"Dragon Kings" redirects here. For the ruler of Bhutan called the Dragon King, see King of Bhutan. For all other uses, see Dragon King; the Dragon King known as the Dragon God, is a Chinese water and weather god. He is regarded as the dispenser of rain as well as the zoomorphic representation of the yang masculine power of generation, he is the collective personification of the ancient concept of the lóng in Chinese culture. He can take a variety of forms, the most important ones being the cosmological Sihai Longwang who, with the addition of the Yellow Dragon of Xuanyuan, represent the watery and chthonic forces presided over by the Five Forms of the Highest Deity, or their zoomorphic incarnation. One of his epithets is Dragon King of Springs; the dragon king is the king of the dragons and he controls all of the creatures in the sea. The dragon king gets his orders from the Jade Emperor. Besides being a water deity, the Dragon God also serves as a territorial tutelary deity to Tudigong and Houtu.
The Yellow Dragon does not have a precise body of water. However, as the zoomorphic incarnation of the Yellow Emperor, he represents the source of the myriad things; each one of the four Dragon Kings of the Four Seas is associated to a colour and a body of water corresponding to one of the four cardinal directions and natural boundaries of China: the East Sea, the South Sea, the West Sea, the North Sea. They appear in the classical novels like The Investiture of Journey to the West; each of them has a proper name, they share the surname Ao. The Azure Dragon or Blue-Green Dragon, or Green Dragon, is the Dragon God of the east, of the essence of spring, his proper name is Ao Guang, he is the patron of the East China Sea. The Red Dragon is of the essence of summer, he is the patron of the South China Sea and his proper name is Ao Qin. The Black Dragon called "Dark Dragon" or "Mysterious Dragon", is the Dragon God of the north and the essence of winter, his proper names are Ao Shun or Ao Ming, his body of water is Lake Baikal.
The White Dragon is the essence of autumn. His proper names are Ao Jun or Ao Ji, he is the patron of Qinghai Lake. Worship of the Dragon God is celebrated throughout China with sacrifices and processions during the fifth and sixth moons, on the date of his birthday the thirteenth day of the sixth moon. A folk religious movement of associations of good-doing in modern Hebei is devoted to a generic Dragon God whose icon is a tablet with his name inscribed, for which it has been named the "movement of the Dragon Tablet"; the Dragon God is traditionally venerated with dragon boat racing. Longwang in art Chinese dragon Nagaraja Prince Nezha's Triumph Against Dragon King Shenlong Typhoon Longwang Fowler, Jeanine D.. An Introduction to the Philosophy and Religion of Taoism: Pathways to Immortality. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 1845190866. Nikaido, Yoshihiro. Asian Folk Religion and Cultural Interaction. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 3847004859. Overmyer, Daniel L.. Local Religion in North China in the Twentieth Century the Structure and Organization of Community Rituals and Beliefs.
Leiden. ISBN 9789047429364. Tom, K. S.. Echoes from Old China: Life and Lore of the Middle Kingdom. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0824812859. Media related to Dragon King at Wikimedia Commons
Robin Hood is a legendary heroic outlaw depicted in English folklore and subsequently featured in literature and film. According to legend, he was a skilled archer and swordsman. In some versions of the legend, he is depicted as being of noble birth, in modern time he is sometimes depicted as having fought in the Crusades before returning to England to find his lands taken by the Sheriff. In the oldest known versions he is instead a member of the yeoman class. Traditionally depicted dressed in Lincoln green, he is said to have robbed from the rich and given to the poor. Through retellings and variations a body of familiar characters associated with Robin Hood have been created; these include his lover, Maid Marian, his band of outlaws, the Merry Men, his chief opponent, the Sheriff of Nottingham. The Sheriff is depicted as assisting Prince John in usurping the rightful but absent King Richard, to whom Robin Hood remains loyal, his partisanship of the common people and his hostility to the Sheriff of Nottingham are early recorded features of the legend but his interest in the rightfulness of the king is not, neither is his setting in the reign of Richard I.
He became a popular folk figure in the Late Middle Ages, the earliest known ballads featuring him are from the 15th century. There have been numerous variations and adaptations of the story over the last six hundred years, the story continues to be represented in literature and television. Robin Hood is considered one of the best known tales of English folklore; the historicity of Robin Hood has been debated for centuries. There are numerous references to historical figures with similar names that have been proposed as possible evidence of his existence, some dating back to the late 13th century. At least eight plausible origins to the story have been mooted by historians and folklorists, including suggestions that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by or in reference to bandits; the first clear reference to'rhymes of Robin Hood' is from the alliterative poem Piers Plowman, thought to have been composed in the 1370s, but the earliest surviving copies of the narrative ballads that tell his story date to the second half of the 15th century, or the first decade of the 16th century.
In these early accounts, Robin Hood's partisanship of the lower classes, his devotion to the Virgin Mary and associated special regard for women, his outstanding skill as an archer, his anti-clericalism, his particular animosity towards the Sheriff of Nottingham are clear. Little John, Much the Miller's Son and Will Scarlet all appear, although not yet Maid Marian or Friar Tuck; the latter has been part of the legend since at least the 15th century, when he is mentioned in a Robin Hood play script. In modern popular culture, Robin Hood is seen as a contemporary and supporter of the late-12th-century king Richard the Lionheart, Robin being driven to outlawry during the misrule of Richard's brother John while Richard was away at the Third Crusade; this view first gained currency in the 16th century. It is not supported by the earliest ballads; the early compilation, A Gest of Robyn Hode, names the king as'Edward'. The oldest surviving ballad, Robin Hood and the Monk, gives less support to the picture of Robin Hood as a partisan of the true king.
The setting of the early ballads is attributed by scholars to either the 13th century or the 14th, although it is recognised they are not historically consistent. The early ballads are quite clear on Robin Hood's social status: he is a yeoman. While the precise meaning of this term changed over time, including free retainers of an aristocrat and small landholders, it always referred to commoners; the essence of it in the present context was'neither a knight nor a peasant or "husbonde" but something in between'. Artisans were among those regarded as'yeomen' in the 14th century. From the 16th century on, there were attempts to elevate Robin Hood to the nobility and in two influential plays, Anthony Munday presented him at the end of the 16th century as the Earl of Huntingdon, as he is still presented in modern times; as well as ballads, the legend was transmitted by'Robin Hood games' or plays that were an important part of the late medieval and early modern May Day festivities. The first record of a Robin Hood game was in 1426 in Exeter, but the reference does not indicate how old or widespread this custom was at the time.
The Robin Hood games are known to have flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries. It is stated as fact that Maid Marian and a jolly friar entered the legend through the May Games; the earliest surviving text of a Robin Hood ballad is the 15th-century "Robin Hood and the Monk". This is preserved in Cambridge University manuscript Ff.5.48. Written after 1450, it contains many of the elements still associated with the legend, from the Nottingham setting to the bitter enmity between Robin and the local sheriff; the first printed version is A Gest of Robyn Hode, a collection of separate stories that attempts to unite the episodes into a single continuous narrative. After this comes "Robin Hood and the Potter", contained in a manuscript of c. 1503. "The Potter" is markedly different in tone from "The Monk": whereas the earlier tale is'a thriller' the latter is more comic, its plot involving trickery and cunning rather than straightforward force. Other early texts are dramatic pieces, the earliest being the fragmentary Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham.
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Song of Albion
The Song of Albion is a trilogy of fantasy novels by American writer Stephen Lawhead, consisting of The Paradise War, The Silver Hand and The Endless Knot. The series combines Christian religious themes with Celtic mythology and tells the tale of a pair of university students who stumble into an alternate world, it has been continuously in print for over twenty years and remains one of Lawhead's most popular series. The trilogy was published in an omnibus edition in 2014; the series has been illustrated by a number of artists including Rodney Matthews, Daniel Horne, Anne Yvonne Gilbert, Peter Holt. The book begins with Simon Rawnson, a British native and his American friend, Lewis Gillies, both graduate students at Oxford, embarking on a journey to a farm in Scotland where a legendary Ice Age creature known as an aurochs has been recovered. While expecting it to be a hoax, Lewis is startled to find that not only is the aurochs real but that Simon disappears after entering a cairn nearby. After enduring weeks of uncertainty and doubt, Lewis encounters the eccentric Professor Nettles who helps him understand what has happened: Simon had travelled into the world of the faery folk known as Tuatha de Danann.
Although skeptical of this, Lewis comes to believe it, returns to the cairn with Nettles where he himself stumbles into Tuatha de Danann. In Albion he encounters Simon again, who saves his life and helps him to be accepted into the court of King Meldryn. Llew is sent to the island school of Ynys Sci to be trained as a warrior and is assimilated into the culture and people of Albion. Llew travels with Tegid to a gathering of the bards, where the great evil of Albion's world realm, Cythrawl is released. With the help of the dying bard Ollathir, the Cythrawl is banished. Furious at having been defeated, the Cythrawl unleashes Lord Nudd, an evil king's son from ages past to destroy Albion and its peoples. Having gained leadership over the evil monsters of the underworld he has begun leading this Demon Horde in a campaign of destruction. Simon has worked his way into Prince Meldron's service, leading the feared Wolf Pack, Meldron's personal guard, it is revealed that Simon was manipulating the king's arrogant son into pursuing a kingship by heritage, rather than the established and true rite of selection by the Chief Bard, Tegid.
After Lord Nudd has surrounded the king's northern stronghold, Lewis undertakes a desperate bid to locate the Song of Albion, the only hope of stopping Nudd, beneath the palace. He succeeds with Tegid in finding it, only to discover that the Sleeping Bard who sings the Song has been murdered, it is discovered that the Bard instilled the Song into the stones used to crush him to death, Llew and Tegid are able to use these stones to release the Song so that Nudd and his army are decimated by its power. Following this, Llew is made the new champion to King Meldryn, but Meldryn is murdered afterward by Paladyr. In the wake of this Llew tries to force Simon to return to their own world so as to prevent him from causing more trouble, but Simon escapes, Lewis encounters Nettles once more with a set of researchers bent on discovering Albion for themselves; the book ends with Lewis returning to Albion to bring him back. Llew returns to Albion to bring Simon/Siawn Hy back to their own world. However, Siawn is alert to this now and will not be so tricked again.
He backs Meldron's claim to the throne by right of heritage, but Tegid challenges this with his own declaration of choice in Llew as the next king. The surprised Llew willingly goes along with this, but when Tegid publicly performs the rite of kingship with Llew, Meldron declares them outlaws and has them arrested, they escape and make their way to the bard's ancient meeting mound, where they hope to establish their support for Llew's claim to the throne. Meldron, brazenly attacks the bards when they meet and kills all of them save Tegid and Llew, he has Tegid blinded and cuts off Llew's hand, ostensibly to destroy any claim he might have to the throne, as a maimed man cannot be king. He sends them out to sea in a small boat to perish; the boat, returns to shore and the two men move north. There they establish an enclave of those who either support Llew or are fleeing Meldron's campaign of destruction across the land, led by the feared Wolf Pack; because of the link between the land and the kingship, Meldron's usurping the throne has caused the land to sicken.
The water begins to turn poisonous caustic and deadly. After a large settlement has formed with Llew and Tegid leading them, Meldron arrives and take hostages of the people. Llew surrenders himself to arrange their release. Meldron throws Llew into the corrupting waters of the lake. Instead, Llew is granted the Silver Hand through divine intervention, emerging from the water unscathed; the shock of this causes Meldron to capsize his boat, sending him into the deadly waters, where he dies horribly. With Llew's hand restored, he is no longer maimed and his kingship is assured; the Wolf Pack is tried before Llew's council, where they are sentenced to death. Siawn, escapes when his turn comes at last, but as he reaches the water's edge, he is struck by a spear thrust, he seems to disappear as he falls into the water, it is apparent that he has returned to Lewis's world, where it is assumed he died of his injury. Nettles, who had joined Llew in Albion during the events of the previous book, returns to his own world, urging Llew to come as well.
Llew, feels he still has a life and purpose in Albion and decides to stay. He marries the d
Oxford is a university city in south central England and the county town of Oxfordshire. With a population of 155,000, it is the 52nd largest city in the United Kingdom, with one of the fastest growing populations in the UK, it remains the most ethnically diverse area in Oxfordshire county; the city is 51 miles from London, 61 miles from Bristol, 59 miles from Southampton, 57 miles from Birmingham and 24 miles from Reading. The city is known worldwide as the home of the University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking world. Buildings in Oxford demonstrate notable examples of every English architectural period since the late Saxon period. Oxford is known as a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold. Oxford has a broad economic base, its industries include motor manufacturing, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses, some being academic offshoots. Oxford was first settled in Anglo-Saxon times and was known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "ford of the oxen".
It began with the establishment of a river crossing for oxen around AD 900. In the 10th century, Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex and was on several occasions raided by Danes. In 1002, many Danes were killed in Oxford during the England-wide St. Brice's Day massacre, a killing of Danes ordered by King Æthelred the Unready; the skeletons of more than 30 suspected victims were unearthed in 2008 during the course of building work at St John's College. The ‘massacre’ was a contributing factor to King Sweyn I of Denmark’s invasion of England in 1003 and the sacking of Oxford by the Danes in 1004. Oxford was damaged during the Norman Invasion of 1066. Following the conquest, the town was assigned to a governor, Robert D'Oyly, who ordered the construction of Oxford Castle to confirm Norman authority over the area; the castle has never been used for military purposes and its remains survive to this day. D'Oyly set up a monastic community in the castle consisting of a chapel and living quarters for monks.
The community never grew large but it earned its place in history as one of Britain's oldest places of formal education. It was there that in 1139 Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote his History of the Kings of Britain, a compilation of Arthurian legends. Additionally, there is evidence of Jews living in the city as early as 1141, during the 12th century the Jewish community is estimated to have numbered about 80–100; the city was besieged during The Anarchy in 1142. In 1191, a city charter stated in Latin, "Be it known to all those present and future that we, the citizens of Oxford of the Commune of the City and of the Merchant Guild have given, by this, our present charter, confirm the donation of the island of Midney with all those things pertaining to it, to the Church of St. Mary at Oseney and to the canons serving God in that place. Since, every year, at Michaelmas the said canons render half a mark of silver for their tenure at the time when we have ordered it as witnesses the legal deed of our ancestors which they made concerning the gift of this same island.
We have made this concession and confirmation in the Common council of the City and we have confirmed it with our common seal. These are those who have made this confirmation. Oxford's prestige was enhanced by its charter granted by King Henry II, granting its citizens the same privileges and exemptions as those enjoyed by the capital of the kingdom. Oxford's status as a liberty obtained from this period until the 19th century. A grandson of King John established Rewley Abbey for the Cistercian Order. Parliaments were held in the city during the 13th century; the Provisions of Oxford were instigated by a group of barons led by Simon de Montfort. Richard I of England and John, King of England the sons of Henry II of England, were both born at Beaumont Palace in Oxford, on 8 September 1157 and 24 December 1166 respectively. A plaque in Beaumont Street commemorates these events; the University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th-century records. Of the hundreds of Aularian houses that sprang up across the city, only St Edmund Hall remains.
What put an end to the halls was the emergence of colleges. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College and Merton; these colleges were established at a time when Europeans were starting to translate the writings of Greek philosophers. These writings challenged European ideology, inspiring scientific discoveries and advancements in the arts, as society began to see itself in a new way; these colleges at Oxf
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed