Canadians are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, several of these connections exist and are collectively the source of their being Canadian. Canada is a multilingual and multicultural society home to people of many different ethnic and national origins, with the majority of the population made up of Old World immigrants and their descendants. Following the initial period of French and the much larger British colonization, different waves of immigration and settlement of non-indigenous peoples took place over the course of nearly two centuries and continue today. Elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada, thus a Canadian identity. Canada has been influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour—the United States. Canadian independence from the United Kingdom grew over the course of many years since the formation of the Canadian Confederation in 1867.
World War I and World War II in particular, gave rise to a desire among Canadians to have their country recognized as a fully-fledged sovereign state with a distinct citizenship. Legislative independence was established with the passage of the Statute of Westminster 1931, the Canadian Citizenship Act of 1946 took effect on January 1, 1947, full sovereignty was achieved with the patriation of the constitution in 1982. Canada's nationality law mirrored that of the United Kingdom. Legislation since the mid-20th century represents Canadians' commitment to multilateralism and socioeconomic development; as of 2010, Canadians make up only 0.5% of the world's total population, having relied upon immigration for population growth and social development. 41% of current Canadians are first- or second-generation immigrants, 20% of Canadian residents in the 2000s were not born in the country. Statistics Canada projects that, by 2031, nearly one-half of Canadians above the age of 15 will be foreign-born or have one foreign-born parent.
Indigenous peoples, according to the 2011 Canadian Census, numbered at 1,400,685 or 4.3% of the country's 33,476,688 population. While the first contact with Europeans and indigenous peoples in Canada had occurred a century or more before, the first group of permanent settlers were the French, who founded the New France settlements, in present-day Quebec and Ontario. 100 Irish-born families would settle the Saint Lawrence Valley by 1700, assimilating into the Canadien population and culture. During the 18th and 19th century; this arrival of newcomers led to the creation of the Métis, an ethnic group of mixed European and First Nations parentage. The British conquest of New France was preceded by a small number of Germans and Swedes who settled alongside the Scottish in Port Royal, Nova Scotia, while some Irish immigrated to the Colony of Newfoundland. In the wake of the British Conquest of 1760 and the Expulsion of the Acadians, many families from the British colonies in New England moved over into Nova Scotia and other colonies in Canada, where the British made farmland available to British settlers on easy terms.
More settlers arrived during and after the American Revolutionary War, when 60,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America, a large portion of whom settled in New Brunswick. After the War of 1812, British and Irish immigration was encouraged throughout Rupert's Land, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. Between 1815 and 1850, some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America from the British Isles as part of the Great Migration of Canada; these new arrivals included some Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia. The Irish Potato Famine of the 1840s increased the pace of Irish immigration to Prince Edward Island and the Province of Canada, with over 35,000 distressed individuals landing in Toronto in 1847 and 1848. Descendants of Francophone and Anglophone northern Europeans who arrived in the 17th, 18th, 19th centuries are referred to as Old Stock Canadians. Beginning in the late 1850s, the immigration of Chinese into the Colony of Vancouver Island and Colony of British Columbia peaked with the onset of the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush.
The Chinese Immigration Act placed a head tax on all Chinese immigrants, in hopes of discouraging Chinese immigration after completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway. The population of Canada has risen, doubling every 40 years, since the establishment of the Canadian Confederation in 1867. In the mid-to-late 19th century, Canada had a policy of assisting immigrants from Europe, including an estimated 100,000 unwanted "Home Children" from Britain. Block settlement communities were established throughout western Canada between the late 19th and early 20th centuries; some were planned and others were spontaneously created by the settlers themselves. Canada was now receiving a large number of European immigrants, predominantly Italians, Scandinavians, Dutch and Ukrainians. Legislative restrictions on immigration that had favoured British and other European immigrants were a
Reginald John Marsden Parker
Reginald John Marsden Parker was the eighth Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan from 1945 until his death in 1948. Parker was born in Cornwall, United Kingdom, the son of Josiah William Parker, emigrated to Canada in 1898, he worked as a farmhand before establishing a homestead in Togo in. He got involved with local politics and was elected councilor in the rural municipality of Cote in 1904, he served as reeve from 1906 to 1932. In 1904, Parker married Cecilie Margaret Mapleton. In the 1929 Saskatchewan provincial election, Parker was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan as the Liberal MLA for Pelly and sat on the opposition bench, he was re-elected in the 1934 provincial election. Parker was appointed to the provincial cabinet of James Garfield Gardiner as Minister of Municipal Affairs, he served in the portfolio for ten years until the Saskatchewan CCF took power in the 1944 provincial election. Parker was appointed lieutenant governor of the province by federal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King and was sworn in on June 25, 1945.
He served until his death three years later. Parker, Reginald John Marsden, Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
University of Saskatchewan
The University of Saskatchewan is a Canadian public research university, founded on March 19, 1907, located on the east side of the South Saskatchewan River in Saskatoon, Canada. An "Act to establish and incorporate a University for the Province of Saskatchewan" was passed by the provincial legislature in 1907, it established the provincial university on March 19, 1907 "for the purpose of providing facilities for higher education in all its branches and enabling all persons without regard to race, creed or religion to take the fullest advantage". The University of Saskatchewan is the largest education institution in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan; the University of Saskatchewan is one of Canada’s top research universities and is a member of the U15 Group of Canadian Research Universities. The university began as an agricultural college in 1907 and established the first Canadian university-based department of extension in 1910. There were 120 hectares set aside for university buildings and 400 ha for the U of S farm, agricultural fields.
In total 10.32 km2 was annexed for the university. The main University campus is situated upon 981 ha, with another 200 ha allocated for Innovation Place Research Park; the University of Saskatchewan agriculture college still has access to neighbouring urban research lands. The University of Saskatchewan's Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization facility, develops DNA-enhanced immunization vaccines for both humans and animals; the University is home to the Canadian Light Source synchrotron, considered one of the largest and most innovative investments in Canadian science. Since its origins as an agricultural college, research has played an important role at the university. Discoveries made at the U of S include sulphate-resistant cement and the cobalt-60 cancer therapy unit; the university offers over 200 academic programs. Duncan P. McColl was appointed as the first registrar, establishing the first convocation from which Chief Justice Edward L. Wetmore was elected as the first chancellor.
Walter Charles Murray became the first president of the university's board of governors. The institution was modelled on the American state university, with an emphasis on extension work and applied research; the University of Saskatchewan, in Saskatoon, was granted a provincial charter on March 19, 1907. A provincial statute known as the University Act, it provided for a publicly funded, yet independent institution to be created for the citizens of the whole province. The governance was modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906 which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters; the president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. The scope of the new institution was to include colleges of arts and science, including art and commerce, agriculture with forestry, domestic science, engineering, medicine, veterinary science and dentistry.
Saskatoon was chosen as the site for the University on April 1909 by the board of governors. On October 12, 1912 the first building opened its doors for student admission, it awarded its first degrees in 1912. In the early part of this century, professional education expanded beyond the traditional fields of theology and medicine. Graduate training based on the German-inspired American model of specialized course work and the completion of a research thesis was introduced. Battleford, Moose Jaw, Prince Albert and Saskatoon all lobbied to be the location of the new university. Walter Murray preferred Regina. In a politically influenced vote, Saskatoon was chosen on April 7, 1909. Designed by David Robertson Brown, the Memorial Gates were erected in 1927 at the corner of College Drive and Hospital Drive in honour of the University of Saskatchewan alumni who served in the First World War. A stone wall bears inscriptions of the names of the sixty seven university students and faculty who lost their lives while on service during World War I.
The hallways of the Old Administrative Building at the University of Saskatchewan are decorated with memorial scrolls in honour of the University of Saskatchewan alumni who served in the World Wars. The National Film Board of Canada documentary "Prairie University" directed by John Feeney explores diverse research activities at the University of Saskatchewan on agriculture and ice cream. A college of veterinary medicine opened at the University of Saskatchewan on July 2, 1969; the University of Saskatchewan's Arms were registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority on February 15, 2001. A location next to the South Saskatchewan River, across from the city centre of Saskatoon, was selected for the campus. David Robertson Brown of Brown & Vallance were the initial architects constructing a campus plan and the first university buildings in Collegiate Gothic style: The Prime Minister of Canada, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, laid the cornerstone of the first building, the College Building, on July 29, 1910.
The first building to be started on the new campus, the College Building, built 1910–1912 opened in 1913. Brown & Vallance designed the Administration Building. Brown & Vallance designed the Engineering Building as well as additions 1913 i
Sylvia Olga Fedoruk, was a Canadian physicist, medical physicist and the 17th Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan. Born in Canora, the daughter of Ukrainian immigrants, Annie Romaniuk and Theodore Fedoruk. Fedoruk attended a one room schoolhouse in Wroxton north east of the city of Yorkton, her father was her teacher. During World War II, the family relocated to Ontario. In 1946, she completed her studies at Walkerville Collegiate in Windsor Ontario, at the top of her class and was awarded the Ernest J. Creed Memorial Medal and an entrance scholarship to attend University, but the family chose to return to Saskatchewan where Sylvia entered the University of Saskatchewan at Saskatoon in the fall of 1946. She received a Bachelor of Arts degree in physics, at the University of Saskatchewan, in 1949 and was awarded the Governor General's Gold Medal. Fedoruk completed her M. A. in physics in 1951. Fedoruk was recruited by Dr. Harold E. Johns to be the radiation physicist at Saskatoon Cancer Clinic, she became the chief medical physicist at the Saskatoon Cancer Clinic and director of physics services at the Saskatchewan Cancer Clinic.
She was associate member in physics at the University of Saskatchewan. She was involved in the development of the world's first cobalt-60 unit and one of the first nuclear medicine scanning machines, she was the first woman member of the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada. From 1986 to 1989 she was chancellor of the University of Saskatchewan, she was the first woman to fill this position at the University of Saskatchewan. She is a past president of the Canadian Ladies Curling Association. In 1986, she was inducted into the Canadian Curling Hall of Fame, as a builder, was awarded the Saskatchewan Order of Merit. In 1961, she played in the first Diamond'D' Championships for team Saskatchewan as the third for Joyce McKee. Saskatchewan won the tournament. In 1987, she was made an Officer of the Order of Canada. From 1988 to 1994, she was Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan. In the 1990s, the City of Saskatoon named Fedoruk Drive in her honour; the roadway runs from Central Avenue to McOrmond Drive, north of the communities of Silverspring and Evergreen and south of the community of Aspen Ridge and the Northeast Swale.
Fedoruk Drive serves as a minor arterial roadway in the northeast sector of the city. On October 3, 2012 the name of the Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation was changed to the Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation in honor of the pioneering work she did in the treatment of cancer using cobalt-60 radiation therapy in the 1950s. In 2009, she was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame. Monarchy in Saskatchewan Sylvia Olga Fedoruk - Canadian Women in Government
History of the Canadian Army
The history of the Canadian Army, began when the title first came into official use in November 1940, during the Second World War, is still used today. Although the official titles, Mobile Command, Land Force Command, were used from February 1968 to August 2011, "Canadian Army" continued to be unofficially used to refer to the ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces, much as it has been from Confederation in 1867 to the present; the term was even used in official military publications, for example in recruiting literature and the official newspaper of the Canadian Forces, The Maple Leaf. On August 16, 2011, the title, "Canadian Army", was restored, once again bringing the official designation in line with common and historical usage. Prior to Canadian Confederation in 1867, defence for the colonies that comprise present-day Canada was dependent on the armies of colonial powers; the military of New France was dependent on the French Royal Army. Conversely, the defence of the English/British colonies of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia was dependent on the English/British Army.
After the British conquest of New France in 1760, defence for the French colony of Canada, St. John's Island was reliant on the British Army. Both the British and French Armies were augmented by locally recruited regulars and the Canadian militia. Many of these units remained inactive in between. During the War of 1812, locally raised Canadian units, including fencibles, militia units from the Canadas, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia served alongside regular units of the British Army; these fencible and militia units played an instrumental role during the conflict. The history and heritage, as well as the War of 1812 battle honours awarded to many of these units, are perpetuated by current units within the Canadian Army. While Canada developed a volunteer militia force of trained and unpaid amateurs, defence of the country was dependent on a contingent of regular British soldiers, as well as naval defence through the Royal Navy; the Canadian Militia evolved from the various British garrison forces on the North American continent in the 19th century.
In 1854, with the outbreak of the Crimean War the entire British garrison was pulled out of British North America to fight against Russia, with many American politicians saying this was the opportune moment for the United State to realize its "manifest destiny" by annexing British North America, the government of the United Canadas, consisting of Canada West and Canada East passed the Militia Act of 1855 to create an active militia, a professional army, through not labelled as such. The "active militia" consisted of 5,000 men; the Canadian Army is a direct descendant of the "active duty militia" force created in 1855. Upon Canadian Confederation in 1867, the ground forces in Canada continued to be referred to as the Militia. Using the "active duty militia" of the United Canadas as its core, Parliament passed the Militia Act of 1868 merging the militias of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia into the militia of the United Canadas. In February 1869, the Defence minister, Sir George-Étienne Cartier, told the House of Commons that the Militia had 37,170 men under arms and 618, 896 in reserve.
The primary action that the newly formed militia saw was from the Fenians, a group of Irish radicals who made several attempts in the late 19th century to invade some parts of southern Canada from the United States. The period of the Fenian raids in the 1860s and early 1870s was the peak of the efficiency of the Canadian militia. In 1866, at the Battle of Ridgeway the Fenians defeated the Canada West militia owing to the inexperience of the militiamen, but in 1870 the Quebec militia drove back the Fenians at Trout River and Eccles Hill with little trouble. In 1869, Canada purchased for $1.5 million the vast proprietary colony of Rupert's Land run by the Hudson's Bay Company that comprised all of northern Quebec, northern Ontario, Saskatchewan, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, Nunavut. The 10,000 people, many of them Métis in the Red River Colony in what is now southern Manitoba, were not consulted about the sale, under the leadership of Louis Riel rebelled, setting up a provisional government to negotiate their admission to Confederation.
Donald Smith of the Hudson's Bay Company had been appointed to negotiate with Riel by Ottawa and arranged a settlement under which Canada would create a new province called Manitoba in exchange for the Métis laying down their arms. However, the execution of Thomas Scott, an Orangeman from Ontario, by the Métis, created much fury in Ontario, a province where the Loyal Orange Order was a major political force. To placate voters in Ontario, an expedition was sent to down the Red River Rebellion. In 1870, an Anglo-Canadian force consisting of the 400 men from British King's Royal Rifle Corps with the rest being Ontario militiamen, consisting of 1,044 men in total under the command of General Garnet Wolseley made an gruelling march across northern Ontario to the Red River colony. Riel fled and the rebellion ended without any fighting, the terms agreed upon between Smith and Riel were implemented with Manitoba becoming the 5th provinceAfter the Treaty of Washington and the end of the Fenian raids, the British began to downsize their garrisons in Canada to move troops to other areas of the Empire, but due to friendlier relations with the United States, Canada's immediate neighbour, the only country capable of launching an armed invasion of the country.
In 1871, the British garrisons in Canada were completely pulled out with British garr
Archibald Peter McNab
Archibald Peter "Archie" McNab was the sixth Lieutenant-Governor of Saskatchewan from 1936 until 1945. He was the last lieutenant-governor of the province to live in Government House, he was born in Glengarry County, the son of Malcolm McNab and Margaret McCrimmon, moved to Winnipeg in 1882 with his twin brother before establishing a homestead in Virden, Manitoba. Years of drought forced him to give up farming and in 1887 he became a grain buyer for Ogilvie Flour Mills. In 1892, McNab married Edith Wilson Todd. In 1902, the company transferred him to Rosthern, Saskatchewan where he invested in two grain elevators. After selling them, he moved to Saskatoon with his wife and children and established the Dominion Elevator Company, he helped found the Saskatchewan Central Railway Company and the Saskatchewan Power Company. He entered politics and was elected to the Saskatchewan legislature in the 1908 general election as a Liberal MLA representing Saskatoon City. In government, he was appointed commissioner of municipal affairs and became Minister of Public Works in 1912.
One of his accomplishments was helping acquire the University of Saskatchewan for Saskatoon. In 1922, he was named Minister of Telephones. McNab retired from the legislature when he was appointed to the local government board in 1926 but was forced to resign in 1930 due to allegations of impropriety. In 1936, he was appointed lieutenant-governor; as provincial viceroy he hosted King George VI and Queen Elizabeth at Government House during their 1939 royal visit to Canada. The Saskatchewan Co-operative Commonwealth Federation was elected to government in the 1944 general election and closed Government-House in September 1944 as an austerity measure making McNab its last occupant, he was moved to the Hotel Saskatchewan, where his successors as Lieutenant-Governor had their offices and lived. In ill health, he resigned as lieutenant-governor on February 26, 1945, he died of pneumonia two months later. His uncle Archibald McNab was a member of the Canadian House of Commons
Thomas Miller (Saskatchewan)
Thomas Miller was the shortest serving and seventh Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan and was in office in 1945 for less than four months. Miller was born in Ontario. While he was a boy, his family moved to Saskatchewan. From 1892 to 1894, Miller apprenticed with the Regina Standard newspaper; when the proprietors purchased the Moose Jaw Times they put Miller in charge of the printing press. In 1896, he became president and managing editor of the newspaper and remained involved with what became the Times-Herald newspaper for fifty years, he was appointed lieutenant-governor in 1945 on the advice of federal Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King and made his official residence at the Hotel Saskatchewan as the provincial government had closed Government House the previous year. Miller presided over victory celebrations in the province following the end of World War II, he died of a heart attack on June 20, 1945. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan biography