North Bay, Ontario
North Bay is a city in Northeastern Ontario, Canada. It is the seat of Nipissing District, takes its name from its position on the shore of Lake Nipissing. North Bay is located on the traditional territory of the Nipissing First Nation peoples; the site of North Bay was on the main canoe route west from Montreal. Apart from Indigenous people and surveyors, there was little activity in the Lake Nipissing area until the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1882; the CPR started its westward expansion from Ontario. That was the point; the CCR was owned by Duncan McIntyre who amalgamated it with the CPR and became one of the handful of officers of the newly formed CPR. The CCR extended to Pembroke, it followed a westward route along the Ottawa River passing through places like Cobden, Deux-Rivières, to Mattawa at the confluence of the Mattawa and Ottawa Rivers. It proceeded cross-country towards its final destination, Bonfield. Duncan McIntyre and his contractor James Worthington piloted the CCR expansion.
Worthington continued on as the construction superintendent for the CPR past Bonfield. He remained with the CPR for about a year. McIntyre was uncle to John Ferguson who staked out future North Bay after getting assurance from his uncle and Worthington that it would be the divisional and a location of some importance. In 1882, John Ferguson decided that the north bay of Lake Nipissing was a promising spot for settlement. North Bay was incorporated as a town in 1891; the first mayor was John Bourke. More Bourke developed the western portion of North Bay after purchasing the interest of the Murray Brothers from Pembroke, who were large landholders in the new community; the land west of Klock Avenue was known as the Murray block. Bourke Street is named after John Bourke. Murray Street is named after the Murrays. North Bay was selected as the southern terminus of the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway in 1902 when the Ross government took the bold move to establish a development road to serve the Haileybury settlement.
During construction of the T&NO, silver was discovered at Cobalt and started a mining frenzy in the northern part of the province that continued for many years. The Canadian Northern Railway was subsequently built to North Bay in 1913; the Georgian Bay Canal was a mammoth transportation system that proposed to connect the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. The entire passageway from the Ottawa River to Lake Nipissing and down the French River to Georgian Bay was surveyed in the first decade of the 20th century. Financing was a large obstacle and, as time passed, transportation patterns changed and interfered with the earlier practicality of the giant venture. Despite this, there were groups who still hoped it would happen as late as 1930. North Bay grew through a strong lumbering sector and the three railways in the early days; the town benefited from strong community leadership and people like Richardson, Milne, McNamara, Browning, McDougal, Carruthers, McGaughey, George W. Lee, Senator Gordon, T. J. Patton, Charlie Harrison, many others are responsible for its development.
In 1919, John Ferguson was elected mayor of North Bay and continued to serve as mayor until 1922. North Bay was incorporated as a city in August 1925; the Dionne Quintuplets were born in Corbeil, Ontario, on the southern outskirts of North Bay in 1934. Their births had a tremendous impact on tourism in the area. In fact, the Dionnes may have saved the economy in the district during the Depression and beyond. North Bay and area lived off this legacy well into the 1960s. Many visitors to the area discovered lakes and summer retreats that were accessible and the businesses thrived on the tourist dollars. In January 1968, the City of North Bay amalgamated with West Widdifield townships. In 1951, as a result of rising tensions in the Cold War, the Royal Canadian Air Force established an air base at North Bay, part of an expanding national air defence network to counter the threat of nuclear attack against North America by Soviet bombers. Construction of RCAF Station North Bay took three years, during which it became the largest industry in the community, a status it held for more than four decades.
In October 1963, the North American Air Defence Command opened its Canadian operations centre at the base. Manned by American as well as Canadian military personnel, the centre, situated 60 storeys underground to withstand a nuclear strike, monitored Canada's northern, east-central and Atlantic airspace and tracking all air traffic in this airspace, responding to airborne emergencies and suspicious, unknown and hostile aircraft. In 1983 this responsibility was expanded to all of Canada, in October 2006 the base's NORAD operations moved into a new, state-of-the-art facility above ground where it continues to provide surveillance and tracking of aircraft, warning and response to emergencies and other crises, for the air sovereignty of Canada and North America. In summer of 2013, the base commenced surveillance of space via SAPPHIRE, Canada's first military satellite, launched into orbit from India in February. Beginning in the 1990s the base weathered a series of massive cuts by the federal government, at one point was earmarked to close.
Subsequently, a large portion of its
Hockey Canada, which merged with the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association in 1994, is the national governing body of ice hockey and ice sledge hockey in Canada and is a member of the International Ice Hockey Federation. Hockey Canada controls a majority of ice hockey in Canada. There are some notable exceptions, such as the Canadian Hockey League and U Sports who are partnered with Hockey Canada, but are not members, as well as any of Canada's professional hockey clubs. Hockey Canada is based in Calgary, Alberta with a secondary office in Ottawa and regional centres in Toronto and Montreal, Quebec; the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association was founded on December 4, 1914, when 21 delegates from across Canada met at the Chateau Laurier in Ottawa. The organization was made to oversee the amateur level of the sport at the national level; the Allan Cup donated in 1908 by Sir H. Montagu Allan, was selected as the championship of amateur hockey in Canada. William Northey, the trustee of the Allan Cup, was named the first chairman, while Dr. W. F. Taylor was named the inaugural president.
The Memorial Cup was the junior amateur championship of Canada. In 1920, after the Winnipeg Falcons won the Allan Cup over the University of Toronto, they represented Canada at the 1920 Summer Olympic Games. Canada would go 3-0-0 to win the sport's first Olympic gold medal; the Ottawa and District Amateur Hockey Association joined in 1920, followed by the Maritime Amateur Hockey Association in 1928. On June 30, 1947, the CAHA, the National Hockey League and the Amateur Hockey Association of the United States makes an agreement that no player under the age of 18 can be signed as a professional player without the permission of their amateur club; that same year, the International Ice Hockey Federation changes the rules on amateur status. The rule change means the 1948 Allan Cup champion Royal Montreal Hockey Club were not eligible for the 1948 Winter Olympics, so the CAHA sent the RCAF Flyers instead and were victorious. At the 1952 Winter Olympics, the Edmonton Mercuries won their nation's last Olympic gold until 2002.
In 1961, the Trail Smoke Eaters won Canada's 19th and last world championship for 33 years at the 1961 World Ice Hockey Championships. In 1964, Father David Bauer formed the Canada's national team in response to the success of the programs set up by the Soviet Union and Sweden. Three years the CAHA opened its first national office, located in Winnipeg; the Newfoundland Amateur Hockey Association, led by association president Don Johnson, entered the CAHA in 1966. Johnson would become CAHA president in 1975; the New Brunswick Amateur Hockey Association left the Maritime AHA brand in 1968 and entered the CAHA as a member. In 1968, the Hockey Canada organization was founded to oversee Canada's national teams. In 1970, the CAHA's 13 Junior. Tier I, the Western Canada Junior Hockey League, the Ontario Hockey Association, the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League, were eligible to compete for the Memorial Cup; the ten leagues of Tier II, would compete for the Manitoba Centennial Cup, donated by the Manitoba Amateur Hockey Association.
In 1970, Canada pulled out of IIHF competition and would not return to the fold until 1977 in protest of the IIHF's soft stance on Soviet and Czechoslovakian teams using "professional amateurs" in international competition but not allowing professional players to compete for Canada. In 1972, Canada and the Soviet Union competed in the 1972 Summit Series. Canada's team was composed of NHL stars; the NHLers won the series 4-3-1. Two years the World Hockey Association represented Canada and lost the series 4-1-3. In 1976, the Canada Cup was formed as a best-on-best championship. In 1974, the Nova Scotia Amateur Hockey Association and Prince Edward Island Amateur Hockey Association are formed out of the dissolution of the Maritime AHA; the World Junior Ice Hockey Championships was held for the first time. Canada, who sent Memorial Cup champion teams in early years set up a national team and won their first gold medal at the 1982 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships. In 1975, the QMJHL, WCJHL, the renamed Ontario Major Junior Hockey League form an umbrella organization known as the Canadian Major Junior Hockey League.
With the creation of the CMJHL, the three league began initiating compensation talks with the NHL and WHA without CAHA input. In 1980, the CMJHL separated from the CAHA. With the separation of the CMJHL, Tier II was promoted to Junior A, although the Tier II title still persists in hockey vernacular. To this day, the CMJHL releases its players to Hockey Canada to play at the World Junior Ice Hockey Championships. In 1983, the first Abby Hoffman Cup was awarded to the Burlington Ladies as the Canadian national senior champions of women's hockey. In 1990, the forerunner to the Canadian Junior Hockey League was created as an umbrella organization, within the CAHA, to oversee Junior A hockey; the Canada women's national ice hockey team was formed in 1987 and won the first world championship that year. The 1990 IIHF Women's World Championship was the first official event won by Canada. In 1994, Team Canada would end a 33-year drought by winning the 1994 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships. In 1996, Hockey Canada replaces the Manitoba Centennial Cup with the Royal Bank Cup as the championship of Junior A hockey.
In 1998, Hockey Canada and the CAHA merge into one organization. The International Olympic Committee elected to allow professional players to compete at the Olympics
The Memorial Cup is a junior ice hockey club championship trophy awarded annually to the Canadian Hockey League champion. It is awarded following a four-team, round-robin tournament between a host team and the champions of the CHL's three member leagues: the Ontario Hockey League, Quebec Major Junior Hockey League and Western Hockey League. Sixty teams are eligible to compete for the Memorial Cup, representing nine provinces and four American states; the Acadie–Bathurst Titan are the current champions, winning in the final game against the host team, the Regina Pats of the WHL. The Memorial Cup is known as one of the toughest sporting trophies to win, due to 60 teams participating and the age limit only being 16-21; the trophy was known as the OHA Memorial Cup and was donated by the Ontario Hockey Association in 1919 to be awarded to the junior champion of Canada. From its inception until 1971, the Memorial Cup was open to all Junior A teams in the country and was awarded following a series of league and regional playoffs culminating in an east-west championship.
The three-league tournament format began in 1972, a season after Canadian Amateur Hockey Association divided the Junior A rank into two tiers, naming the Memorial Cup as the championship of the Major Junior level. The Memorial Cup was established by Captain James T. Sutherland to honour those men who gave their lives during World War I, it was rededicated during the 2010 tournament to honour all soldiers who died fighting for Canada in any conflict. Capt. Sutherland, serving overseas, was President of the Ontario Hockey Association and he brought forward the idea to present a trophy to honour all the young Canadian hockey players who died in battle and have it awarded to the best junior hockey team in Canada; the Ontario Hockey Association's annual meeting was unanimous that a fitting memorial be established to members of the OHA who had fallen on the field of war. "Past President Capt. J. T. Sutherland, now in France, spoke of the splendid work done by Canadian boys in France and suggested the erection of a suitable memorial to hockey players who have fallen."—The Globe, Ontario, Dec. 9, 1918.
"The cup, coveted prize of Canadian junior hockey, was the brainchild of Capt. Jim when he was overseas in the Great War and at the time, President of the Ontario Hockey Association, he wrote suggesting the trophy in memory of the boys who were killed in the war and no doubt a big part of the idea was instigated by his devotion to his beloved Scotty Davidson*, who fell with many other hockey players in the world conflict (including Capt. George T. Richardson*, who died in France, Feb. 9, 1916. --William J. Walshe, Comments on Sport, The Kingston Whig-Standard, Jan. 6, 1939. It started as an East-versus-West format, where the George Richardson Memorial Trophy champions from the East would play the Abbott Cup champions from the West. From 1919 to 1928, the Memorial Cup Final was a two-game total goals affair between a champion from Eastern Canada and a champion from Western Canada, both of which were determined through a series of playdowns under the auspices of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association.
In 1929, the Memorial Cup Final became a best-of-three series. In 1934, when the junior hockey teams were further divided between Junior'A' and Junior'B', the Memorial Cup served as the Junior'A' championship trophy, the Sutherland Cup became the Junior'B' trophy. From 1937 the Memorial Cup was a best-of-five series, in 1943 reverted to a best-of-seven series. For the 1970–1971 season, the Junior'A' rank was further split into the Major Junior rank and a second-tier rank, with the Memorial Cup serving as the Major Junior championship trophy, the Manitoba Centennial Trophy, the Royal Bank Cup, serving as the second tier championship trophy. In 1972, the Memorial Cup was contested between three teams: the champions of the three leagues of the Canadian Hockey League: the Ed Chynoweth Cup Champs, J. Ross Robertson Cup Champs, the President's Cup Champs. From 1972 to 1973 these three teams played a single round-robin, with the top two teams advancing to a single-game final. A semi-final game was added in 1974.
In 1977 the tournament was expanded with no semi-final. The tournament was held at a pre-determined site, rotated among the three leagues; the 1983 Memorial Cup tournament saw the inclusion of a fourth team, the team hosting the event, done to boost tournament attendance. The first tournament under this format was held in Portland and marked the first time that an American city hosted the Memorial Cup; the host Winter Hawks won the Cup that year, becoming the first American team to win the Memorial Cup, as well as becoming the first host team to win it. The four teams played a single round-robin. If two teams are tied for third place a tie-breaker game is played on Thursday, followed by a semi-final game between the second and third-place teams and a final between the first-place team and the semi-final winner; this format continues to be used to this day, with the honour of hosting the tournament rotated amongst the CHL's three member leagues. If the host team wins its respective league championship, the Memorial Cup berth reserved for the league champion is instead awarded to that league's runner-up.
This was the case in 2006, when the Quebec Remparts lost to the Moncton Wildcats in the QMJHL Finals. However, since Moncton was hosting the Memorial Cup that year, Quebec was awarded the QMJHL berth to the Memorial Cup tour
2002 Winter Olympics
The 2002 Winter Olympics the XIX Olympic Winter Games and known as Salt Lake 2002, was a winter multi-sport event, celebrated from 8 to 24 February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, United States. 2,400 athletes from 78 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout 165 sporting sessions. The 2002 Winter Olympics and the 2002 Paralympic Games were both organized by the Salt Lake Organizing Committee. Utah became the fifth state in the United States to host the Olympic Games and the 2002 Winter Olympics were the last Olympics to be held in the United States until the 2028 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles; these were the first Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The opening ceremony was held on February 8, 2002, sporting competitions were held up until the closing ceremony on February 24, 2002. Production for both ceremonies was designed by Seven Nielsen, music for both ceremonies was directed by Mark Watters. Salt Lake City became the most populous area to have hosted the Winter Olympics, although the two subsequent host cities' populations were larger.
Following a trend, the 2002 Olympic Winter Games were larger than all prior Winter Games, with 10 more events than the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. Norway won the most gold medals; the Salt Lake Games faced a bribery scandal and some local opposition during the bid, as well as some sporting and refereeing controversies during the competitions. From sporting and business standpoints, this was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours; the Games were financially successful raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues; the Games were a major factor in the political rise to power of Mitt Romney, elected Governor of Massachusetts in 2002, was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 2012 and has served as the junior United States Senator from Utah since 2019.
Salt Lake City was chosen over Canada. Salt Lake City had come in second during the bids for the 1998 Winter Olympics, awarded to Nagano and had offered to be the provisional host of the 1976 Winter Olympics when the original host, Colorado, withdrew; the 1976 Winter Olympics were awarded to Innsbruck, Austria. 1Because of the no-commercialization policy of the Olympics, the Delta Center, now the Vivint Smart Home Arena, was labeled as the "Salt Lake Ice Center". The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics at US$2.5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 24% in real terms. This includes sports-related costs only, that is, operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g. expenditures for technology, workforce, security, catering and medical services, direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g. the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, media and press center, which are required to host the Games.
Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Salt Lake City 2002 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, costs of US$51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%. A total of 78 National Olympic Committees sent athletes to the 2002 Olympics. Cameroon, Hong Kong, Nepal and Thailand participated in their first Winter Olympic Games; the 2002 Winter Olympics featured 78 medal events over 15 disciplines in 7 sports. Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline. In the following calendar for the 2002 Winter Olympic Games, each blue box represents an event competition, such as a qualification round, on that day.
The yellow boxes represent days. The number in each box represents the number of finals. All dates are in Mountain Standard Time * Host nation Several medals records were tied, they included: Norway tied the Soviet Union at the 1976 Winter Olympics for most gold medals at a Winter Olympics, with 13. Germany set a record for most total medals at a Winter Olympics, with 36; the United States set a record for most gold medals at a home Winter Olympics, with 10, tying Norway at the 1994 Winter Olympics. The opening ceremonies included Grammy Award-winning artist LeAnn Rimes singing "Light the Fire Within", the official song of the 2002 Olympics; the Grammy Award-winning Mormon Tabernacle Choir performed the "Star-Spangled Banner", national anthem of the United States, for the opening ceremonies. John Williams composed a five-minute work for orchestra and chorus, "Call of the Champions", that served as the official theme of the 2002 Winter Olympics, his first for a Winter Oly
Moon Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Moon Township is a township along the Ohio River in Allegheny County, United States. Moon is located 12 miles northwest of Pittsburgh; the population was 24,185 at the 2010 census. The initial settlement of Moon Township was a direct result of the westward expansion of English settlers and traders who arrived in the Ohio Valley in the early to mid-18th century. During the French and Indian War, the Iroquois, who controlled the land for hunting grounds through right of conquest, ceded large parcels of southwestern Pennsylvania lands through treaty or abandonment to settlers. In some cases, the land was occupied by squatters who were to be forced off of the land. In the face of this turmoil, Native American settlements of the south bank of the Ohio River relocated to more populous areas of the north bank in the current locales of Sewickley and Ambridge. On the southern banks of the Ohio, political disputes among settlers clouded the disposition of lands; the Pennsylvania Land Office apportioned land to owners through grants.
But, some of the land encompassing what is now the Coraopolis Heights, Thorn Run valley, Narrows Run valley were claimed through the process of "Tomahawk Improvements", a non-specific and oftentimes contested method. Settlement processes were convoluted because of differences among land policies of the several colonies claiming the land Pennsylvania and Virginia; each colony had its own means of either restricting settlement opportunities. Each settler claiming land in what is now Moon Township had to go through a multi-level process of application for grant, warrant of property, survey to ensure the physical boundaries of the property, patent approval whereby the applicant paid for the land and title was conferred. On April 3, 1769, Andrew Montour, an Indian interpreter who had provided service to the English settlers during the French and Indian War, was granted one of the first land patents for 350 acres of what became the borough of Coraopolis and Neville Island. In 1773, the settler John Meek was awarded a 400-acre land grant from Virginia above the river bottom and between the Thorn Run and Montour Run valleys, "Moon Township" was born, although formal, legal recognition would have to wait until 1788.
The settlers Robert Loudon and John Vail were awarded grants to a total of 600 acres. Loudon's tract was situated on the Coraopolis Heights adjacent to the Meek grant. Vail's grant was established between the current Thorn Narrows Run valleys. Three other early grants were warranted by either Pennsylvania land speculators; the boundaries of these land tracts are hard to identify, the names of the original grantees are contested. But historians believe that they encompassed about 700 acres or so, were occupied by anonymous squatters. Given that the history is somewhat hazy, it remains that in abandoning their lands, the unidentified squatters ceded any potential claims to settlers who would otherwise improve and/or cultivate the land; as the 18th century drew to a close, abandoned lands were taken up by new settlers who were drawn to the region by the fertility of the soil. This round of pioneers were, by and large, wealthier than their predecessors and had the means to develop the broken and hilly areas into plots suitable for farming.
Moon Township was created in 1788 as one of the original townships of the newly created Allegheny County. In 1789 by an act of the legislature a portion of Washington County south of the Ohio River was transferred to Allegheny County; the transferred area became part of Moon Township. At this time Moon Township occupied an enormous tract of land - 145 square miles; some reports and, more legends of the time indicate that it would take one man on horseback two days to travel between the boundaries of the township. The sheer difficulty of settlers performing their civic duties made it necessary for local governing authorities to parcel out the land into smaller municipalities. So, in 1790, the current Fayette Township was portioned off from Moon Township, to be followed by Findlay and Crescent townships, respectively. In 1800 when Beaver County was created from Allegheny and Washington Counties that portion of Beaver County south of the Ohio River that it received from Allegheny County was in Moon Township.
Upon the creation of Beaver County that portion of Moon Township that Allegheny County lost to Beaver County was divided into two new townships: First Moon and Second Moon Townships, Beaver County. In 1943, the federal government designed and built a housing plan known as Mooncrest for defense workers. Mooncrest residents produced armor plates and ships at the nearby Dravo Corp. during World War II. Operated by the U. S. Air Force after 1945, homes were sold to private investors in the mid-1950s. Moon became home to Pittsburgh's modern-day airport in 1951, replacing the Allegheny County Airport as the main terminal for the region; the area developed due to the airport. Prior to this time, the western hills of Allegheny County consisted of rolling farms and small residential developments. On April 1, 1956, TWA Flight 400 crashed on takeoff from the airport, killing 22 persons just past the east end of the runway, which lies in Moon Township. During the Cold War, Moon Township was the location of Nike Site PI-71, a battery of Nike Ajax and/or Nike Hercules surface-to-air missiles, used by US armed forces for high – and medium-altitude air defense.
The former missile site is now a nature preserve
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000