A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Rock Falls, Illinois
Rock Falls is a city in Whiteside County, United States. The population was 9,266 at the 2010 census, down from 9,580 in 2000; the city is located on the Rock River, directly opposite Sterling. Rock Falls is separated from Sterling, to the North by the Rock River. According to the 2010 census, Rock Falls has a total area of 3.795 square miles, of which 3.66 square miles is land and 0.135 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,580 people, 3,895 households, 2,559 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,888.0 people per square mile. There were 4,098 housing units at an average density of 1,235.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.78% White, 0.88% African American, 0.45% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 4.71% from other races, 1.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.54% of the population. There were 3,895 households out of which 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.5% were married couples living together, 13.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.3% were non-families.
29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.99. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 27.6% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,442, the median income for a family was $41,803. Males had a median income of $32,733 versus $21,092 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,524. About 10.3% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over. The City of Rock Falls and Township of Coloma have 16 parks in which one can use baseball diamonds, basketball courts, tennis courts, disc golf, open fields, playground equipment, picnic areas, or a bandshell.
With the close proximity of the Rock River, the Hennepin Feeder Canal, a lake in Centennial Park one can use boats ramps, paddle boats, or engage in fishing. The Whiteside County Airport is located about two miles south of the city, it offers ground instruction through Sauk Valley Community College and flight instruction through its Fixed Base Operator, M & M Aviation Services, Ltd. Louie Bellson, creator of the double bass drumkit Seth Blair, minor league baseball player for St. Louis Cardinals Frank Harts, actor Cal Howe, professional baseball player for Chicago Cubs Otis Adelbert Kline, songwriter, an adventure novelist and literary agent Gary Kolb, professional baseball player for St. Louis Cardinals, Milwaukee Braves, New York Mets and Pittsburgh Pirates Jake Junis, professional baseball player for Kansas City Royals Zelma O'Neal and singer The City of Rock Falls hosts many annual events each year; some of the most popular events are: Percussion-Paloosa, Rock Falls Spring Challenge, Bass Pro Shop's Big Cat Quest Catfish Tournament, Summer Splash, River Chase Boat Races, Pink Heals Tour, Whiteside County Barn Tour, Touch a Truck, Fiesta Days, Bridge the Communities 5K/10K race, The Hennepin Hundred 100k Ultra race and Hometown Holidays.
Interstate 88 U. S. Route 30 Illinois Route 40 City Website
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Menard Inc. is a chain of home improvement centers, located in the Midwestern United States. The held company, headquartered in Eau Claire, has 305 stores in 14 states: Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota and Kentucky, it is the third largest home improvement chain in the United States, behind The Home Depot and Lowe's. In 1959, John Menard, Jr. began building post-frame buildings to finance his college education. By the end of 1959, he found it necessary to hire extra crews, to purchase more equipment to keep up with demand. After graduating from the University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire in 1962, Menard purchased land in Eau Claire and built an office and shop; the company was founded in 1960 and incorporated in 1962. In 2007, Menards opened their third and fourth distribution centers in Holiday City and Shelby, which are 669,000 square feet and 735,000 square feet, respectively. In 2007, the 240,000 sq ft and larger Menards stores began selling groceries. Shoppers are able to get items such as frozen pizza, eggs, common snacks, a variety of canned items.
In addition, they carry items such as office supplies, pet supplies, mattresses. This new offer has allowed customers to have a more rounded "stop-and-shop" experience while diverting some of the market share from major grocers around the country. Menards broadcasts TV and radio ads. Radio and TV ads are sometimes accompanied with banjo music played by Gary Shaw of Wisconsin. Ray Szmanda was the "Menards Guy" who used the slogan "Save big money at Menards" on television advertisements from 1976 to 1998, from 1999 until his passing in 2018. During the Christmas and holiday season and television ads feature an alternate jingle "Warm season's greetings to you all from Menards!" Sung by a chorus. Menards has supported several racing drivers, including John Menard's son. Menards has begun sponsoring Team Penske as of 2016. Menards has become the title sponsor of races in the Xfinity Series and ARCA Racing Series. In 2016, Inc. was ranked 37th on Forbes’ list of "America's Largest Private Companies", with an estimated revenue of USD$8.7 billion.
In that same year, Menard was ranked 45th on the National Retail Federation's list of "100 Top Retailers". In 2018, Menards was ranked by J. D. Power as "highest in customer satisfaction among home improvement retail stores"
Kohl's is an American department store retail chain, operated by Kohl's Corporation. With 1,158 locations, it is the largest department store chain in the United States as of February 2013; the company was founded by Polish immigrant Maxwell Kohl, who opened a corner grocery store in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1927. Branching out from its successful grocery store chain, the company opened its first department store in 1962. British American Tobacco Company took a controlling interest in the company in 1972, in 1979, the Kohl family left the management of the company. A group of investors purchased the company in 1986 from British-American Tobacco and took it public in 1992; the company is headquartered in the Milwaukee suburb of Menomonee Falls, operating stores in every U. S. state except Hawaii. Kohl's became the largest department store chain in the United States in May 2012, surpassing its biggest competitor J. C. Penney; the company is listed on both the S&P 500 and the Fortune 500. In terms of revenue, the chain was the 20th-largest retailer in the United States in 2013.
As of 2013, Kohl's was the second largest U. S. department store company by retail sales. Maxwell Kohl, who had operated traditional grocery stores since 1927, built his first supermarket in 1946, the first in what would become a southeastern Wisconsin chain known as Kohl's Food Stores. In September 1962, after building Kohl's Food Stores into the largest supermarket chain in the Milwaukee area, Kohl opened his first department store in Brookfield, Wisconsin, he positioned Kohl's between the higher-end department stores and the discounters, selling everything from candy to engine oil to sporting equipment. In 1972 the British-American Tobacco Company's U. S. retail division, BATUS Inc. bought a controlling interest in Kohl's Corporation, which at the time operated 50 grocery stores, six department stores, three drug stores and three liquor stores. The Kohl family, led by Allen and Herb Kohl, continued to manage the company; the family left the management in 1979, Herbert Kohl became a United States Senator and owner of the Milwaukee Bucks.
The firm expanded Kohl's presence from 10 to 39 stores in Wisconsin and Indiana. The grocery stores were sold to A&P in 1983, operating under the name Kohl's Food Store, Kohl's Food Emporium. In February 2003, A&P put the Kohl's Food Stores as part of an effort to reduce debt. In 2003, A&P closed all Kohl's Food Stores locations. A group of investors, led by the senior management, purchased the company in 1986. Building on an existing 40 department stores, the company added 27 more stores over the next two years. In 1988, the chain acquired 26 locations from the Chicago-based retailer MainStreet, gaining several stores in Chicago's suburbs, the Twin Cities, Michigan. Kohl's completed its initial public offering on May 19, 1992 and began trading on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbol KSS. During the 2000s, Kohl's expanded nationwide to 49 states. Building from 76 stores in the Midwest in 1992, Kohl's expanded into California in 2003 with 28 new stores, the Pacific Northwest in 2006 with 10 new stores, the Southeast with 43 new stores opening between 2005 and 2008.
To raise money to repurchase its stock and open new stores, Kohl's sold its credit card division in 2006 to J. P. Morgan Chase for $1.5 billion. In 2011, Kohl's replaced Chase with Capital One as their private credit card processing partner for an undisclosed sum. Kohl's hired New York City advertising agency DeVito/Verdi in 2009 to strengthen the Kohl's brand via a series of national television and social media campaigns; the same year, Newsweek magazine ranked the company 18th overall and first in its industry in its "Green Rankings", an examination of 500 of the largest corporations on their environmental track records. Newsweek remarked that Kohl's had the largest solar power program of any retailer globally, it pursues green building certification, over 78 locations in six states have solar panels. Kohl's had begun to sell reusable shopping bags the previous year. Kohl's was awarded $62.5 million in tax credits from the Wisconsin Economic Development Corporation in 2012. The retailer was to create 3,000 jobs with the funds, but only created 473.
In the same year, Kohl's requested financing from the village of Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin to finance the building of its new headquarters there. Kohl's received $2 million, the first of five installments, to equal a total payout of $12 million, only to back out of the transaction. In 2015, the company opened the first test store of OFF/AISLE, a chain built around selling like-new clothing, home goods and accessories that were purchased and returned at Kohl's stores; the stores sell items at discounted prices, have a more restrictive return policy than typical Kohl's stores. In early January 2017, Kohl's shares fell 19% in value, in what The Wall Street Journal said was "the stock's worst day on record," and noted that it was a noticeable exception to the overall declining volatility of the market; the company ranked 157th on the 2018 Fortune 500, the annual list of the largest United States corporations, having earned revenues of $19.095 billion in 2017. Kohl's uses a "racetrack" layout with a single aisle that circles the entire store, a layout borrowed from discount stores.
In 2011, Kohl's announced plans to remodel 100 of its 1,100 locations. Changes included redone store sections, fitting rooms, newer merchandise displays. Kohl's store brands include diffusion lines from high-end designers such as Dana Buchman, Vera Wang, Narciso Rodriguez, Peter Som. Celebrities such as Avril Lavigne, Lauren Conrad, Daisy Fuentes, Jennifer Lopez, Marc Anthony, Tony Hawk have sold branded clothing through Kohl's. Kohl's private brands gener
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
County Market is a coast to coast supermarket chain operating in the Midwestern and Southern regions of the United States. Presently, more than 100 independently owned County Market stores operate in Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin and is part of the SuperValu Inc. company. Supervalu Foods acquired Cub Foods in 1980, a chain founded in suburban Minneapolis in 1968. Cub opened as a "no frills" grocery warehouse business model with bare bones buildings, industrial shelving and check stands with conveyor belt. SuperValu developed County Market as a version of Cub Foods for smaller communities. Many stores are located in smaller cities, feature an in-store bakery and deli. Supermarkets in the United States Official website