5th Air Army
The 5th Air Army was an air army of the Soviet Air Forces and the Ukrainian Air Force. First formed in 1942 during World War II, the army provided air support to Soviet forces through the rest of the war, was renumbered as the 48th Air Army in 1949, it was stationed in the Odessa Military District during the postwar period, in 1968 its original number was restored. Between 1980 and 1988 it was known as the Air Forces of the Odessa Military District. Redesignated as the 5th Air Army again in 1988, it became part of the Ukrainian Air Force after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, was converted into an aviation corps in 1994; the 5th Air Army was first created during the World War II, formed from the Air Forces of the North Caucasus Front on 6 June 1942 in accordance with an order dated 3 June, consisting of the 236th, 237th, 265th Fighter Aviation Divisions, the 238th Assault Aviation Division, the 132nd Bomber Aviation Division, two separate regiments. It was commanded by Major General Sergei Goryunov.
From July to December, the air army provided support for the Soviet defense of the North Caucasus. On 5 September, it became part of the Transcaucasian Front, but was transferred to the North Caucasus Front on 4 February 1943. In April 1943, alongside the 4th Air Army and the aviation of the Black Sea Fleet, it fought in battles for air superiority in the Kuban. On 24 April, the army was withdrawn to the Reserve of the Supreme High Command and relocated to the Steppe Military District, which became part of the Steppe Front on 9 July. During the Battle of Kursk in July and August 1943 it fought as part of the front, comprised the 7th Mixed Aviation Corps, 8th Mixed Aviation Corps, 3rd Fighter Aviation Corps, the 7th Fighter Aviation Corps, numbering around 563 aircraft. On 1 August it comprised the 1st Bomber Aviation Corps, 1st Assault Aviation Corps, 3rd Fighter Aviation Corps, 4th Fighter Aviation Corps, 7th Fighter Aviation Corps, the 511th Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment. From August, the army fought in the Belgorod-Khar'kov Offensive Operation and the Battle of the Dnieper.
On 20 October, the front became the 2nd Ukrainian Front. During 1944, the army fought in the Kirovograd Offensive, the Korsun-Shevchenkovsky Offensive, the Jassy–Kishinev Offensive, the Belgrade Offensive, the Budapest Offensive, the last of which extended until February 1945. In 1945, the army fought in the Prague Offensive; the 5th Air Army flew about 180,000 sorties during the war. In 1945, the army was relocated to Odessa, it was renumbered the 48th Air Army on 10 January 1949 and from 1947 to 1958 controlled the few Soviet air units stationed in Romania. The 119th Fighter Aviation Division, with the 86th Guards, 161st, 684th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiments, joined the army in October 1951 after it relocated to Tiraspol. On 4 April 1968, the army became the 5th Air Army again, restoring its original World War II designation. On 15 January 1974, the air army received the Order of the Red Banner for mastering new aviation technology and strengthening the country's combat readiness. In 1980, the air army became the Air Forces of the Odessa Military District, but in May 1988 it became the 5th Air Army again.
In December 1989, the entire 119th Division transferred to the VVS Black Sea Fleet, leaving the army with only a few regiments. The Army was still serving there when the Soviet Union dissolved, consisted in 1991-92 of a single MiG-29 fighter regiment and a Su-17 reconnaissance regiment. On the breakup of the Soviet Union, the army became part of the Ukrainian Air Force; the formation was downgraded in status by the Ukrainian Air Force. On 18 March 1994 the Ukrainian 5th Air Army was redesignated the 5th Air Corps. On 1 January 2001 the corps consisted of the 9th Fighter Aviation Brigade, the 161st Fighter Aviation Regiment, the 642nd Fighter Aviation Regiment, the 299th Independent Assault Aviation Regiment, the 511th Separate Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment, the 149th Aviation Base and two other aviation regiments, the 2nd Separate Mixed at Odessa, the 44th Bomber Aviation at Kanatovo. In December 2004, the 5th Air Corps and the 60th Air Defense Corps combined to form Air Command South. Headquarters - Odessa 29th Independent Training Regiment 90th Independent Assault Aviation Regiment 642nd Guards Independent Fighter-Bomber Regiment 827th Independent Reconnaissance Regiment 119th Fighter Aviation Division, Moldovian SSR)86th Guards Fighter Aviation Regiment 161st Fighter Aviation Regiment with MiG-29 and MiG-23 684th Guards Orshanskiy Red Banner Fighter Aviation Regiment Data from 32nd Bomber Aviation Division 7th Bomber Aviation Regiment 727th Guards Bomber Aviation Regiment 805th Signals Battalion 130th Fighter A
Battle of Kursk
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943. The battle began with the launch of the German offensive, Operation Citadel, on 5 July, which had the objective of pinching off the Kursk salient with attacks on the base of the salient from north and south simultaneously. After the German offensive stalled on the northern side of the salient, on 12 July the Soviets commenced their Kursk Strategic Offensive Operation with the launch of Operation Kutuzov against the rear of the German forces in the northern side. On the southern side, the Soviets launched powerful counterattacks the same day, one of which led to a large armoured clash, the Battle of Prokhorovka. On 3 August, the Soviets began the second phase of the Kursk Strategic Offensive Operation with the launch of Operation Polkovodets Rumyantsev against the German forces in the southern side of the Kursk salient; the battle was the final strategic offensive that the Germans were able to launch on the Eastern Front.
Because the Allied invasion of Sicily had begun, Adolf Hitler was forced to have troops training in France diverted to meet the Allied threat in the Mediterranean, rather than use them as a strategic reserve for the Eastern Front. Hitler canceled the offensive at Kursk in part to divert forces to Italy. Germany's extensive losses of men and tanks ensured that the victorious Soviet Red Army enjoyed the strategic initiative for the remainder of the war; the Germans hoped to weaken the Soviet offensive potential for the summer of 1943 by cutting off the forces that they anticipated would be in the Kursk salient. The Kursk salient or bulge was 250 kilometres long from north to south and 160 kilometres from east to west; the plan envisioned an envelopment by a pair of pincers breaking through the northern and southern flanks of the salient. Hitler believed that a victory here would reassert German strength and improve his prestige with his allies, who were considering withdrawing from the war, it was hoped that large numbers of Soviet prisoners would be captured to be used as slave labour in the German armaments industry.
The Soviet government had foreknowledge of the German intentions, provided in part by the British intelligence service and Tunny intercepts. Aware months in advance that the attack would fall on the neck of the Kursk salient, the Soviets built a defence in depth designed to wear down the German armoured spearhead; the Germans delayed the offensive while they tried to build up their forces and waited for new weapons the new Panther tank but larger numbers of the Tiger heavy tank. This gave the Red Army time to construct a series of deep defensive belts; the defensive preparations included minefields, artillery fire zones and anti-tank strong points, which extended 300 km in depth. Soviet mobile formations were moved out of the salient and a large reserve force was formed for strategic counter-offensives; the Battle of Kursk was the first time in the Second World War that a German strategic offensive was halted before it could break through enemy defences and penetrate to its strategic depths.
The maximum depth of the German advance was 8–12 kilometres in the north and 35 kilometres in the south. Though the Red Army had succeeded in winter offensives their counter-offensives following the German attack at Kursk were their first successful strategic summer offensives of the war; as the Battle of Stalingrad ground to its conclusion, the Red Army moved to a general offensive in the south, in Operation Little Saturn. By January 1943, a 160 to 300 km wide gap had opened between Army Group B and Army Group Don, the advancing Soviet armies threatened to cut off all German forces south of the Don River, including Army Group A operating in the Caucasus. Army Group Center came under significant pressure as well. Kursk fell to the Soviets on 8 February 1943, Rostov fell on 14 February; the Soviet Bryansk and newly created Central Fronts prepared for an offensive which envisioned the encirclement of Army Group Center between Bryansk and Smolensk. By February 1943 the southern sector of the German front was in strategic crisis.
Since December 1942 Field Marshal Erich von Manstein had been requesting "unrestricted operational freedom" to allow him to use his forces in a fluid manner. On 6 February 1943, Manstein met with Hitler at the headquarters in Rastenburg to discuss the proposals he had sent, he received an approval from Hitler for a counteroffensive against the Soviet forces advancing in the Donbass region. On 12 February 1943, the remaining German forces were reorganised. To the south, Army Group Don was placed under Manstein's command. Directly to the north, Army Group B was dissolved, with its forces and areas of responsibility divided between Army Group South and Army Group Center. Manstein inherited responsibility for the massive breach in the German lines. On 18 February, Hitler arrived at Army Group South headquarters at Zaporizhia just hours before the Soviets liberated Kharkov, had to be hastily evacuated on the 19th. Once given freedom of action, Manstein intended to utilise his forces to make a series of counterstrokes into the flanks of the Soviet armoured formations, with the goal of destroying them while retaking Kharkov and Kursk.
The II SS Panzer Corps had arrived from France in January 1943, refitted and up to near full strength. Armoured units from the 1st Panzer Army of Army Group A had pulled out of the Caucasus and further strengthen
The Stavka was the high command of the armed forces in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. In Imperial Russia Stavka refers to the administrative staff, to the General Headquarters in the late 19th Century Imperial Russian armed forces and subsequently in the Soviet Union. In Western literature it is sometimes written in uppercase, incorrect since it is not an acronym. Stavka may refer to its members, as well as to the headquarter location; the commander-in-chief of the Russian army at the beginning of World War I was Grand Duke Nicholas Nicholaievitch, a grandson of Tsar Nicholas I. Appointed at the last minute in August 1914, he played no part in formulating the military plans in use at the beginning of the war. Nikolai Yanushkevich was his chief of staff. In the summer of 1915 the Tsar himself took personal command, with Mikhail Alekseyev as his chief of staff. In the years 1915–1917 Stavka was based in Mogilev and the Tsar, Nicholas II, spent long periods there as Commander-in-Chief; the Stavka was divided into several departments: Department of General-Quartermaster Department of General on Duty Department of military transportations Naval department Diplomatic chancery The Stavka was first established in Baranovichi.
In August 1915, after the German advance, the Stavka re-located to Mogilev. 19 July 1914 – 18 August 1915: Lieutenant-General Nikolai Yanushkevich 18 September 1915—01.04.1917: General of Infantry Mikhail Alekseyev 10 November 1916 – 17 February 1917: General of Cavalry Vasily Gurko 11 March 1917—05.04.1917: General of Infantry Vladislav Klembovsky 5 April 1917 – 31 May 1917: Lieutenant-General Anton Denikin 2 June 1917 – 30 August 1917: Lieutenant-General Alexander Lukomsky 30 August 1917 – 9 September 1917: General of Infantry Mikhail Alekseyev 10 October 1917—03.11.1917: Lieutenant-General Nikolay Dukhonin 3 November 1917—07.11.1917: Major General Mikhail Dieterichs 7 November 1917—02.1918: Major General Mikhail Bonch-Bruevich The Stavka of the Soviet Armed Forces during World War II, or the headquarters of the "Main Command of the Armed Forces of the USSR", was established on 23 June 1941 by a top-secret decree signed by Joseph Stalin in his capacities both as the head of government and as the leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
According to this decree Stavka was composed of the defence minister Marshal Semyon Timoshenko, the head of General Staff Georgy Zhukov, Vyacheslav Molotov, Marshal Kliment Voroshilov, Marshal Semyon Budyonny and the People's Commissar of the Navy Admiral Nikolai Gerasimovich Kuznetsov. The same decree organized at Stavka "the institution of permanent counsellors of Stavka": Marshal Kulik, Marshal Shaposhnikov, Kirill Meretskov, head of the Air force Zhigarev, Nikolay Vatutin, head of Air Defence Voronov, Kaganovich, Lavrenty Beria, Zhdanov, Mekhlis. Soon afterwards, the deputy defence minister of the army, was arrested following false charges made by Beria and Merkulov. Meretskov was subsequently released from jail on the same day, at the end of the first week of September 1941, called for by Stalin. Stavka's Main Command was reorganized into the Stavka of the Supreme Command on 10 July 1941; this action occurred after Stalin was named Supreme Commander, replaced Timoshenko as head of Stavka.
On 8 August 1941 it was again reorganized into Stavka of the Supreme Main Command. On the same day Strategic Directions commands were instituted. A 17 February 1945 decree set out the membership of Stavka as Stalin, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Aleksei Antonov, Nikolai Bulganin and Kuznetsov. General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation Creation of the Main Command of the Armed Forces of the Union of USSR
Kursk is a city and the administrative center of Kursk Oblast, located at the confluence of the Kur and Seym rivers. The area around Kursk was the site of a turning point in the Soviet–German struggle during World War II and the site of the largest tank battle in history. Population: 415,159 . Archaeology indicates that the site of Kursk was settled in the 5th or 4th century BCE; the settlement was fortified and included Slavs at least as early as the 8th century CE. The first written record of Kursk is dated 1032, it was mentioned as one of Severian towns by Prince Igor in The Tale of Igor's Campaign: "Saddle, your swift steeds. As to mine, they are ready; the city was rebuilt no than 1283. It was ruled by Grand Duchy of Lithuania between 1360 and 1508. Kursk joined the centralized Russian state in 1508, it was an important center of the corn trade with Ukraine and hosted an important fair, which took place annually under the walls of the monastery of Our Lady of Kursk. However, a century the city re-emerged in a new place.
In 1596 a new fortress was built, in 1616. At the beginning of the 17th century Kursk was attacked by Polish-Lithuania, the Crimean Tatars, the Nogai horde, but Kursk fortress was never taken. Residents of Oryol and other southern Russian cities were resettled in Kursk; the city developed due to its advantageous geographical position on the shortest route from Moscow to the Crimea and from Kiev to the Crimea. It was raided by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Crimean Khanate until the late 17th century and was ruled by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1611 and 1618, it was successively part of the Kiev Governorate, Belgorod Governorate, Kursk Viceroyalty. Town status was granted to Kursk in 1779, it became the administrative center of Kursk Governorate in 1797. After a fire in 1781 devastated Kursk, a new plan for the city was developed in which a market center would be at the heart of the city. In 1768 the Voskirsensko Ilinskaya Church was built. In 1778 both the Sergiev Cathedral Kazan Cathedral Baroque and Trinity Sergius Cathedral were completed.
The city opened its first school for the nobility in 1783. A men's gymnasium was opened in 1808 and a seminary in 1817. A women's gymnasium was opened in 1870. At the beginning of the 20th century Kursk played a dominant role in the food industry and in other industries as well. Organized several engineering enterprises. Working conditions in the factories of Kursk were harsh and resulted in strikes. Kursk workers participated in the general political strike during the 1905 Russian Revolution. On November 26 1917 the Soviets took power. Kornilovites came to Kursk in September 20, 1919. On September 20, 1919, troops under the command of General Denikin entered the city. On November 19, 1919, the Red Army took Kursk; the Soviet government valued Kursk for rich deposits of iron ore and developed it into one of the major railroad hubs in the Russian southwest. In 1932 in the Kursk was included Yamskaya Sloboda. In 1935 a tram system began operating in the city. In 193?, the territory of the city of Kursk was divided into Leninsky District, Dzerzhinsky District and Kirov District.
In 1937 Stalinsky District was formed in the southern outskirts of the city. During World War II, Kursk was occupied by Germany between November 4, 1941 and February 8, 1943. In July 1943, the Germans launched Operation Citadel in an attempt to recapture Kursk. During the resulting Battle of Kursk, the village of Prokhorovka near Kursk became the center of a major armoured engagement – the Battle of Prokhorovka – between Soviet and German forces, considered to have been one of the largest tank battles in history. Operation Citadel was the last major German offensive against the Soviet Union. Rebuilding efforts in the city began in February 1944; the cultural life recovered as well: on 19 February the cinema reopened and on February 27 the drama theatre. In 1953 the tram system began operating. By 1950 the urban economy had been restored. On August 17, 1956, Stalinsky District was renamed Promishlenost District, Dzerzhinsky District was abolished and its territory divided between Promishlenost and Leninsky Districts.
In 2009, for the first time in 90 years at the site of Theotokos of Kursk, the most revered icon in the Russian Orthodox Church, received the name Hodigitria Russian diaspora. Until 2010, Kursk had the status of historica
Voronezh is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, straddling the Voronezh River and located 12 kilometers from where it flows into the Don. The city sits on the Southeastern Railway, which connects European Russia with the Urals and Siberia, the Caucasus and Ukraine, the M4 highway, its population in 2016 was estimated to be 1,032,895. The first chronicle references to the word "Voronezh" are dated 1177, when the Ryazan prince Yaropolk, having lost the battle, fled "to Voronozh" and there was moving "from hail into hail." Modern data of archeology and history interpret Voronezh as a geographical region, which included the Voronezh river and a number of settlements. In the lower reaches of the river, an unique Slavic town-planning complex of the 8th – early 11th century was discovered, which covered the territory of the present city of Voronezh and its environs. By the 12th – 13th centuries, most of the old “hails” were desolate, but new settlements appeared upstream, closer to Ryazan.
For many years, the hypothesis of the Soviet historian Vladimir Zagorovsky dominated: he produced the toponym "Voronezh" from the hypothetical Slavic personal name Voroneg. This man gave the name of a small town in the Chernigov Principality. In the XI or XII centuries, the settlers were able to "transfer" this name to the Don region, where they named the second city Voronezh, the river got its name from the city. However, now many researchers criticize the hypothesis, since in reality neither the name of Voroneg nor the second city was revealed, the names of Russian cities repeated the names of the rivers, but not vice versa; the linguistic comparative analysis of the name "Voronezh" was carried out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009. There is an indication of the place names of many countries in Eurasia, which may be not only similar in sound, but united by common Indo-European languages: Varanasi, Verona, etc. A comprehensive scientific analysis was conducted in 2015–2016 by the historian Pavel Popov.
His conclusion: "Voronezh" is a probable Slavic macrotoponym associated with outstanding signs of nature, has a root voron- in the meaning of "black, dark" and the suffix -ezh. It was not “transferred” and in the 8th - 9th centuries it marked a vast territory covered with black forests - from the mouth of the Voronezh river to the Voronozhsky annalistic forests in the middle and upper reaches of the river, in the west to the Don; the historian believes that the main "city" of the early town-planning complex could repeat the name of the region – Voronezh. Now the hillfort is located in the administrative part of the modern city, in the Voronezh upland oak forest; this is one of Europe's largest ancient Slavic hillforts, the area of which – more than 9 hectares – 13 times the area of the main settlement in Kiev before the baptism of Rus. Folk etymology claims the name comes from combining the Russian words for raven and hedgehog into Воронеж. According to this explanation two Slavic tribes named after the animals used this combination to name the river which in turn provided the name for a settlement.
There is not believed to be any scientific support for this explanation. In the 16th century, the Middle Don basin, including the Voronezh river, was conquered by Muscovy from the Nogai Horde, the current city of Voronezh was established in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting the Muravsky Trail trade route against the raids of the Nogai and Crimean Tatars; the city was named after the river. In the 17th century, Voronezh evolved into a sizable town. Weronecz is shown on the Worona river in Resania in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645. Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696; this fleet, the first built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was proclaimed the town's patron saint. Owing to the Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city of South Russia and the economic center of a large and fertile region.
In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov Governorate, which morphed into the Voronezh Governorate. In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry as well as bread, cattle and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Moscow in 1868 and Rostov-on-Don in 1871. During World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and combined Axis troops; the Germans used it as a staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, made it a key crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 artillery installations were built at the Voronezh excavator factory. In July, the construction of Katyushas was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the time of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh were used in a counterattack near Moscow in December 1941. In October 22, 1941, the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of a defense committee in the city.
1st Baltic Front
The First Baltic Front was a major formation of the Red Army during the Second World War. It was commanded by Army General Andrey Yeryomenko, succeeded by Army General Bagramyan, it was formed by renaming the Kalinin Front in October 12, 1943, took part in several important military operations, most notably Bagration in the summer of 1944. The 1st Baltic Front assisted in lifting the Siege of Leningrad on January 27, 1944, as well as in Operation Samland, at that time known as the Samland Group, captured Königsberg in April 1945; as of June 23, 1944, the First Baltic Front consisted of the following units and their commanders: Baltic Front, led by front commander Army General Hovhannes Bagramyan 4th Shock Army, led by General-Lieutenant P. F. Malyshev 83rd Rifle Corps6th Guards Army, led by General Lieutenant I. M. Chistyakov 2nd Guards Rifle Corps 22nd Guards Rifle Corps 23rd Guards Rifle Corps 103rd Guards Rifle Corps Army artillery43rd Army, led by General Lieutenant A. P. Belaborodov 1st Rifle Corps 60th Rifle Corps 92nd Rifle Corps 1st Tank Corps3rd Air Army, led by General Lieutenant N. F. Papivin 11th Fighter Aviation Corps Army General Andrey Yeremenko Army General Ivan Bagramyan Lieutenant General Dmitry Leonov Lieutenant General Mikhail Rudakov Colonel General Vladimir Kurasov Zaloga, Steven J. Bagration 1944 - The Destruction of Army Group Center.
New York: Osprey Publishing, 1996, p. 24 ISBN 1-85532-478-4
Tula is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast, located 193 kilometers south of Moscow, on the Upa River. Population: 501,169 ; the name of the city is pre-Russian Baltic, origin. The word Tula means canvas rucksack. Spanish immigrants and explorers named some of their discoveries Tula. Tula was first mentioned in the Nikon Chronicle in 1146; as the chronicle was written in the 16th century, the date is disputed. The first confirmed mention of Tula dates to 1382. In the Middle Ages, Tula was a minor fortress at the border of the Principality of Ryazan; as soon as it passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, a brick citadel, or kremlin, was constructed in 1514–1521. It was a key fortress of the Great Abatis Belt and resisted a siege by the Tatars in 1552. In 1607, Ivan Bolotnikov and his supporters seized the citadel and withstood a four-months siege by the Tsar's army. In the 18th century, some parts of the kremlin walls were demolished. Despite its archaic appearance, the five-domed Assumption Cathedral in the kremlin was built as late as 1764.
In 1712, Tula was visited by Peter the Great, who commissioned the Demidov blacksmiths to build the first armament factory in Russia. Several decades Tula was turned by the Demidovs into the greatest ironworking center of Eastern Europe; the oldest museum in the city, showcasing the history of weapons, was inaugurated by the Demidovs in 1724, Nicholas-Zaretsky Church in the city houses their family vault. The first factory to produce samovars industrially was established there in the course of the 18th century. After the Demidovs moved the center of their manufacture to the Urals, Tula continued as a center of heavy industry in the manufacture of matériel. In the 1890s, Ivan Savelyev, a medical orderly, became the founder of social democracy in Tula and set up a workers' study circle; the city grew in the early 20th century as a result of arms production during the 1905 Russo-Japanese War and World War I. Tula's factories manufactured weapons for the Red Army during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1921.
During the World War II of 1941–1945, the city was important in the production of armaments. Tula became the target of a German offensive to break Soviet resistance in the Moscow area between Friday, October 24 and December 5, 1941. According to Erik Durschmied in The Weather Factor, The Day The Panzers Froze, 5th December 1941, one General Reached the South Western Outskirts of Tula on 29th-30th October 1941; the fortified city held out and Guderian's Second Panzer Army was stopped near Tula. The city secured the southern flank during the Battle of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive. Tula was awarded the title Hero City in 1976, it is home to the Tula Arms Plant. Tula serves as the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the territories of Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction and of Leninsky District are incorporated as Tula Urban Okrug.
Sergey Kazakov Vladimir Mogilnikov Alisa Tolkachyova Yevgeny Avilov Aleksandr Prokopuk Yuri Tskipuri For more than four centuries Tula has been known as a center of crafts and metalworking. Tula is a developed industrial center. Importance in the industrial structure of Tula are metallurgy and metal with a high share of the military-industrial complex and food manufacturing. Almaz-Antey Concern: Scientific Production Association Strela Splav part of the Techmash holding of Rostec. Tula is renowned for traditional Russian pryanik, cookies made with honey and spices. In the West, Tula is best known as the center of samovar production: the Russian equivalent of "coals to Newcastle" is "You don't take a samovar to Tula"; the most popular tourist attraction in Tula Oblast is Yasnaya Polyana, the home and burial place of the writer Leo Tolstoy. It is situated 14 kilometres south-west of the city, it was here that Tolstoy wrote his celebrated novels Anna Karenina. Tula is home to: Tula State University Tula State Pedagogical University The Tula artillery and Engineering Institute A branch of the All Russia Economic and Finance Institute A branch of The Moscow Economics and Management Institute Since 1867, there has been a railway connection between Tula and Moscow.
Tula is a major railway junction with trains to Moscow, Oryol and Kaluga. The Moscow to Simferopol M2 motorway runs past the city