In a molecule, a stereocenter is a particular instance of a stereogenic element, geometrically a point. A stereocenter or stereogenic center is any point in a molecule, though not an atom, bearing different substituents, such that interchanging any two substituents leads to a stereoisomer; the term stereocenter was introduced in 1984 by Jay Siegel. A chirality center is a stereocenter consisting of an atom holding a set of ligands in a spatial arrangement, not superimposable on its mirror image; the concept of a chirality center generalizes the concept of an asymmetric carbon atom such that an interchanging of any two groups gives rise to an enantiomer. In organic chemistry, a chirality center refers to a carbon, phosphorus, or sulfur atom, though it is possible for other atoms to be chirality centers in areas of organometallic and inorganic chemistry. A molecule can have multiple stereocenters, giving it many stereoisomers. In compounds whose stereoisomerism is due to tetrahedral stereogenic centers, the total number of hypothetically possible stereoisomers will not exceed 2n, where n is the number of tetrahedral stereocenters.
However, this is an upper bound because molecules with symmetry have fewer stereoisomers. Having two chirality centers may give a meso compound, achiral. Certain configurations may not exist due to steric reasons. Cyclic compounds with chiral centers may not exhibit chirality due to the presence of a two-fold rotation axis. Planar chirality may provide for chirality without having an actual chiral center present; the carbon which has four different groups or atoms attached to it is called a chiral carbon. Chirality is not limited to carbon atoms, though carbon atoms are centers of chirality due to their ubiquity in organic chemistry. Nitrogen and phosphorus atoms can form bonds in a tetrahedral configuration. A nitrogen in an amine may be a stereocenter if all three groups attached are different because the electron pair of the amine functions as a fourth group. However, nitrogen inversion, a form of pyramidal inversion, causes racemization which means that both epimers at that nitrogen are present under normal circumstances.
Racemization by nitrogen inversion may be restricted, or slow, which allows the existence of chirality. Metal atoms with tetrahedral or octahedral geometries may be chiral due to having different ligands. For the octahedral case, several chiralities are possible. Having three ligands of two types, the ligands may be lined up along the meridian, giving the mer-isomer, or forming a face—the fac isomer. Having three bidentate ligands of only one type gives a propeller-type structure, with two different enantiomers denoted Λ and Δ. Chirality_#Stereogenic_centers Cahn–Ingold–Prelog priority rules for nomenclature
Hemiandra pungens known as snakebush, is a shrub or trailing plant, endemic to southwestern Western Australia. Ranging in height from 5 cm to 100 cm, it occurs on rock outcrops, it is a variable species that may form a small shrub. The spotted flowers may appear throughout the year, it flowers in the spring. The species was formally described in 1810 by Scottish botanist Robert Brown. A cultivated variety lacking hairs on the stems and leaves is sometimes classified as a variety, or by some authors as Hemiandra glabra, or treated as a synonym of Hemiandra pungens. H. pungens seed is not available but this species is propagated from cuttings of other plants. It can be grafted onto related species including Westringia fruticosa, it can be grown in containers such as hanging baskets, it performs best in dry climates without humid summers, in a sunny, well-drained area
Elizabeth Anne Reid AO, FASSA, is an Australian development practitioner and academic with a distinguished career in and significant contribution to national and international public service. She founded and worked with a number of pioneering and specialised United Nations institutions, government agencies and non-governmental organisations. Reid was appointed the world's first advisor on women's affairs to a head of government by the Australian Labor Government of Gough Whitlam in 1973. Reid was born in New South Wales. In 19 she began a Statistics Cadet and became a Program Officer for the Australian Bureau of Statistics and from 1964 to 1966 she was a computer programmer and training officer, she went on to complete a Bachelor of Arts with First Class Honours at the Australian National University in 1965. Subsequently she was awarded a Commonwealth Travelling Scholarship and completed a Bachelor of Philosophy at Somerville College of the University of Oxford in 1970, she returned to Australia and worked as a Senior Tutor in the Department of Philosophy at the Australian National University from 1970 to 1973.
During 1976 Reid was a Fellow at the Institute of Politics and the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. Reid was the Australian Representative to the United Nations Forum on the Role of Women in Population and Development, held in New York in February 1974, she has performed many roles in the areas of international development and women's rights for the United Nations and other bodies including Director and Policy Adviser of the United Nations Development Program from 1989 to 1998. She was the Leader of the Australian Delegation to the World Conference of the International Women's Year in Mexico City in 1975, she has 30 years of professional development experience in Asia, the Pacific, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Central America, Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Elizabeth has had a long career with the United Nations, including milestones such as Founding Director of the United Nations Development Programme HIV and Development Program in New York from 1992 to 1997), Director of the United Nations Development Programme Division for Women in Development from 1989 to 1991 and Founding Director of the United Nations Asian and Pacific Centre for Women and Development in Tehran, Iran from 1977 to 1979.
She is a Visiting Fellow at the Gender Relations Centre and the School of International and Strategic Studies of the College of Asia and the Pacific at the Australian National University. Elizabeth continues with her development practice and is Senior Adviser to the Collaboration for Health in Papua New Guinea, a Public-Private Partnership for Health; as part of her work with Collaboration for Health in Papua New Guinea and the ANU Gender Relations Centre in 2002 Elizabeth convened and chaired an International Roundtable on Increasing Access to HIV Care and Treatment in Resource Poor Settings. The organisations Elizabeth consults with includes the UN System, where she is involved in capacity building for a unified United Nations System response to the HIV epidemic as well as national HIV policy development and implementation. In 2001 Elizabeth Reid was made an Officer of the Order of Australia "for service to international relations through the United Nations Development Program, to the welfare of women, to HIV/AIDS policy development, both in Australia and internationally".
She was elected as a Fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia in 1996 and received a citation in the Centenary of Federation Honour Role of Women in 2014. Https://web.archive.org/web/20130409173917/http://www.pioneerwomen.com.au/content/view/9/10/ Reid, Elizabeth Anne in The Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in Twentieth-Century Australia
This is a list of listed buildings in the parish of Montrose in Angus, Scotland. The scheme for classifying buildings in Scotland is: Category A: "buildings of national or international importance, either architectural or historic. Category B: "buildings of regional or more than local importance. Category C: "buildings of local importance. Of these, 8 per cent were Category A, 50 per cent were Category B, with the rest listed at Category C. List of listed buildings in Angus All entries and coordinates are based on data from Historic Scotland; this data falls under the Open Government Licence
Joyce Marie Giraud Mojica known as Joyce Giraud de Ohoven, is a Puerto Rican actress, philanthropist and television producer. In 1998, Giraud was crowned Miss Universe Puerto Rico 1998, represented Puerto Rico at Miss Universe 1998, where she placed as the second runner-up, she has since appeared in acting roles in television and film, beginning in 2013 was a housewife on The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills for its fourth season. Giraud was born in Puerto Rico. After graduating at the age of 16, Giraud began modeling and attended the Interamerican University of Puerto Rico where she finished two Bachelor of Arts degrees by the age of 19. After graduating she worked with public residentials in Puerto Rico. Giraud began modeling to help her mother pay for her university studies and became one of the top models of Puerto Rico, she has appeared in numerous international campaigns. She describes having been discovered while working at the drive-thru of a KFC restaurant. After winning the Miss Universe Puerto Rico, Giraud discovered her love of acting when director Vicente Castro cast her as the lead in his Coralito Tiene Dos Maridos, a remake of Sonia Braga's Dona Flor y Sus Dos Maridos.
She received such great reviews. After doing many small roles in her native Puerto Rico, Giraud moved to Miami, Florida where she continued a successful modeling career. In 2001, after being the undefeated model of Star Search, she decided to take the leap toward Los Angeles where she has received parts in numerous films and TV shows. In film, Giraud has had roles in David Fincher's Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, she has starred in TV shows like Baywatch, The Suite Life of Zack and Cody and Joey. Starting in 2007 she starred in the first two seasons of Tyler Perry's House of Payne as "Angel," and in 2013 she was a lead in NBC's Siberia. In 2013 she joined the cast of The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills for the fourth season. During her run on the show she was awarded with the "Loveliest Locks" award at Bravo's The Real Housewives Awards; as a producer, Giraud executive produced the film Shadow People, as well as the TV show Siberia, is credited as co-producer on the upcoming film Back Roads, based on the bestselling novel.
In 2012, Giraud created the annual international beauty pageant Queen of the Universe, benefiting the programs of the UNESCO Foundation for Children in Need. Since she has produced and directed the annual event. In 2014, Giraud opened a school in Africa with the YOU Foundation for Children in Need. In 2014 she co-created the Spanish-language reality show Rica, Famosa and serves as its executive producer. In 2015 she created its companion talk show Rica la Noche, serving as both its host and executive producer. Giraud has been one of the few Puerto Rican Supermodels, has been featured on numerous magazine covers and in international campaigns. In her early career, Giraud participated in a number of beauty pageants and became a titleholder multiple times, leading to the Miss Universe 1998 pageant where she finished as second runner-up, she is a two-time Miss Puerto Rico and represented Puerto Rico at Miss World 1994. Giraud won the 1994 Miss World Puerto Rico and the titles of Most Beautiful Hair, Most Beautiful Smile.
She represented Puerto Rico in the Queen of the Atlantics International in Spain, won the title Queen of the Atlantics 1995. In 1997, she represented Puerto Rico in the Miss Venus International in Jacksonville and won her hometown the title. In 1998, Giraud won the title of Miss Aguas Buenas and was crowned Miss Universe Puerto Rico, she won the titles of Most Beautiful Hair, Most Beautiful Face, Best Body and the Miss Photogenic Award. Despite a scandal that cost her the crown due to some sexy modeling shots, Giraud was cleared by Donald Trump to compete in the Miss Universe 1998 pageant in Hawaii where she was a crowd favorite and finished as 2nd runner-up behind Veruska Ramírez of Venezuela and winner Wendy Fitzwilliam of Trinidad and Tobago; that year, she wrote a book called "Joyce and Realities", based on her experiences in the Miss Universe pageant. In 2000, Giraud became the only undefeated model to win every episode of Star Search aka Destination Stardom in Honolulu, Hawaii. Giraud is married to Academy Award–nominated producer Michael Ohoven.
Dellview is an inactive incorporated town in Gaston County, North Carolina, United States. Its population was 13 at the 2010 census, was at one point as low as 10. Dellview is located in the Muddy Fork watershed, a tributary of Buffalo Creek flowing to the Broad River in South Carolina; the town collects no taxes from its residents all of whom are relatives. Dellview doesn't request any state money; the town has a water or sewer system. Since it is inactive, the town has no elected officials or municipal elections, is now governed by Gaston County. Dellview Road, the community's only paved road, forms the town's northern border. North of it lies the town of Cherryville. Dellview was incorporated as a town in 1925 as a political gesture. Gaston County law prohibited the shooting of stray dogs; the law was disliked by two families of the Dellinger name. They complained that stray dogs were raiding their chicken coops on their farms, which neighbored each other. To remedy the situation, the Dellingers petitioned fellow kinsman David R. Dellinger, a North Carolina state representative, to propose a bill to the General Assembly for incorporating the Dellinger's farms into a town known as "Dellview".
The bill passed, formally incorporating the town in 1925. Thereafter, the town leaders passed an ordinance allowing for the citizens to shoot any stray dog that crosses onto their property. No one for Dellview responded to a Census Mapping Survey in 1978, as a result, the town was declared inactive, thereby the governing rights were transferred back to Gaston County. In 1980, the decision was reversed after a citizen petitioned, but the town was declared inactive once again on the Census 2000. For many years, the town of Dellview enjoyed the distinction of being the smallest incorporated community in the state