George Herbert was a Welsh-born poet and priest of the Church of England. His poetry is associated with the writings of the metaphysical poets, he is recognised as "one of the foremost British devotional lyricists." He was born into an artistic and wealthy family and raised in England. He received a good education that led to his admission to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1609, he went there with the intention of becoming a priest, but he became the University's Public Orator and attracted the attention of King James I. He served in the Parliament of England in 1624 and in 1625. After the death of King James, Herbert renewed his interest in ordination, he gave up his secular ambitions in his mid-thirties and took holy orders in the Church of England, spending the rest of his life as the rector of the little parish of St Andrews Church, Lower Bemerton, Salisbury. He was noted for unfailing care for his parishioners, bringing the sacraments to them when they were ill and providing food and clothing for those in need.
Henry Vaughan called him "a most glorious saint and seer". He was never a healthy man and died of consumption at age 39. George Herbert was born 3 April 1593 in Montgomery, Wales, the son of Richard Herbert and his wife Magdalen née Newport, the daughter of Sir Richard Newport, he was one of 10 children. The Herbert family was wealthy and powerful in both national and local government, George was descended from the same stock as the Earls of Pembroke, his father was a member of parliament, a justice of the peace, served for several years as high sheriff and custos rotulorum of Montgomeryshire. His mother Magdalen was a patron and friend of clergyman and poet John Donne and other poets and artists; as George's godfather, Donne stood in. Herbert and his siblings were raised by his mother who helped push for a good education for her children. Herbert's eldest brother Edward became a soldier, historian and philosopher whose religious writings led to his reputation as the "father of English deism". Herbert's younger brother was Sir Henry Herbert, Master of the Revels to Charles II.
Herbert entered Westminster School at or around the age of 12 as a day pupil, although he became a residential scholar. He was admitted on scholarship to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1609, graduated first with a Bachelor's and with a master's degree in 1616 at the age of 23. Subsequently, Herbert was elected a major fellow of his college and appointed Reader in Rhetoric. In 1620 he stressed his fluency in Latin and Greek and attained election to the post of the University's Public Orator, a position he held until 1627. In 1624, supported by his kinsman the 3rd Earl of Pembroke, Herbert became a member of parliament, representing Montgomery. While these positions presaged a career at court, King James I had shown him favour, circumstances worked against Herbert: the King died in 1625, two influential patrons died at about the same time. However, his parliamentary career may have ended because, although a Mr Herbert is mentioned as a committee member, the Commons Journal for 1625 never mentions Mr. George Herbert, despite the preceding parliament's careful distinction.
In short, Herbert made a shift in his path, he angled away from the political future he had been pursuing and turned more toward a future in the church. Herbert was presented with the Prebendary of Leighton Bromswold in the Diocese of Lincoln in 1626, whilst he was still a don at Trinity College, Cambridge but not yet ordained, he was not present at his institution as prebend as it is recorded that Peter Walker, his clerk, stood in as his proxy. In the same year his close Cambridge friend Nicholas Ferrar was ordained Deacon in Westminster Abbey by Bishop Laud on Trinity Sunday 1626 and went to Little Gidding, two miles down the road from Leighton Bromswold, to found the remarkable community with which his name has since been associated. Herbert raised money to restore the neglected church building at Leighton. In 1629, Herbert decided to enter the priesthood and was appointed rector of the small rural parish of Fugglestone St Peter with Bemerton, near Salisbury in Wiltshire, about 75 miles south west of London.
Here he lived and wrote poetry. While at Bemerton, Herbert added to his collection of poems entitled The Temple, he wrote a guide to rural ministry entitled A Priest to the Temple or, The County Parson His Character and Rule of Holy Life, which he himself described as "a Mark to aim at", which has remained influential to this day. Having married shortly before taking up his post, he and his wife gave a home to three orphaned nieces. Together with their servants, they crossed the lane for services in the small St Andrew's church twice every day. Twice a week Herbert made the short journey into Salisbury to attend services at the Cathedral, afterwards would make music with the cathedral musicians, but his time at Bemerton was short. Having suffered for most of his life from poor health, in 1633 Herbert died of consumption only three years after taking holy orders. Shortly before his death, he sent the manuscript of The Temple to Nicholas Ferrar, the founder of a semi-monastic Anglican religious community at Little Gidding telling him to publish the poems if he thought they might "turn to the advantage of any dejected poor soul", otherwise to burn them.
Thanks to Ferrar, they were published not long aft
Parable of the Prodigal Son
The Parable of the Prodigal Son is one of the parables of Jesus and appears in Luke 15:11–32. Jesus Christ shares it with the Pharisees and others. In the story, a father has a younger and an older; the younger son asks the father for his inheritance, the father grants his son's request. However, the younger son is prodigal and squanders his fortune becoming destitute; the younger son is forced to return home empty-handed and intends to beg his father to accept him back as a servant. To the son's surprise, he is not scorned by his father but is welcomed back with celebration and fanfare. Envious, the older son refuses to participate in the festivities; the father reminds the older son that one day he will inherit everything, that they should still celebrate the return of the younger son because he was lost and is now found. It is the third and final part of a cycle on redemption, following the Parable of the Lost Sheep and the Parable of the Lost Coin. In Revised Common Lectionary and Roman Rite Catholic Lectionary, this parable is read on the fourth Sunday of Lent.
In the Eastern Orthodox Church it is read on the Sunday of the Prodigal Son. The parable begins with a young man, the younger of two sons, who asks his father to give him his share of the estate; the implication is the son could not wait for his father's death for his inheritance, he wanted it immediately. The father divides his estate between both sons. Upon receiving his portion of the inheritance, the younger son travels to a distant country and wastes all his money in extravagant living. Thereafter, a famine strikes the land; when he reaches the point of envying the food of the pigs he is watching, he comes to his senses: But when he came to himself he said, "How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough to spare, I'm dying with hunger! I will get up and go to my father, will tell him,'Father, I have sinned against heaven, in your sight. I am no more worthy to be called your son. Make me as one of your hired servants.'" He arose, came to his father. But while he was still far off, his father saw him, was moved with compassion, ran towards him, fell on his neck, kissed him.
This implies the father was watching for the son's return. The son does not have time to finish his rehearsed speech, since the father calls for his servants to dress him in a fine robe, a ring, sandals, slaughter the "fattened calf" for a celebratory meal; the older son, at work in the fields, hears the sound of celebration, is told about the return of his younger brother. He is not impressed, becomes angry, he has a speech for his father: But he answered his father, "Behold, these many years I have served you, I never disobeyed a commandment of yours, but you never gave me a goat, that I might celebrate with my friends. But when this, your son, who has devoured your living with prostitutes, you killed the fattened calf for him." The parable concludes with the father explaining that because the younger son had returned, in a sense, from the dead, celebration was necessary: "But it was appropriate to celebrate and be glad, for this, your brother, was dead, is alive again. He was lost, is found."
Allegory is common in the Old Testament, parables are a typical rabbinical method of teaching. The older son would have the first share in the father's inheritance as his firstborn, unless his younger brother received this share from the father by redemption via presentation in the temple. In addition, the younger son would receive the older son's inheritance upon his brother's death according to the mitzvah yibbum; the younger son demanding his share in his father's inheritance before his father's or his brother's death is illegal, as it is the same as assuming they are both dead. In this parable, Jesus portrays the younger son's life of sin in a typical scriptural way: sexual immorality, like how God describes Israel as a harlot to Hosea. Again, Jesus uses a typical scriptural way of describing the consequences of sin: bondage to wicked gentiles, like the Babylonian captivity; the younger son being joyfully greeted and celebrated by the father is typical of God promising to deliver Israel from exile.
The older son not sharing in his father's joy is typical of scriptural portrayals of unrepentant sinners. The last few verses of the parable summarize the parable in accordance with the Jewish teaching of the two ways of acting: the way of life and the way of death. God, according to Judaism, rejoices over and grants more graces to repentant sinners than righteous souls who don't need repentance. With all this in mind, it is obvious what Jesus is implying with the parable: more than just teaching the Jewish leaders to rejoice as he dose over repentant sinners, he is teaching them how Israel ought to treat the righteous gentiles. In addition, Jesus is teaching them that, if they do not repent of being prodigal sons, they will forfeit their inheritance, so, not share in the world to come like the righteous gentiles; this is the last of three parables about loss and redemption, following the parable of the Lost Sheep and the parable of the Lost Coin, that Jesus tells after the Pharisees and religious leaders accuse him of welcoming and
Princeton Theological Seminary
Princeton Theological Seminary is a private and independent graduate school of theology in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1812 under the auspices of Archibald Alexander, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, the College of New Jersey, it is the second-oldest seminary in the United States, it is the largest of ten seminaries associated with the Presbyterian Church. Princeton Seminary has long been influential in theological studies, with many leading biblical scholars and clergy among its faculty and alumni. In addition, it operates one of the largest theological libraries in the world and maintains a number of special collections, including the Karl Barth Research Collection in the Center for Barth Studies; the Seminary manages an endowment of $986 million, making it the third-wealthiest institution of higher learning in the state of New Jersey—after Princeton University and Rutgers University. Today, Princeton Seminary enrolls 500 students. While around 40% of them are candidates for ministry in the Presbyterian Church, the majority are completing such candidature in other denominations, pursuing careers in academia across a number of different disciplines, or receiving training for other, non-theological fields altogether.
Seminarians hold academic reciprocity with Princeton University as well as the Westminster Choir College of Rider University, New Brunswick Theological Seminary, Jewish Theological Seminary, the School of Social Work at Rutgers University. The institution has an ongoing relationship with the Center of Theological Inquiry; the plan to establish a theological seminary in Princeton was in the interests of advancing and extending the theological curriculum. The educational intention was to go beyond the liberal arts course by setting up a postgraduate, professional school in theology; the plan met with enthusiastic approval on the part of authorities at the College of New Jersey to become Princeton University, for they were coming to see that specialized training in theology required more attention than they could give. The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church established The Theological Seminary at Princeton, New Jersey in 1812, with the support of the directors of the nearby College of New Jersey, as the second graduate theological school in the United States.
The Seminary remains an institution of the Presbyterian Church, being the largest of the ten theological seminaries affiliated with the 1.6-million-member denomination. In 1812, the seminary boasted Archibald Alexander as its first professor. By 1815 the number of students had increased and work began on a building: Alexander Hall was designed by John McComb Jr. a New York architect, opened in 1817. The original cupola was added in 1827, but it burned in 1913 and was replaced in 1926; the building was called "Seminary" until 1893, when it was named Alexander Hall. Since its founding, Princeton Seminary has graduated 14,000 men and women who have served the church in many capacities, from pastoral ministry and pastoral care to missionary work, Christian education and leadership in the academy and business; the seminary was made famous during the 19th and early 20th centuries for its defense of Calvinistic Presbyterianism, a tradition that became known as Princeton Theology and influenced Evangelicalism during the period.
Some of the institution's figures active in this movement included Charles Hodge, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Geerhardus Vos. In response to the increasing influence of theological liberalism in the 1920s and the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy at the institution, several theologians left to form the Westminster Theological Seminary under the leadership of J. Gresham Machen; the college was the center of the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy of the 1920s and 1930s. In 1929, the seminary was reorganized along modernist lines, in response, along with three of his colleagues: Oswald T. Allis, Robert Dick Wilson and Cornelius Van Til, with Machen and Wilson founding Westminster Theological Seminary in Glenside, Pennsylvania. In 1958, Princeton became a seminary of the United Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. following a merger between the Presbyterian Church in the U. S. A. and the United Presbyterian Church of North America, in 1983, it would become a seminary of the Presbyterian Church after the merger between the UPCUSA and the Presbyterian Church in the U.
S. Princeton Theological Seminary has been accredited by the Commission on Accrediting of the Association of Theological Schools since 1938 and by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education since 1968. Master of Divinity Masters of Arts Master of Arts in Theological Studies Master of Theology Doctor of Philosophy, although the Doctor of Theology was awarded Dual MDiv/MA in Christian Education with foci in Youth & Young Adults, Teaching Ministry, or Spiritual Development Dual MDiv/MSW in partnership with Rutgers School of Social work The Princeton Seminary Library is a destination for visiting scholars from around the world; the library has over 1,252,503 bound volumes and microfilms. It receives about 2,100 journals, annual reports of church bodies and learned societies, bulletins and periodically issued indices and bibliographies; the Libraries are: Princeton Theological Seminary Library was opened in 2013 and holds the bulk of the seminary's collection. The library is home to the Center for Barth Studies, the Reigner Reading Room, special collections including the Abraham Kuyper collection of Dutch Reformed