Arnolfini is an international arts centre and gallery in Bristol, England. It has a programme of contemporary art exhibitions, artist's performance and dance events and book readings, talks and cinema. There is a specialist art bookshop and a café bar. Educational activities are undertaken and experimental digital media work supported by online resources. A number of festivals are hosted by the gallery; the gallery was founded in 1961 by Jeremy Rees, was located in Clifton. In the 1970s it moved to Queen Square, before moving to its present location, Bush House on Bristol's waterfront, in 1975; the name of the gallery is taken from Jan van Eyck's 15th-century painting The Arnolfini Portrait. Arnolfini has since been refurbished and redeveloped in 1989 and 2005. Artists whose work has been exhibited include Bridget Riley, Rachel Whiteread, Richard Long and Jack Yeats. Performers have included Goat Island Performance Group, the Philip Glass Ensemble, Shobana Jeyasingh Dance Company; the gallery reached a new audience in April 2010, when it was chosen to host one of the three 2010 general election debates.
Jeremy Rees started Arnolfini with the assistance of his wife Annabel, the painter John Orsborn in 1961. The original location was above a bookshop in the Triangle in Bristol. In 1968, Rees was able to give up his teaching job and with the aid of private funding and Arts Council funding relocated the gallery to Queen Square to E Shed, the current home of the Watershed Media Centre. In 1975, Arnolfini moved to its present home in Bush House, occupying two floors of a 19th-century Grade II* listed tea warehouse situated on the side of the Floating Harbour in Bristol city centre; the remainder of the building was office space leased out by developers JT Group. The architect of Bush House was Richard Shackleton Pope, who constructed first the south part of the warehouse extended it to the north in 1835–1836, its original use was as a warehouse for local iron foundry D. A. Acraman; the building has a Pennant Sandstone exterior with arched ground level entrances and arched windows above. This style of architecture is the first example of the Bristol Byzantine style which became popular in the 1850s.
Conversion to a tea warehouse added interstitial floors. Dedicated to exhibiting the work of artists from the West of England, under the directorship of Barry Barker the gallery moved towards a more general spread of contemporary art. Barker supervised a successful refurbishment of the gallery spaces and café bar by David Chipperfield. Before development work began, Arnolfini was attracting over 285,000 visitors per year. Subsequent Directors have been Caroline Collier and Tom Trevor; as part of a two-year development project that finished in September 2005, the old warehouse has been redeveloped, adding another attic storey. Arnolfini now occupies the lower three floors and basement, the upper floors are leased to help pay for the running costs. One tenant is the School of part of the University of the West of England. Funding for this development was received from the National Lottery and the Barker-Mill Trust, set up by long term Arnolfini patron Peter Barker-Mill; the original committee to support Arnolfini included Peter Barker-Mill, Ann Hewer, Lawrence Ogilvie.
In July 2015, Bush House was sold to the University of the West of England, with a lease-back of the artistic space. The profits from the sale replenished Arnolfini's endowment fund. Records of Arnolfini, including a collection of artist books, are held at Bristol Archives; the Arnolfini is named after Jan van Eyck's masterpiece The Arnolfini Portrait depicting the merchant and arts patron Giovanni Arnolfini. The Arnolfini Portrait is one of the earliest paintings to assert the presence of the artist within its depiction and one of Arnolfini's consistent concerns: to explore the role of artist as a witness and recorder of what is around them – contemporary society; the painting is in the National Gallery, London and it was one of the founder's favourite paintings. Arnolfini has three floors of galleries, a specialist arts bookshop, a cinema which can be used as a performance space for theatre, live art and music, a reading room that provides reference material for all past exhibitions and wide range of books and catalogues, a café bar.
Entrance to the galleries is free of charge. Notable exhibitions have included works by Bridget Riley, Richard Long, Rachel Whiteread, Paul McCartney, Angus Fairhurst and Louise Bourgeois. Regular events include poetry and film festivals, live art and dance performances and jazz and experimental music concerts, including Bodies in Flight, Goat Island Performance Group, Akram Khan, the London Sinfonietta, the Philip Glass Ensemble, Random Dance, Shobana Jeyasingh Dance Company. There is an active access and education programme, hosting visits from students, workshops with artists, presenting interpretative information and offering some work experience placements within the gallery. Project. ARNOLFINI is an online experimental web site with dumps of digital media related to Arnolfini exhibitions and events and present, which may be reorganised by any online user, utilising resources on the web site to create new works and projects under a copyleft license. Arnolfini hosts events from outside organisations, including the Encounters Short Film Festival, the first Festival of British Independent Cinema, the biennial Inbetween Time Festival of Live Art and Intrigue and the Bristol Artists Book Event
Gillian Ayres was an English painter. She is best known for abstract painting and printmaking using vibrant colours, which earned her a Turner Prize nomination. Gillian Ayres was born to Florence and Stephen Ayres on 3 February 1930 in Barnes, the youngest of three sisters, she started school. Her parents, a prosperous couple who owned a hatmaking factory, sent her to Ibstock, a progressive school in Roehampton run on Fröbel principles. In 1941, Ayres was sent to the junior school for St Paul's, Hammersmith, she passed the entrance exam for St Paul's Girls' School the following year, developed an interest in art while there. Among her schoolfriends was Shirley Williams, with whom she taught art to children in bomb-damaged parts of London. Ayres decided to go to art school. In 1946, she was accepted. However, at sixteen, she was too young to enroll, she was advised to apply to the Camberwell School of Art and studied there from 1946 to 1950. Gillian Ayres worked part-time at the AIA Gallery in Soho from 1951-59 before starting a teaching career.
She held a number of teaching posts through the 1960s and 1970s, becoming friends with painters such as Howard Hodgkin, Robyn Denny and Roger Hilton. In 1959, she was asked to teach at Bath Academy of Art, for six weeks, she remained on the teaching staff until 1965. For much of her time at Corsham she shared a teaching studio with Malcolm Hughes, she was a senior lecturer at Saint Martin's School of Art, from 1965 to 1978 and became head of painting at Winchester School of Art in 1978, the first female teacher in the UK to hold such a position. She left teaching in 1981, moved to an old rectory on the Llyn Peninsula in north-west Wales to become a full-time painter. Gillian Ayres' early works are made with thin vinyl paint in a limited number of colours arranged in simple forms, but works in oil paint are more exuberant and colourful, with a thick impasto being used. One of Ayres' early projects was a 1957 commission by architect Michael Greenwood to decorate the South Hampstead high school dining hall in north London.
The murals, described as "the only true British contribution to American abstract expressionism", were covered over with wallpaper before being rediscovered in 1983 in nearly perfect condition. The titles of her paintings, such as Anthony and Cleopatra, A Midsummer Night and Gyre and Gimble, were given after the painting is completed and do not directly describe the content of the painting, but rather are intended to resonate with the general mood of the work. Ayres was a dedicated printmaker, making prints with Jack Shirreff in Wiltshire, in her life with Peter Kosowicz at Thumbprint Editions, London. Ayres made her first print project, a group of three etchings, with the Alan Cristea Gallery in 1998; the Alan Cristea Gallery went on to present her works in seven solo exhibitions at the gallery, numerous group exhibitions, at art fairs around the world. Several of her solo exhibitions toured to institutes in the UK, the gallery worked in partnership with institutions and museums, including Jerwood Gallery, the National Museum Cardiff, Wales and CAFA Art Museum, Beijing to bring Ayres’ work to wider audiences through major exhibitions of her paintings and prints.
Ayres had a number of solo exhibitions, the first at Gallery One, London, in 1956. Since 1980 she has been featured in over 25 solo exhibitions, including the Museum of Modern Art Oxford, Oxford, her art is featured in the collections of numerous galleries, including Tate Gallery, London. Ayres was awarded the Japan International Art Promotion Association Award in 1963, in 1975 she was awarded a bursary by the Arts Council of Great Britain. In 1982 she was named runner up for the John Moores Painting Prize and shortlisted for the Turner Prize in 1989, she was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1986, in 1991 became a Royal Academician. She temporarily resigned from the Academy, following the broadcast of a BBC Omnibus television documentary about the preparations for the controversial Sensation exhibition hosted by the Academy in 1997 show-casing the Young British Artists; the documentary, according to Ayres, presented an unfair view of the older members of the Academy. She objected to the inclusion of Marcus Harvey's portrait of serial killer Myra Hindley in the exhibition.
She was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire in the 2011 Birthday Honours. On 24 May 2004, 14 of Ayres' pieces were destroyed in a fire at a warehouse of the art-storage company Momart in the Cromwell industrial estate in Leyton, east London. Ayres married the painter Henry Mundy in 1951, they divorced 30 years but continued to live together. They had two sons and Sam; the couple lived with their younger son, Sam Mundy a painter. In 1987, Ayres moved from Wales to a 15th-century cottage at Morwenstow, on the Devon–Cornwall border. In the late 1970s, Ayres was comatose for four days. In 2003, she suffered a heart attack. Ayres died in hospital in North Devon on 11 April 2018, aged 88. Upon her death, she was described as "immensely courageous and determined in both her art and her lifestyle" by the Alan Cris
Milton Keynes, locally abbreviated to MK, is a large town in Buckinghamshire, about 50 miles north-west of London. It is the principal settlement of the Borough of a unitary authority. At the 2011 Census, its population was 229,000; the River Great Ouse forms its northern boundary. 25% of the urban area is parkland or woodland and includes an SSI. In the 1960s, the UK Government decided that a further generation of new towns in the South East of England was needed to relieve housing congestion in London; the New Town of Milton Keynes was to be the biggest yet, with a target population of 250,000, in a "designated area" of about 22,000 acres. At designation, its area incorporated the existing towns of Bletchley and Stony Stratford, along with another fifteen villages and farmland in between; these settlements had an extensive historical record since the Norman conquest. The government established a Development Corporation to deliver this New City; the Corporation decided on a softer, more human-scaled landscape than in the earlier new towns but with an emphatically modernist architecture.
Recognising how traditional towns and cities had become choked in traffic, they established a'relaxed' grid of distributor roads about 1 kilometre between edges, leaving the spaces between to develop more organically. An extensive network of shared paths for leisure cyclists and pedestrians criss-crosses through and between them. Again rejecting the residential tower blocks, so fashionable but unloved, they set a height limit of three stories outside the planned centre. Facilities include a 1,400 seat theatre, an art gallery, multiplex cinemas, a 400 seat concert hall, a teaching hospital, a 30,500 seat football stadium and a 65,000 capacity open-air concert venue. There are five railway stations; the Open University is based here and there is a campus of the University of Bedfordshire. Most sports are represented at amateur level; the Peace Pagoda overlooking Willen Lake was the first such to be built in Europe. Milton Keynes has one of the more successful economies in the UK, ranked on a number of criteria.
As one of the UK's top five fastest growing centres, it has benefited from above-average economic growth. It has the fifth highest number of business startups per capita, it is home to several major international companies. However, despite this economic success and personal wealth for some, there are pockets of nationally significant poverty. In the 1960s, the UK Government decided that a further generation of new towns in the South East of England was needed to relieve housing congestion in London. Since the 1950s, overspill housing for several London boroughs had been constructed in Bletchley. Further studies in the 1960s identified north Buckinghamshire as a possible site for a large new town, a new city, encompassing the existing towns of Bletchley, Stony Stratford and Wolverton; the New Town was to be the biggest yet, with a target population of 250,000, in a "designated area" of 21,883 acres The name "Milton Keynes" was taken from that of an existing village on the site. On 23 January 1967, when the formal new town designation order was made, the area to be developed was farmland and undeveloped villages.
The site was deliberately located equidistant from London, Leicester and Cambridge, with the intention that it would be self-sustaining and become a major regional centre in its own right. Planning control was taken from elected local authorities and delegated to the Milton Keynes Development Corporation. Before construction began, every area was subject to detailed archaeological investigation: doing so has exposed a rich history of human settlement since Neolithic times and has provided a unique insight into the history of a large sample of the landscape of North Buckinghamshire; the Corporation's modernist designs were featured in the magazines Architectural Design and the Architects' Journal. MKDC was determined to learn from the mistakes made in the earlier New Towns, revisit the Garden City ideals, they set in place the characteristic grid roads that run between districts, as well as the intensive planting and parkland that are so evident today. Central Milton Keynes was not intended to be a traditional town centre but a central business and shopping district to supplement Local Centres in most of the grid squares.
This non-hierarchical devolved city plan was a departure from the English New Towns tradition and envisaged a wide range of industry and diversity of housing styles and tenures across the city. The largest and the last of the British New Towns, Milton Keynes has'stood the test of time far better than most, has proved flexible and adaptable'; the radical grid plan was inspired by the work of Californian urban theorist Melvin M. Webber, described by the founding architect of Milton Keynes, Derek Walker, as the "father of the city". Webber thought that telecommunications meant that the old idea of a city as a concentric cluster was out of date an
Southampton City Art Gallery
The Southampton City Art Gallery is an art gallery in Southampton, southern England. It is located in the Civic Centre on Commercial Road; the gallery opened in 1939 with much of the initial funding from the gallery coming from two bequests one from Robert Chipperfield and another from Frederick William Smith. The gallery was damaged during World War II and repairing this damaged delayed its reopening until 1946; the gallery's art collection covers six centuries of European art history, with over 3,500 works. It is housed in an example of 1930s municipal architecture; the gallery holds a Designated Collection, considered of national importance. Highlights of the permanent collection include a 14th-century altarpiece by Allegretto Nuzi, of the Italian Giambattista Pittoni. Thousands of visitors explore the exhibitions and displays every month and, through a programme of educational activities, Southampton City Art Gallery provides opportunities for greater access and understanding of art for people of all ages.
The gallery's educational service works with a range of professional visual artists, including Melanie Rose, Debra Marsh, Jo Bresloff and Alastair Eales. Southampton City Art Gallery has won several awards and continues to be one of Southampton's most popular visitor attractions. In November 2012, it was announced that the gallery's opening times were to be reduced, as part of Southampton City Council's drive to save £20 million. On 1 April 2013, the art gallery's opening times changed to the following times: Monday-Friday: 10am-3pm Saturday: 10am-5pm Sunday: Closed Southampton City Art Gallery website
Edward Kienholz was an American installation artist and assemblage sculptor whose work was critical of aspects of modern life. From 1972 onwards, he assembled much of his artwork in close collaboration with his artistic partner and fifth wife, Nancy Reddin Kienholz. Throughout much of their career, the work of the Kienholzes was more appreciated in Europe than in their native United States, though American museums have featured their art more prominently since the 1990s. Art critic Brian Sewell called Edward Kienholz "the least known, most neglected and forgotten American artist of Jack Kerouac's Beat Generation of the 1950s, a contemporary of the writers Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs and Norman Mailer, his visual imagery at least as grim, gritty and depressing as their literary vocabulary". Edward Ralph Kienholz was born in Washington, in the dry eastern part of the state, he grew up on a wheat farm, learning carpentry and mechanical skills. His father was strict, his mother was a religious fundamentalist.
He studied art at Eastern Washington College of Education and at Whitworth College in Spokane, but did not receive any formal degree. After a series of odd jobs, working as an orderly in a psychiatric hospital, manager of a dance band, used car salesman, caterer and vacuum cleaner salesman, Kienholz settled in Los Angeles, where he became involved with the avant-garde art scene of the day. In 1956, Kienholz opened the NOW Gallery, they co-organized the All-City Art Festival in 1957, with poet Bob Alexander, they opened the Ferus Gallery on North La Cienega Boulevard. The Ferus Gallery soon became a focus of avant garde culture in the Los Angeles area. Despite his lack of formal artistic training, Kienholz began to employ his mechanical and carpentry skills in making collage paintings and reliefs assembled from materials salvaged from the alleys and sidewalks of the city. In 1958 he sold his share of the Ferus Gallery to buy a Los Angeles house and studio and to concentrate on his art, creating free-standing, large-scale environmental tableaux.
He continued to participate in activities at the Ferus Gallery, mounting a show of his first assemblage works in 1959. In 1961, Kienholz completed his first large-scale installation, Roxy's, a room-sized environment which he showed at the Ferus Gallery in 1962. Set in the year 1943, Roxy's depicts Kienholz's memories of his youthful encounters in a Nevada brothel complete with antique furniture, a 30s era jukebox, vintage sundries, satirical characters assembled from castoff pieces of junk; this artwork caused a stir at the documenta 4 exhibition in 1968. A 1966 show at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art drew considerable controversy over his assemblage, Back Seat Dodge ‘38; the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors called it "revolting and blasphemous" and threatened to withhold financing for the museum unless the tableau was removed from view. A compromise was reached under which the sculpture's car door would remain closed and guarded, to be opened only on the request of a museum patron, over 18, only if no children were present in the gallery.
The uproar led to more than 200 people lining up to see the work the day. Since, Back Seat Dodge ’38 has drawn crowds. LACMA did not formally acquire the work until 1986. In 1966, Kienholz began to spend summers in Hope, while still maintaining studio space in Los Angeles. Around that time, he produced a series of Concept Tableaux, which consisted of framed text descriptions of artwork that did not yet exist, he would sell these works of early Conceptual Art for a modest sum, giving the buyer the right to have Kienholz construct the artwork. He sold a number of Concept Tableaux. Kienholz's assemblages of found objects—the detritus of modern existence including figures cast from life—are at times vulgar and gruesome, confronting the viewer with questions about human existence and the inhumanity of twentieth-century society. Regarding found materials he said, in 1977, "I begin to understand any society by going through its junk stores and flea markets, it is historical orientation for me. I can see the results of ideas in what is thrown away by a culture."Kienholz incorporated defunct or operating radios or televisions into their works, sometimes adding sound and moving images to the overall effect.
Live animals were selectively included as crucial elements in some installations, providing motion and sound that contrasted starkly with frozen tableaus of decay and degradation. For example, The Wait, a dismal scene of a lonely skeletal woman surrounded by memories and waiting for death, incorporates a cage with a live parakeet cheerfully chirping and hopping about; the bird is considered an integral part of the installation, but requires special attention to insure that it remains healthy and active, as described in the Whitney Museum's online catalog and video. Another well-known work, The State Hospital, incorporates a pair of black goldfish swimming in each of two glass goldfish bowls representing the head of an inmate suffering with mental illness. Kienholz's work commented savagely on racism, mental illness, sexual stereotypes, greed, imperialism, religion and most of all, moral hypocrisy; because of their satirical and antiestablishment tones, t
Henry Moore Foundation
The Henry Moore Foundation is a registered charity in England, established for education and promotion of the fine arts — in particular, to advance understanding of the works of Henry Moore. The charity was set up with a gift from the artist in 1977; the Foundation supports a wide range of projects, including student bursaries, fellowships for artists and financial grants to various arts institutions. It operates at the Henry Moore Institute in Leeds, England; the Henry Moore Institute in Leeds is a centre for the study of sculpture. It is part of The Henry Moore Foundation, based at Moore's former home in Hertfordshire and was set up by the artist in 1977; the Institute has a sculpture gallery for international sculpture shows, both contemporary and historical, as well as two other display spaces for sculpture study exhibitions. The Institute features a sculpture archive and library, looks after the sculpture collections of its neighbour Leeds Art Gallery, it hosts a year long programme of events, including lectures and conferences.
Admission is free. The Foundation is the name of Moore’s art charity, of his former estate, which welcomes thousands of visitors every year, it includes the artist's restored home Hoglands, its flower garden, his studios, over 70 acres of less formal gardens and fields containing many of his monumental sculptures. The grounds feature the Sheep Field Barn gallery with changing exhibititions, the medieval Aisled Barn with a display of nine large colourful tapestries based on his drawings; the estate is open seasonally to everyone, with an admission fee. The Foundation's headquarters are at Perry Green, its large collections of his work; the collections include sculptures in stone, wood and bronze, drawings and sketchbooks, graphic work, preparatory materials such as found objects and maquettes. The art works are exhibited around the world, including institutions such as: the Kremlin Museums in Moscow and the Pomodoro Foundation in Milan, Italy; as well as running the Henry Moore Institute, the Foundation gives grants to galleries.
Its current Director is Godfrey Worsdale. Reclining Figure 1969–70, a bronze sculpture, was stolen from the foundation at the Foundation's Perry Green base on 15 December 2005. Thieves are believed to have lifted the 3.6 m long, 2 m high by 2 m wide, 2.1-tonne statue onto the back of a Mercedes lorry using a crane. Police investigating the theft believe. Official website Charity Commission. Henry Moore Foundation, registered charity no. 271370
Ulster University the University of Ulster, is a multi-campus public university located in Northern Ireland. It is referred to informally and unofficially as Ulster, or by the abbreviation UU, it is the largest university in Northern Ireland and the second-largest university on the island of Ireland, after the federal National University of Ireland. Established in 1968 as the New University of Ulster, it merged with Ulster Polytechnic in 1984, incorporating its four Northern Irish campuses under the University of Ulster banner; the university incorporated its four campuses in 1984. The university has branch campuses in both London and Birmingham, an extensive distance learning provision; the university rebranded as Ulster University from October 2014 and this included a revised visual identity. It has one of the highest further study and employment rates in the UK, with over 92 per cent of graduates being in work or further study six months after graduation; the university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, Universities Ireland and Universities UK.
The New University of Ulster incorporated Magee College founded in 1865 in Derry. Magee College was a college of the Royal University of Ireland from 1880 and became associated with the University of Dublin when the Royal University was dissolved in 1908 and replaced by the National University of Ireland. In 1953 Magee College became Magee University College. NUU was instigated. In 1963, the Robbins Committee recommended a substantial expansion of higher education in Great Britain triggered by the Anderson Report of 1960, which increased consumer demand by instigating a grants scheme. In the same year, a committee of eight chaired by Sir John Lockwood, Master of Birkbeck College, was appointed to review facilities for university and higher technical education in Northern Ireland, it adopted the aims and principles of Robbins, but aimed to take account of the different economic and educational structure of Northern Ireland. It was hoped by groups led by the University for Londonderry Committee that Magee would become Northern Ireland's second university after The Queen's University of Belfast.
However, this did not happen and instead it was subsumed into the New University as a result of the unwillingness of the Unionist government at Stormont to have the second university sited in overwhelmingly nationalist Derry, in which "The Troubles" were just beginning to break out. The decision caused an outcry at the time. However, in a history of the University of Ulster it is pointed out that the submission of Magee University College to the Lockwood Committee was far from satisfactory, its claims to preferment were based, the Committee felt that those claims could become a source of embarrassment undermining the credibility of a future new university with a diverse intake. The Magee submission failed to take sufficient account of the'locations' criteria of the University Grant Committee. Magee University College itself failed to impress members of the Lockwood Committee during their visit, it manifested an administrative structure, "eccentric, unique …, workable". The atmosphere was one of "complacency", "lack of dynamism" and it failed to articulate "any clear ideas about how the College should develop or what shape any future university in Londonderry should take".
The Committee noted Magee's "cramped physical situation" and "circumscribed mental outlook", turned instead to the Coleraine proposal. It did not deem Magee worthy of being included as a constituent college in the proposed new institution, though subsequently a role was found for it. Following a review of higher education in Northern Ireland under the chairmanship of Sir Henry Chilver in 1982 the direct-rule government decided to merge NUU with the Ulster Polytechnic to form the University of Ulster The merger took effect on 1 October 1984. Whilst the university was established in 1968 it can trace its roots back to 1845 when Magee College was endowed in Derry, 1849, when the School of Art and Design was inaugurated in Belfast. Campus One, the Virtual Campus of the university, was launched on 8 October 2001 which facilitated the provision on undergraduate and postgraduate level courses via distance learning; the university now refers to this as distance learning. The university had a laboratory named'The University of Ulster Freshwater Laboratory' at Traad Point on the shore of Lough Neagh in Ballymaguigan.
The Freshwater Laboratory, although not a campus, was a site of the university and consisted of on-campus accommodation and testing labs. Courses offered were in agriculture, the wildlife of Lough Neagh, water testing and other aquatic courses; the site is now owned by Magherafelt District Council. By 2010, the area had become popular with the locals for camping and sailing. In autumn 2011 Vice-Chancellor Barnett announced a programme of financial restructuring with the aim of reducing the number of staff employed by the University from 3,150 to 3,000. Staff at the University expressed concern about the proposed means and impact of the restructuring, citing "the use of the threat