Neuropsychology is the study and characterization of the behavioral modifications that follow a neurological trauma or condition. It is both an experimental and clinical field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders. Whereas classical neurology focuses on the pathology of the nervous system and classical psychology is divorced from it, neuropsychology seeks to discover how the brain correlates with the mind through the study of neurological patients, it thus shares concerns with neuropsychiatry and with behavioral neurology in general. The term neuropsychology has been applied to lesion studies in animals, it has been applied in efforts to record electrical activity from individual cells in higher primates. In practice, neuropsychologists tend to work in research settings, clinical settings, or forensic settings or industry.
Neuropsychology is a new discipline within the field of psychology. The first textbook defining the field, Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology, was published by Kolb and Whishaw in 1980. However, the history of its development can be traced back to the Third Dynasty in ancient Egypt even earlier. There is much debate as to. For many centuries, the brain was thought useless and was discarded during burial processes and autopsies; as the field of medicine developed its understanding of human anatomy and physiology, different theories were developed as to why the body functioned the way it did. Many times, bodily functions were approached from a religious point of view and abnormalities were blamed on bad spirits and the gods; the brain has not always been considered the center of the functioning body. It has taken hundreds of years to develop our understanding of the brain and how it affects our behaviors. In ancient Egypt, writings on medicine date from the time of the priest Imhotep, they took a more scientific approach to medicine and disease, describing the brain, trauma and remedies for reference for future physicians.
Despite this, Egyptians saw the heart not the brain as the seat of the soul. Aristotle reinforced this focus on the heart, he believed the heart to be in control of mental processes, looked on the brain, due to its inert nature, as a mechanism for cooling the heat generated by the heart. He drew his conclusions based on the empirical study of animals, he found that while their brains were cold to the touch and that such contact did not trigger any movements, the heart was warm and active and slowing dependent on mood. Such beliefs were upheld by many for years to come, persisting through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period until they began to falter in the 17th Century due to further research; the influence of Aristotle in the development of neuropsychology is evident within language used in modern day, since we "follow our hearts" and "learn by the heart". Hippocrates looked upon the brain as the seat of the soul, he drew a connection between the brain and behaviors of the body saying "The brain exercises the greatest power in the man".
Apart from moving the focus from the heart as the "seat of the soul" to the brain, Hippocrates did not go into much detail about its actual functioning. However, by switching the attention of the medical community to the brain, the doors were opened to a more scientific discovery of the organ responsible for our behaviors. For years to come, scientists were inspired to explore the functions of the body and to find concrete explanations for both normal and abnormal behaviors. Scientific discovery led them to believe that there were natural and organically occurring reasons to explain various functions of the body, it could all be traced back to the brain. Over the years, science would continue to expand and the mysteries of the world would begin to make sense, or at least be looked at in a different way. Hippocrates introduced man to the concept of the mind –, seen as a separate function apart from the actual brain organ. Philosopher René Descartes expanded upon this idea and is most known by his work on the mind-body problem.
Descartes' ideas were looked upon as overly philosophical and lacking in sufficient scientific background. Descartes focused much of his anatomical experimentation on the brain, paying specific attention to the pineal gland – which he argued was the actual "seat of the soul". Still rooted in a spiritual outlook towards the scientific world, the body was said to be mortal, the soul immortal; the pineal gland was thought to be the place at which the mind would interact with the mortal and machine-like body. At the time, Descartes was convinced the mind had control over the behaviors of the body – but that the body could have influence over the mind, referred to as dualism; this idea that the mind had control over the body, but man's body could resist or influence other behaviors was a major turning point in the way many physiologists would look at the brain. The capabilities of the mind were observed to do much more than react, but to be rational and function in organized, thoughtful ways – much more complex than he thought the animal world to be.
These ideas, although disregarded by many
Big Five personality traits
The Big Five personality traits known as the five-factor model and the OCEAN model, is a taxonomy for personality traits. It is based on common language descriptors; when factor analysis is applied to personality survey data, some words used to describe aspects of personality are applied to the same person. For example, someone described as conscientious is more to be described as "always prepared" rather than "messy"; this theory is based therefore on the association between words but not on neuropsychological experiments. This theory uses descriptors of common language and therefore suggests five broad dimensions used to describe the human personality and psyche; the five factors have been defined as openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion and neuroticism, represented by the acronym OCEAN or CANOE. Beneath each proposed global factor, there are a number of correlated and more specific primary factors. For example, extraversion is said to include such related qualities as gregariousness, excitement seeking, warmth and positive emotions.
That these underlying factors can be found is consistent with the lexical hypothesis: personality characteristics that are most important in people's lives will become a part of their language and, that more important personality characteristics are more to be encoded into language as a single word. The five factors are: Openness to experience. Appreciation for art, adventure, unusual ideas and variety of experience. Openness reflects the degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity and a preference for novelty and variety a person has, it is described as the extent to which a person is imaginative or independent and depicts a personal preference for a variety of activities over a strict routine. High openness can be perceived as unpredictability or lack of focus, more to engage in risky behaviour or drug taking. Individuals that have high openness tend to lean, in occupation and hobby, towards the arts, being creative and appreciative of the significance of intellectual and artistic pursuits.
Moreover, individuals with high openness are said to pursue self-actualization by seeking out intense, euphoric experiences. Conversely, those with low openness seek to gain fulfillment through perseverance and are characterized as pragmatic and data-driven—sometimes perceived to be dogmatic and closed-minded; some disagreement remains about how to contextualize the openness factor. Conscientiousness. Tendency to be organized and dependable, show self-discipline, act dutifully, aim for achievement, prefer planned rather than spontaneous behavior. High conscientiousness is perceived as being stubborn and focused. Low conscientiousness is associated with flexibility and spontaneity, but can appear as sloppiness and lack of reliability. Extraversion. Energetic, assertiveness and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others, talkativeness. High extraversion is perceived as attention-seeking and domineering. Low extraversion causes a reserved, reflective personality, which can be perceived as aloof or self-absorbed.
Extroverted people may appear more dominant in social settings, as opposed to introverted people in this setting. Agreeableness. Tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others, it is a measure of one's trusting and helpful nature, whether a person is well-tempered or not. High agreeableness is seen as naive or submissive. Low agreeableness personalities are competitive or challenging people, which can be seen as argumentative or untrustworthy. Neuroticism. Tendency to be prone to psychological stress; the tendency to experience unpleasant emotions such as anger, anxiety and vulnerability. Neuroticism refers to the degree of emotional stability and impulse control and is sometimes referred to by its low pole, "emotional stability". High stability manifests itself as a stable and calm personality, but can be seen as uninspiring and unconcerned. Low stability manifests as the reactive and excitable personality found in dynamic individuals, but can be perceived as unstable or insecure.
Individuals with higher levels of neuroticism tend to have worse psychological well being. People who do not exhibit a clear predisposition to a single factor in each dimension above are considered adaptable and reasonable, yet they can be perceived as unprincipled and calculating. Depending on how much of each trait a person has, it could make someone more susceptible to participating in certain activities. Family life and the way someone was raised will affect these traits. Twin studies and other research have shown that about half of the variation between individuals results from their genetics and half from their environments. Researchers have found conscientiousness, openness to experience, neuroticism to be stable from childhood through adulthood; the Big Five personality traits was the model to comprehend the relationship between personality and academic behaviors. This model was defined by several independent sets of researchers who used factor analysis of verbal descriptors of human behavior.
These researchers began by studying relationships between a large number of verbal descriptors related to personality traits. They reduced the lists of these descriptors by 5–10 fold
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals. It is a scientific study which aims to show how people are individually different due to psychological forces, its areas of focus include: construction of a coherent picture of the individual and their major psychological processes investigation of individual psychological differences investigation of human nature and psychological similarities between individuals"Personality" is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their environment, emotions and behaviors in various situations. The word personality originates from the Latin persona, which means "mask". Personality refers to the pattern of thoughts, social adjustments, behaviors exhibited over time that influences one's expectations, self-perceptions and attitudes. Personality predicts human reactions to other people and stress. Gordon Allport described two major ways to study personality: the idiographic.
Nomothetic psychology seeks general laws that can be applied to many different people, such as the principle of self-actualization or the trait of extraversion. Idiographic psychology is an attempt to understand the unique aspects of a particular individual; the study of personality has a broad and varied history in psychology with an abundance of theoretical trad. The major theories include dispositional perspective, humanistic, behaviorist and social learning perspective. However, many researchers and psychologists do not explicitly identify themselves with a certain perspective and instead take an eclectic approach. Research in this area is empirically driven, such as dimensional models, based on multivariate statistics, such as factor analysis, or emphasizes theory development, such as that of the psychodynamic theory. There is a substantial emphasis on the applied field of personality testing. In psychological education and training, the study of the nature of personality and its psychological development is reviewed as a prerequisite to courses in abnormal psychology or clinical psychology.
Many of the ideas developed by historical and modern personality theorists stem from the basic philosophical assumptions they hold. The study of personality is not a purely empirical discipline, as it brings in elements of art and philosophy to draw general conclusions; the following five categories are some of the most fundamental philosophical assumptions on which theorists disagree: Freedom versus determinism – This is the question whether humans have control over their own behavior and understand the motives behind it or if their behavior is causally determined by forces beyond their control. Behavior is categorized as being either unconscious, environmental or biological by various theories. Heredity versus environment – Personality is thought to be determined either by genetics and biology, or by environment and experiences. Contemporary research suggests that most personality traits are based on the joint influence of genetics and environment. One of the forerunners in this arena is C. Robert Cloninger, who pioneered the Temperament and Character model.
Uniqueness versus universality – This question discusses the extent of each human's individuality or similarity in nature. Gordon Allport, Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers were all advocates of the uniqueness of individuals. Behaviorists and cognitive theorists, in contrast, emphasize the importance of universal principles, such as reinforcement and self-efficacy. Active versus reactive – This question explores whether humans act through individual initiative or through outside stimuli. Traditional behavioral theorists believed that humans are passively shaped by their environments, whereas humanistic and cognitive theorists believe that humans are more active in their role. Most modern theorists agree that both are important, with aggregate behavior being determined by traits and situational factors being the primary predictor of behavior in the short term. Optimistic versus pessimistic – Personality theories differ with regard to whether humans are integral in the changing of their own personalities.
Theories that place a great deal of emphasis on learning are more optimistic than those that do not. Personality type refers to the psychological classification of different types of people. Personality types are distinguished from personality traits. There are many types of theories regarding personality, but each theory contains several and sometimes many sub theories. A "theory of personality" constructed by any given psychologist will contain multiple relating theories or sub theories expanding as more psychologists explore the theory. For example, according to type theories, there are two types of people and extroverts. According to trait theories and extroversion are part of a continuous dimension with many people in the middle; the idea of psychological types originated in the theoretical work of Carl Jung in his 1921 book Psychologische Typen and William Marston. Building on the writings and observations of Jung during World War II, Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine C. Briggs, delineated personality types by constructing the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator.
This model was used by David Keirsey with a different understanding from Jung and Myers. In the former Soviet Union, Lithuanian Aušra Augustinavičiūtė independently derived a model of personality type from Jung's called socionics. Theories could be co
Cape Town is the oldest city in South Africa, colloquially named the Mother City. It is primate city of the Western Cape province, it forms part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality. The Parliament of South Africa sits in Cape Town; the other two capitals are located in Bloemfontein. The city is known for its harbour, for its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, for landmarks such as Table Mountain and Cape Point. Cape Town is home to 64% of the Western Cape's population, it is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. The city was named the World Design Capital for 2014 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by both The New York Times and The Daily Telegraph. Located on the shore of Table Bay, Cape Town, as the oldest urban area in South Africa, was developed by the Dutch East India Company as a supply station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa and the Far East.
Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established Dutch Cape Colony, the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony; until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa. Cape Town is not just the city centre area, its suburbs and non-urban areas extend from the South Peninsula to beyond Mamre in the north and as far east as Gordon's Bay; the earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago. Little is known of the history of the region's first residents, since there is no written history from the area before it was first mentioned by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1488, the first European to reach the area and named it "Cape of Storms", it was renamed by John II of Portugal as "Cape of Good Hope" because of the great optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to India and the East.
Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497. In the late 16th century, French, Danish and English but Portuguese ships stopped over in Table Bay en route to the Indies, they traded tobacco and iron with the Khoikhoi in exchange for fresh meat. In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck and other employees of the Dutch East India Company were sent to the Cape to establish a way-station for ships travelling to the Dutch East Indies, the Fort de Goede Hoop; the settlement grew during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. This labour shortage prompted the authorities to import slaves from Madagascar. Many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities. Under Van Riebeeck and his successors as VOC commanders and governors at the Cape, an impressive range of useful plants were introduced to the Cape – in the process changing the natural environment forever; some of these, including grapes, ground nuts, potatoes and citrus, had an important and lasting influence on the societies and economies of the region.
The Dutch Republic being transformed in Revolutionary France's vassal Batavian Republic, Great Britain moved to take control of its colonies. Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803. British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Cape Town was permanently ceded to Britain, it became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for greater independence from Britain, with the Cape attaining its own parliament and a locally accountable Prime Minister. Suffrage was established according to sexist Cape Qualified Franchise; the discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa. Conflicts between the Boer republics in the interior and the British colonial government resulted in the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, which Britain won.
In 1910, Britain established the Union of South Africa, which unified the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the British colony of Natal. Cape Town became the legislative capital of the Union, of the Republic of South Africa. In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of apartheid under the slogan of "swart gevaar"; this led to the erosion and eventual abolition of the Cape's multiracial franchise, as well as to the Group Areas Act, which classified all areas according to race. Multi-racial suburbs of Cape Town were either purged of unlawful residents or demolished; the most infamous example of this in Cape Town was District Six. After it was declared a whites-only region in 1965, all housing there was demolished and over 60,000 residents were forcibly removed. Many of these residents were relocated to the Cape Lavender Hill. Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a "Coloured labour preference area", to the exclusion of "Bantus", i.e. Africans. School students from Langa and Nyanga in Cape Town reacted to the news of
Social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined or implied presence of others. In this definition, scientific refers to the empirical investigation using the scientific method; the terms thoughts and behavior refer to psychological variables that can be measured in humans. The statement that others' presence may be imagined or implied suggests that humans are malleable to social influences when alone, such as when watching television or following internalized cultural norms. Social psychologists explain human behavior as a result of the interaction of mental states and social situations. Social psychologists examine factors that cause behaviors to unfold in a given way in the presence of others, they study conditions under which certain behavior and feelings occur. Social psychology is concerned with the way these feelings, beliefs and goals are cognitively constructed and how these mental representations, in turn, influence our interactions with others.
Social psychology traditionally bridged the gap between sociology. During the years following World War II there was frequent collaboration between psychologists and sociologists; the two disciplines, have become specialized and isolated from each other in recent years, with sociologists focusing on "macro variables" to a much greater extent than psychologists. Sociological approaches to psychology remain an important counterpart to psychological research in this area. In addition to the split between psychology and sociology, there has been a somewhat less pronounced difference in emphasis between American social psychologists and European social psychologists; as a generalization, American researchers traditionally have focused more on the individual, whereas Europeans have paid more attention to group level phenomena. Although there were some older writings about social psychology, such as those by Islamic philosopher Al-Farabi, the discipline of social psychology, as its modern-day definition, began in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century.
By that time, the discipline had developed a significant foundation. Following the 18th century, those in the emerging field of social psychology were concerned with developing concrete explanations for different aspects of human nature, they attempted to discover concrete cause and effect relationships that explained the social interactions in the world around them. In order to do so, they believed that the scientific method, an empirically based scientific measure, could be applied to human behavior; the first published study in this area was an experiment in 1898 by Norman Triplett, on the phenomenon of social facilitation. During the 1930s, many Gestalt psychologists, most notably Kurt Lewin, fled to the United States from Nazi Germany, they were instrumental in developing the field as something separate from the behavioral and psychoanalytic schools that were dominant during that time, social psychology has always maintained the legacy of their interests in perception and cognition. Attitudes and small group phenomena were the most studied topics in this era.
During World War II, social psychologists studied persuasion and propaganda for the U. S. military. After the war, researchers became interested in a variety of social problems, including gender issues and racial prejudice. Most notable and contentious of these were the Stanley Milgram shock experiments on obedience to authority. In the sixties, there was growing interest in new topics, such as cognitive dissonance, bystander intervention, aggression. By the 1970s, social psychology in America had reached a crisis. There was heated debate over the ethics of laboratory experimentation, whether or not attitudes predicted behavior, how much science could be done in a cultural context; this was the time when a radical situationist approach challenged the relevance of self and personality in psychology. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s social psychology reached a more mature level. Two of the areas social psychology matured in were methods. Careful ethical standards now regulate research. Pluralistic and multicultural perspectives have emerged.
Modern researchers are interested in many phenomena, but attribution, social cognition, the self-concept are the greatest areas of growth in recent years. Social psychologists have maintained their applied interests with contributions in the social psychology of health, education and the workplace. In social psychology, attitudes are defined as learned, global evaluations of a person, place, or issue that influence thought and action. Put more attitudes are basic expressions of approval or disapproval, favorability or unfavorability, or as Bem put it, likes and dislikes. Examples would include liking chocolate ice cream, or endorsing the values of a particular political party. Social psychologists have studied attitude formation, the structure of attitudes, attitude change, the function of attitudes, the relationship between attitudes and behavior; because people are influenced by the situation, general attitudes are not always good predictors of specific behavior. For example, for a variety of reasons, a person may value the environment but not recycle a can on a particular day.
In recent times, research on attitudes has examined the distinction between traditional, self-reported attitude measures and "implicit" or unconscious attitudes. For example, experiments using the Implicit Association Test have found that people demonstrate implicit bias against other races when their explicit responses
Strathclyde was one of nine former local government regions of Scotland created by the Local Government Act 1973 and abolished in 1996 by the Local Government etc. Act 1994; the Strathclyde region had 19 districts. The area was on the west coast of Scotland and stretched from the Highlands in the north to the Southern Uplands in the south; as a local government region, its population, in excess of 2.5 million, was the largest of the regions. The Region was responsible for education; the regional administrative headquarters was in the City of Glasgow and politics were by and large dominated by the Labour Party. The first regional council convener was the Reverend Geoff Shaw, who died in 1978, it was due to his leadership that the Region forged its innovative strategy on multiple deprivation, which remained its central commitment to the end of the Region's life through "Social Strategy for the Eighties" and "SS for the 90s". Until April 2013, the area was used as a police force area, covered by Strathclyde Police and a fire service area, covered by Strathclyde Fire and Rescue Service.
Both have now been replaced by single services. The name is still in use as a transport area, covered by Strathclyde Partnership for Transport; the area covered by SPT however is smaller than the region, as most of Argyll and Bute lies outside its remit. The region was formed from the county of the City of Glasgow, the counties of Ayr, Dunbarton and Renfrew, parts of the counties of Argyll, the county of Stirling. Since 1996 the area of the region has been divided between 12 council areas: Argyll and Bute, East Ayrshire, East Dunbartonshire, East Renfrewshire, Glasgow City, North Ayrshire, North Lanarkshire, South Ayrshire, South Lanarkshire, West Dunbartonshire, all created to be within the area of the region. Except for Argyll and Bute and the City of Glasgow, the 19 districts were grouped to form'sub-regions' or'divisions', each named after a historic county; the Argyll and Bute district and the City of Glasgow district were sub-regions in their own right, Argyll and Bute was named after two counties.
The region was named after the ancient Brythonic Damnonii Kingdom of Strathclyde. The kingdom broadly covered the northern end of the region, except an area now covered by the Scottish Argyll and Bute council area and the Isle of Arran, now within the Scottish North Ayrshire council area, plus the Scottish Dumfries and Galloway council area and part of the English county of Cumbria. University of Strathclyde, in Glasgow
Cognitive psychology is the scientific study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, perception, problem solving and thinking". Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines such as Cognitive Science and of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology and economics. Philosophically, ruminations of the human mind and its processes have been around since the times of the ancient Greeks. In 387 BCE, Plato is known to have suggested. In 1637, René Descartes posited that humans are born with innate ideas, forwarded the idea of mind-body dualism, which would come to be known as substance dualism. From that time, major debates ensued through the 19th century regarding whether human thought was experiential, or included innate knowledge; some of those involved in this debate included George Berkeley and John Locke on the side of empiricism, Immanuel Kant on the side of nativism.
With the philosophical debate continuing, the mid to late 19th century was a critical time in the development of psychology as a scientific discipline. Two discoveries that would play substantial roles in cognitive psychology were Paul Broca's discovery of the area of the brain responsible for language production, Carl Wernicke's discovery of an area thought to be responsible for comprehension of language. Both areas were subsequently formally named for their founders and disruptions of an individual's language production or comprehension due to trauma or malformation in these areas have come to be known as Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia. From the 1920s to the 1950s, the main approach to psychology was behaviorism, its adherents viewed mental events such as thoughts, ideas and consciousness as unobservables, hence outside the realm of a science of psychology. One pioneer of cognitive psychology, who worked outside the boundaries of behaviorism was Jean Piaget. From 1926 to the 1950s and into the 1980s, he studied the thoughts and intelligence of children and adults.
In the mid-20th century, three main influences arose that would inspire and shape cognitive psychology as a formal school of thought: With the development of new warfare technology during WWII, the need for a greater understanding of human performance came to prominence. Problems such as how to best train soldiers to use new technology and how to deal with matters of attention while under duress became areas of need for military personnel. Behaviorism provided little if any insight into these matters and it was the work of Donald Broadbent, integrating concepts from human performance research and the developed information theory, that forged the way in this area. Developments in computer science would lead to parallels being drawn between human thought and the computational functionality of computers, opening new areas of psychological thought. Allen Newell and Herbert Simon spent years developing the concept of artificial intelligence and worked with cognitive psychologists regarding the implications of AI.
This encouraged a conceptualization of mental functions patterned on the way that computers handled such things as memory storage and retrieval, it opened an important doorway for cognitivism. Noam Chomsky's 1959 critique of behaviorism, empiricism more initiated what would come to be known as the "cognitive revolution". Inside psychology, in criticism of behaviorism, J. S. Bruner, J. J. Goodnow & G. A. Austin wrote "a study of thinking" in 1956. In 1960, G. A. Miller, E. Galanter and K. Pribram wrote their famous "Plans and the Structure of Behavior"; the same year and Miller founded the Harvard Center for Cognitive Studies, which institutionalized the revolution and launched the field of cognitive science. Formal recognition of the field involved the establishment of research institutions such as George Mandler's Center for Human Information Processing in 1964. Mandler described the origins of cognitive psychology in a 2002 article in the Journal of the History of the Behavioral SciencesUlric Neisser put the term "cognitive psychology" into common use through his book Cognitive Psychology, published in 1967.
Neisser's definition of "cognition" illustrates the then-progressive concept of cognitive processes: The term "cognition" refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, elaborated, stored and used. It is concerned with these processes when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations.... Given such a sweeping definition, it is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human being might do, but although cognitive psychology is concerned with all human activity rather than some fraction of it, the concern is from a particular point of view. Other viewpoints are legitimate and necessary. Dynamic psychology, which begins with motives rather than with sensory input, is a case in point. Instead of asking how a man's actions and experiences result from what he saw, remembered, or believed, the dynamic psychologist asks how they follow from the subject's goals, needs, or instincts; the main focus of cognitive psychologists is on the mental processes.
Those processes include, but are not limited to, the following: The psychological definition of attention is "a state of focused awareness on a subset of the available perceptual