engineering. From the year 2007 until 2018, Tel Aviv university ranks as 30th in the world in Computer Science according to CSRankings, the same rank as Harvard and the highest ranked in Israel. Tel Aviv University offers special programs of Jewish studies to teachers and students from the United States, Brazil and Mexico; the programs are in English. The Tel Aviv University Faculty of Law has exchange agreements with 36 overseas universities, including: University of Virginia, Cornell University, Boston University, UCLA, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, EBS, McGill, Osgoode Hall, Kuwait University, Umm al-Qura University Queens University, Bergen, STL, KoGuan, Jindal Global, University of Hong Kong, Singapore Management University, Stockholm University, Sydney, Sciences Po, Lucern, Buenos Aires and Madrid. In 2013, Tel Aviv University and Ruppin Academic Center jointly created a study center at the Mediterranean Sea, where students will undertake advanced studies of issues impacting the coast
Willard Van Orman Quine
Willard Van Orman Quine was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement. He filled the Edgar Pierce Chair of Philosophy at Harvard from 1956 to 1978. A 2009 poll conducted among analytic philosophers named Quine as the fifth most important philosopher of the past two centuries, he won the first Schock Prize in Logic and Philosophy in 1993 for "his systematical and penetrating discussions of how learning of language and communication are based on available evidence and of the consequences of this for theories on knowledge and linguistic meaning." In 1996 he was awarded the Kyoto Prize in Arts and Philosophy for his "outstanding contributions to the progress of philosophy in the 20th century by proposing numerous theories based on keen insights in logic, philosophy of science and philosophy of language."Quine falls squarely into the analytic philosophy tradition while being the main proponent of the view that philosophy is not conceptual analysis but the abstract branch of the empirical sciences.
His major writings include Two Dogmas of Empiricism, which attacked the distinction between analytic and synthetic propositions and advocated a form of semantic holism, Word and Object, which further developed these positions and introduced Quine's famous indeterminacy of translation thesis, advocating a behaviorist theory of meaning. He developed an influential naturalized epistemology that tried to provide "an improved scientific explanation of how we have developed elaborate scientific theories on the basis of meager sensory input." He is important in philosophy of science for his "systematic attempt to understand science from within the resources of science itself" and for his conception of philosophy as continuous with science. This led to his famous quip that "philosophy of science is philosophy enough." In philosophy of mathematics, he and his Harvard colleague Hilary Putnam developed the "Quine–Putnam indispensability thesis," an argument for the reality of mathematical entities. According to his autobiography, The Time of My Life, Quine grew up in Akron, where he lived with his parents and older brother Robert Cloyd.
His father, Cloyd Robert, was a manufacturing entrepreneur and his mother, Harriett E. was a schoolteacher and a housewife. He received his B. A. in mathematics from Oberlin College in 1930, his Ph. D. in philosophy from Harvard University in 1932. His thesis supervisor was Alfred North Whitehead, he was appointed a Harvard Junior Fellow, which excused him from having to teach for four years. During the academic year 1932–33, he travelled in Europe thanks to a Sheldon fellowship, meeting Polish logicians and members of the Vienna Circle, as well as the logical positivist A. J. Ayer, it was Quine who arranged for Tarski to be invited to the September 1939 Unity of Science Congress in Cambridge, for which Tarski sailed on the last ship to leave Danzig before the Third Reich invaded Poland. Tarski survived the war and worked another 44 years in the US. During World War II, Quine lectured on logic in Brazil, in Portuguese, served in the United States Navy in a military intelligence role, deciphering messages from German submarines, reaching the rank of lieutenant commander.
At Harvard, Quine helped supervise the Harvard graduate theses of, among others, David Lewis, Daniel Dennett, Gilbert Harman, Dagfinn Føllesdal, Hao Wang, Hugues LeBlanc, Henry Hiz and George Myro. For the academic year 1964–1965, Quine was a fellow on the faculty in the Center for Advanced Studies at Wesleyan University. In 1980 Quine received an honorary doctorate from the Faculty of Humanities at Uppsala University, Sweden. Quine was an atheist, he had four children by two marriages. Guitarist Robert Quine was his nephew. In the foreword to the new edition of Word and Object, Quine's student Dagfinn Føllesdal noted that Quine began to lose his memory toward the end of his life; the deterioration of his short-term memory was so severe that he struggled to continue following arguments. Quine had considerable difficulty in his project to make the desired revisions to Word and Object. Before passing away, Quine noted to Morton White, "I do not remember what my illness is called, Althusser or Alzheimer, but since I cannot remember it, it must be Alzheimer."
He passed away from the illness on Christmas Day in 2000. Quine was politically conservative, but the bulk of his writing was in technical areas of philosophy removed from direct political issues, he did, write in defense of several conservative positions: for example, in Quiddities: An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary, he wrote a defense of moral censorship. Quine's Ph. D. thesis and early publications were on formal set theory. Only after World War II did he, by virtue of seminal papers on ontology and language, emerge as a major philosopher. By the 1960s, he had worked out his "naturalized epistemology" whose aim was to answer all substantive questions of knowledge and meaning using the methods and tools of the natural sciences. Quine roundly rejected the notion that there should be a "first philosophy"
Deirdre Susan Moir Wilson, FBA is a British linguist and cognitive scientist. She is emeritus professor of Linguistics at University College London and research professor at the Centre for the Study of Mind in Nature at the University of Oslo, her most influential work has been in linguistic pragmatics—specifically in the development of Relevance Theory with French anthropologist Dan Sperber. This work has been influential in the Philosophy of Language. Important influences on Wilson are Noam Chomsky, Jerry Fodor, Paul Grice. Linguists and philosophers of language who have been students of Wilson include Stephen Neale, Robyn Carston. Wilson completed her Bachelor of Philosophy at the University of Oxford while working with philosopher H. P. Grice, she completed her PhD at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology with linguist Noam Chomsky as her dissertation advisor. She was a lecturer at Oxford. Wilson's work is in linguistic pragmatics. Pragmatics is the study of how contextual factors interact with linguistic meaning in the interpretation of utterances.
Her 1975 book Presuppositions and Non-Truth-Conditional Semantics advocated a pragmatic approach to presuppositions. In her longstanding collaboration with French Anthropologist Dan Sperber she has published many books and articles over 30 years, their 1986 book Relevance: Communication and Cognition laid the foundation for Relevance Theory which they have continued to develop in subsequent books and articles. Relevance Theory is the theory that the aim of an interpreter is to find an interpretation of the speaker's meaning that satisfies the presumption of optimal relevance. An input is relevant to an individual when it connects with available contextual assumptions to yield positive cognitive effects. Novel Wilson, D. Slave of the Passions. Picador. 1992. Academic Books Wilson, D. Presuppositions and Non-Truth-Conditional Semantics. Academic Press. 1975. Sperber, D. & Wilson, D. Relevance: Communication and Cognition. Oxford University Press. 1986. Wilson, D. & Sperber, D. Meaning and Relevance. Cambridge University Press.
2012. Academic Articles Dan Sperber & Deirdre Wilson, A Deflationary Account of Metaphor. Deirdre Wilson & Robyn Carston, Concepts. Deirdre Wilson & Robyn Carston. Metaphor and the'Emergent Property' Issue. Dan Sperber & Deirdre Wilson. Pragmatics and Mind-Reading. Deirdre Wilson & Dan Sperber. Truthfulness and Relevance
University College London
University College London, which has operated under the official name of UCL since 2005, is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom. It is a constituent college of the federal University of London, is the third largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment, the largest by postgraduate enrolment. Established in 1826 as London University by founders inspired by the radical ideas of Jeremy Bentham, UCL was the first university institution to be established in London, the first in England to be secular and to admit students regardless of their religion. UCL makes the contested claims of being the third-oldest university in England and the first to admit women. In 1836 UCL became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London, granted a royal charter in the same year, it has grown through mergers, including with the Institute of Neurology, the Royal Free Hospital Medical School, the Eastman Dental Institute, the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, the School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Education.
UCL has its main campus in the Bloomsbury area of central London, with a number of institutes and teaching hospitals elsewhere in central London and satellite campuses in Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in Stratford, east London and in Doha, Qatar. UCL is organised into 11 constituent faculties, within which there are over 100 departments and research centres. UCL operates several culturally significant museums and manages collections in a wide range of fields, including the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology and the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy, administers the annual Orwell Prize in political writing. In 2017/18, UCL had around 41,500 students and 15,100 staff and had a total group income of £1.45 billion, of which £476.3 million was from research grants and contracts. In the most recent Research Excellence Framework rankings for research power, UCL was the top-rated university in the UK as calculated by Times Higher Education, second as calculated by The Guardian/Research Fortnight.
UCL had the 9th highest average entry tariff in the UK for students starting in 2016. UCL is ranked from tenth to twentieth in the four major international rankings, from eighth to eleventh in the national league tables. UCL is a member of numerous academic organisations, including the Russell Group and the League of European Research Universities, is part of UCL Partners, the world's largest academic health science centre, the "golden triangle" of research-intensive English universities. UCL alumni include the'Father of the Nation' of each of India and Mauritius, the founders of Ghana, modern Japan and Nigeria, the inventor of the telephone, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. UCL academics discovered five of the occurring noble gases, discovered hormones, invented the vacuum tube, made several foundational advances in modern statistics; as of 2018, 33 Nobel Prize winners and 3 Fields medalists have been affiliated with UCL as alumni, faculty or researchers. UCL was founded on 11 February 1826 under the name London University, as an alternative to the Anglican universities of Oxford and Cambridge.
London University's first Warden was Leonard Horner, the first scientist to head a British university. Despite the held belief that the philosopher Jeremy Bentham was the founder of UCL, his direct involvement was limited to the purchase of share No. 633, at a cost of £100 paid in nine instalments between December 1826 and January 1830. In 1828 he did nominate a friend to sit on the council, in 1827 attempted to have his disciple John Bowring appointed as the first professor of English or History, but on both occasions his candidates were unsuccessful; this suggests that while his ideas may have been influential, he himself was less so. However, Bentham is today regarded as the "spiritual father" of UCL, as his radical ideas on education and society were the inspiration to the institution's founders the Scotsmen James Mill and Henry Brougham. In 1827, the Chair of Political Economy at London University was created, with John Ramsay McCulloch as the first incumbent, establishing one of the first departments of economics in England.
In 1828 the university became the first in England to offer English as a subject and the teaching of Classics and medicine began. In 1830, London University founded the London University School, which would become University College School. In 1833, the university appointed Alexander Maconochie, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, as the first professor of geography in the UK. In 1834, University College Hospital opened as a teaching hospital for the university's medical school. In 1836, London University was incorporated by royal charter under the name University College, London. On the same day, the University of London was created by royal charter as a degree-awarding examining board for students from affiliated schools and colleges, with University College and King's College, London being named in the charter as the first two affiliates; the Slade School of Fine Art was founded as part of University College in 1871, following a bequest from Felix Slade. In 1878, the University of London gained a supplemental charter making it the first British university to be allowed to award degrees to women.
The same year, UCL admitted women to the faculties of Arts and Law and of Science, although women remained barred from the faculties of Engineering and of Medicine. While UCL claims to have been the first university in England