Nurse Jackie is an American medical comedy-drama series. It premiered on Showtime on June 8, 2009; the show's seventh and final season premiered on April 12, 2015. The series finale aired on June 28, 2015; the show stars Edie Falco as the title character Jackie Peyton, an emergency department nurse at All Saints' Hospital in New York City. For Jackie, "every day is a high wire act of juggling patients, fellow nurses, her own indiscretions." Nurse Jackie was created by Liz Brixius, Linda Wallem, Evan Dunsky. Brixius and Wallem served as showrunners for the first four seasons and shared executive producer duties with Caryn Mandabach and John Melfi. Showtime ordered an initial 12 episodes. Before the premiere, Brixius told the New York Daily News that "Guys' stories tend to be about conquests – getting the job, winning the Olympics, whatever. Women stories aren't as climactic so they need to play out over the course of three months... And every medical show out there has been about doctors. Doctors are unable to do what they have to do without nurses.
We want to tell those stories."The June 8, 2009, series premiere was Showtime's most successful with 1 million viewers for the premiere and over 350,000 for the repeat broadcast. Showtime picked up the series for a second season. Season Three premiered on Showtime on March 28, 2011. On May 23, 2011, Showtime ordered a fourth season. A fifth season was ordered on May 31, 2012, production began in late 2012; the season 4 finale aired on June 17, 2012. Season 5 premiered on April 2013, with new showrunner and executive producer Clyde Phillips. On June 6, 2013, Showtime renewed the show for a sixth season, which premiered on April 13, 2014. On March 31, 2014, Showtime renewed Nurse Jackie for a seventh season, announced the following September as being the show's final season, it premiered April 12, 2015. Main character Jackie Peyton was described by Showtime as a "strong-willed, iconoclastic New York City nurse juggling the frenzied grind of an urban hospital and an challenging personal life," noting that the character had "an occasional weakness for Vicodin and Xanax to get her through the days."
The main characters included a British doctor and Jackie's best friend at work. Other characters included the officious hospital administrator Mrs. Gloria Akalitus, Jackie's bar owner husband Kevin, their daughters Grace and Fiona, Thor, Jackie's kindhearted confidant and the real-life brother of show creator/executive producer Linda Wallem. Edie Falco as Jackie Peyton, RN. Entertainment Weekly gave the first episode a B+, stating "Edie Falco brings a genial forcefulness to Nurse Jackie." New York magazine called the Showtime series "smart, alternately sharp and sentimental" and "the best series yet in the cable channel's ongoing meditation on the nature of addiction... and the setting for a breakthrough female character." James Poniewozik from Time magazine ranked Nurse Jackie's episode "Tiny Bubbles" as 5th on his Top 10 Episodes of 2009 list. Variety and Salon struck the primary sour notes, with Variety noting, "The series feels like all style and limited substance – a star showcase that's less'triumphant return' than'Nice to have you back, but...'"Reviews of subsequent seasons varied.
The second season achieved a Metacritic rating of 75 out of 100 from 16 critics, the third season received 79 out of 100 based on 7 reviews, the fourth received 83 out of 100 out of 9 reviews, the fifth season received a 66 out of 100 based on 10 reviews, the sixth season received a rating of 64 out of 100 based on 4 reviews. The seventh and final season did not receive enough ratings to warrant a score. Soon after Nurse Jackie premiered, the
Gillian Schieber Flynn is an American writer. Flynn has published three novels, Sharp Objects, Dark Places, Gone Girl, all three of which have been adapted for film or television. Flynn wrote the adaptations for the HBO limited series Sharp Objects, she was a television critic for Entertainment Weekly. Flynn was born in Kansas City and raised in midtown Kansas City's Coleman Highlands neighborhood. Both of her parents were professors at Metropolitan Community College–Penn Valley: her mother, Judith Ann, was a reading-comprehension professor, her father, Edwin Matthew Flynn, was a film professor, she has an older brother, a railroad machinist. Her uncle is Jackson County Circuit Court Judge Robert Schieber. Flynn was "painfully shy" and found escape in writing; when she was growing up, Flynn's father would take her to watch horror movies. Flynn attended Bishop Miege High School and graduated in 1989; as a teenager, she worked odd jobs which required her to do things such as dress up as a giant "yogurt cone who wore a tuxedo."She attended the University of Kansas, where she received her undergraduate degrees in English and journalism.
She spent two years in California, writing for a trade magazine for human resources professionals, before moving to Chicago and attending Northwestern University for a master's degree at its Medill School of Journalism in 1997. Flynn wanted to work as a police reporter, but she chose to focus on her own writing, as she discovered she had "no aptitude" for police reporting. After graduating from Northwestern, Flynn worked freelance at U. S. News & World Report before being hired as a feature writer in 1998 at Entertainment Weekly, she was promoted to television critic and wrote about films but was laid off in December 2008. She attributes her craft to her 15-some years in journalism, she said, "I could not have written a novel if I hadn't been a journalist first, because it taught me that there's no muse that's going to come down and bestow upon you the mood to write. You just have to do it. I'm not precious."Some critics have accused Flynn of misogyny due to the unflattering depiction of female characters in her books.
Flynn identifies as a feminist. She feels, she states, "The one thing that frustrates me is this idea that women are innately good, innately nurturing." Flynn said people will dismiss "trampy, bitchy types – but there's still a big pushback against the idea that women can be just pragmatically evil and selfish". In 2015, Flynn explained her decision to write cruel female characters, saying, "I've grown quite weary of the spunky heroines, brave rape victims, soul-searching fashionistas that stock so many books. I mourn the lack of female villains – good, potent female villains." When Flynn was working for Entertainment Weekly, she was writing novels during her free time. She has written one short story. Sharp Objects revolves around a serial killer in a Missouri town, the reporter who has returned to her hometown from Chicago to cover the event. Themes include dysfunctional families and self-harm; the book was inspired by Dennis Lehane's Mystic River. In 2007, the book was shortlisted for the Mystery Writers of America Edgar for Best First Novel by an American Writer, Crime Writers' Association Duncan Lawrie, CWA New Blood and Ian Fleming Steel Daggers, winning in the last two categories.
Sharp Objects was adapted into a 2018 television miniseries. Dark Places is about a woman who investigates whether or not her incarcerated brother was responsible for the murder of their family in the 1980s, which happened when she was a child during the era of panic about Satanic ritual abuse. Dark Places was adapted into a 2015 feature film and directed by Gilles Paquet-Brenner. Flynn made a cameo appearance in the film. Gone Girl was released in June 2012 and concerns a husband who searches for his wife, who disappeared on their fifth wedding anniversary, while he comes under police scrutiny as the prime suspect. Flynn wrote the script for a film adaptation of Gone Girl after 20th Century Fox purchased the film rights for $1.5 million. The film was released on October 3, 2014 to critical acclaim; the novel was No. 1 on the New York Times Hardcover Fiction Bestseller list for eight weeks. Culture writer Dave Itzkoff wrote that the novel was, except the books in the Fifty Shades trilogy, the biggest literary phenomenon of 2012.
By the end of that year, Gone Girl had sold over two million copies in print and digital editions, according to the book's publisher. The Grownup was released in 2015; the story is about a sex worker who becomes an aura reader and is hired by a woman with a failing marriage and a disturbing stepson to purify her Victorian home. The story won an Edgar Award in 2015 for best short story. Flynn was an avid reader of graphic novels when she was a child, she wrote a comic book story called Masks. It is part of the anthology series Dark Horse Presents and was published by Dark Horse Comics in February 2015. In February 2014, it was reported that Flynn would be writing the scripts for Utopia, an HBO drama series adapted from the acclaimed British series Utopia; the HBO series was to be directed and executive produced by David Fincher. In July 2015 the project was cancelled due to budget disputes between Fincher and HBO. However, the
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Lake Siegel Bell is an American actress and screenwriter. She has starred in various television series, including Boston Legal, How to Make It in America and Childrens Hospital, in films including Over Her Dead Body, What Happens in Vegas, It's Complicated, No Strings Attached, Million Dollar Arm, No Escape, The Secret Life of Pets, Home Again, she wrote and directed the short film Worst Enemy, which debuted at the Sundance Film Festival in 2012, followed by her 2013 feature film directing debut In a World... in which she starred. In 2017 she directed, wrote, co-produced and starred in I Do... Until I Don't. Bell was born in New York City, her mother, Robin Bell, owns the design firm Robin Bell Design in New York. Her father is real estate developer Harvey Siegel, who bought the then-closed Virginia International Raceway and converted it into a racetrack country club, who owned New Jersey Motorsports Park. Bell's father is Jewish and her mother is Protestant. Bell has stated. Bell attended The Chapin School in Westminster School in Simsbury, Connecticut.
For part of her teenage years she lived in Vero Beach and attended Saint Edwards School. She attended Skidmore College in Saratoga Springs, New York, before transferring to Rose Bruford College in London. There she acted in theatrical productions including The Seagull, The Children's Hour, Six Degrees of Separation, Light Shining in Buckinghamshire and The Pentecost. Bell began her career in 2002 with roles in the film Speakeasy, a film about two men who become unlikely friends after a minor traffic accident, in 2 episodes of the medical TV drama ER, her first significant roles came in 2003. After appearing in the psychological thriller I Love Your Work, she was cast alongside Jeff Goldblum as the female lead in the NBC television film War Stories and played Alicia Silverstone's wisecracking best friend, Victoria Carlson, in NBC's comedy-drama series Miss Match. In 2004, Bell appeared in the wrestling film Slammed and made her debut as Sally Heep in the final four episodes of The Practice, her character was carried over into the spinoff Boston Legal, where she was a regular cast member until she left the series in 2005.
Bell played the lead role in the science fiction series Surface, which aired between September 2005 and May 2006. 2006 saw her star in the film Rampage: The Hillside Strangler Murders about the Hillside Strangler of the late 1970s and return to Boston Legal for two episodes, reprising her role as Sally Heep, opposing counsel to Alan Shore. In 2008, she played the female lead in the thriller Under Still Waters, for which she won the Newport Beach Film Festival Award for Outstanding Performance in Acting, starred alongside Paul Rudd and Eva Longoria in the romantic comedy Over Her Dead Body, played Cameron Diaz's character's best friend in the romantic comedy What Happens in Vegas and played the wife of Colin Farrell's character in crime drama Pride and Glory, she was cast as the lead female role, Dr. Cat Black, in Rob Corddry's satirical comedy Childrens Hospital; the fourth season began airing in August 2012 and featured two episodes that were directed by Bell—the season premiere, "The Boy with the Pancakes Tattoo", a parody of The Girl With the Dragon Tattoo and the ninth episode, "A Kid Walks in to a Hospital".
In 2009, Bell voiced the role of Dana Mercer in the video game Prototype, played Alec Baldwin's wife in the romantic comedy It's Complicated and guest starred in an episode of the fourth season of the series Wainy Days. 2010 saw Bell voice a supporting role in Shrek Forever After, star in the satirical film Burning Palms, guest star in an episode of the second season of the sitcom The League and cast as a lead character in the HBO series How to Make It in America, which aired for two seasons from February 2010 to November 2011. Bell was to play Deputy Judy Hicks in Scream 4, but dropped out four days before filming due to scheduling conflicts, with the role going to Marley Shelton. In 2011, Bell starred alongside Josh Lucas and Terrence Howard in the supernatural thriller Little Murder, played Ashton Kutcher's boss in the romantic comedy No Strings Attached, a performance that won her critical praise and was called "scene-stealing," starred in the ensemble comedy A Good Old Fashioned Orgy and guest starred in an episode of the first season of New Girl.
Bell had a lead role alongside Kate Bosworth in the 2012 thriller Black Rock. “The film is about a milk-drinking, lactose-intolerant misanthrope on a quest for real human connection. Being an ordinary and unloved woman, she instead becomes so wrapped up in her own quiet neurosis that she finds herself physically stuck in a full body girdle. I wrote and directed Worst Enemy in 2010 as an experiment to see if I could take on being a filmmaker.” In 2010, Bell made her writing and directing début with the short film Worst Enemy, which starred Michaela Watkins, Matt Walsh and Lindsay Sloane. Her film débuted at the 2011 Sundance Film Festival and has played at the Nantucket Film Festival, the Dallas International Film Festival, the Gen Art Film Festival and Aspen Shortsfest, winning the Tony Cox Award for Screenwriting in a Short Film from Nantucket and receiving a Shorts Jury Special Mention from Dallas, her film led to her being named one of the "2012 Inspiring Filmmakers" by LUNAFEST. Bell made her writing and directing feature film debut at the 2013 Sundance Film Festival with In a World....
Which she wrote and directed and in which she starred She describes the film as "a comedy about a female voice-over artist and family dysfunction and relationships. I’m obsessed w
Shutter Island (film)
Shutter Island is a 2010 American neo-noir psychological thriller film directed by Martin Scorsese and written by Laeta Kalogridis, based on Dennis Lehane's 2003 novel of the same name. Leonardo DiCaprio stars as U. S. Marshal Edward "Teddy" Daniels, investigating a psychiatric facility on Shutter Island after one of the patients goes missing. Mark Ruffalo plays his partner officer, Ben Kingsley is the facility's lead psychiatrist, Michelle Williams is Daniels' wife. Released on February 19, 2010, the film received favorable reviews from critics, was chosen by National Board of Review as one of the top ten films of 2010 and grossed over $294 million worldwide. In 1954, U. S. Marshals Edward "Teddy" Daniels and his new partner Chuck Aule travel to the Ashecliffe Hospital for the criminally insane on Shutter Island in Boston Harbor, they are investigating the disappearance of patient Rachel Solando, incarcerated for drowning her three children. Their only clue is a cryptic note found hidden in Solando's room: "The law of 4.
They arrive. Daniels and Aule find the staff confrontational. Dr. John Cawley, the lead psychiatrist, refuses to turn over records, they learn that Solando's doctor Lester Sheehan left the island on vacation after Solando disappeared, they are given access to the hospital, but they are told that Ward C is off limits and that the lighthouse has been searched. While being interviewed, one patient secretly writes the word "RUN" in Daniels' notepad. Daniels starts to have migraine headaches from the hospital's atmosphere and experiences waking visions of his involvement in the Dachau liberation reprisals, he has disturbing dreams of his wife Dolores Chanal, killed in a fire set by a local arsonist named Andrew Laeddis. In one instance, she tells him that Solando is still on the island somewhere—as is Laeddis, who everyone claims was never there to begin with. Daniels explains to Aule that locating Laeddis was an ulterior personal motive for taking the case. During their investigation and Aule find that Solando has abruptly resurfaced with no explanation as to her former whereabouts or how she escaped.
This prompts Daniels to break into the restricted Ward C. There he encounters a patient in solitary confinement. Noyce warns him that the doctors are performing questionable experiments on the patients, some of whom are taken to the lighthouse to be lobotomized. Noyce warns Daniels that everyone else on the island is playing an elaborate game designed for Daniels—including his partner Aule. Daniels is determined to investigate the lighthouse, they become separated while climbing the cliffs toward it, Daniels sees what he believes to be Aule's body on the rocks below. By the time he climbs down, the body has disappeared, but he finds a cave where he discovers a woman in hiding who claims to be the real Rachel Solando, she states that she is a former psychiatrist at the hospital who discovered the experiments with psychotropic medication and trans-orbital lobotomy in an attempt to develop mind control techniques. Before she could report her findings to the authorities, she was forcibly committed to Ashecliffe as a patient.
Daniels returns to the hospital, but finds no evidence of Aule being there. Daniels is convinced. Cawley explains that Daniels is Andrew Laeddis, their "most dangerous patient" incarcerated in Ward C for murdering his manic depressive wife Dolores Chanal after she drowned their children. Edward Daniels and Rachel Solando are anagrams of Dolores Chanal. According to Cawley, the events of the past several days have been designed to break Laeddis' conspiracy-laden insanity by allowing him to play out the role of Daniels; the hospital staff were part of the test, including Dr. Sheehan posing as Aule and a nurse posing as Rachel Solando; the migraines that Laeddis suffered were withdrawal symptoms from his medication, as were the hallucinations of the "real Rachel Solando". Overwhelmed, Laeddis faints. Laeddis awakens in the hospital under watch of Sheehan; when questioned, he tells the truth in a coherent manner, which satisfies the doctors as a sign of progression. Cawley notes that they had achieved this state nine months before but Laeddis had regressed, further warns that this will be his last chance to redeem himself.
Some time Laeddis relaxes on the hospital grounds with Dr. Sheehan, but he calls him "Chuck" and says that they need to leave the island. Sheehan shakes his head to an observing Cawley. Laeddis asks Dr. Sheehan if it is worse to die as a good man. With Sheehan looking at him in surprise and shock, Laeddis calmly gets up and walks towards the orderlies, they leave together to the lobotomy procedure. The rights to Dennis Lehane's novel Shutter Island were first optioned to Columbia Pictures in 2003. Columbia did not act on the option and it lapsed back to Lehane who sold it to Phoenix Pictures. Phoenix hired Laeta Kalogridis and together they developed the film for a year. Director Martin Scorsese and actor Leonardo DiCaprio were both attracted to the project. Production began on March 6, 2008. Lehane's inspiration for the hospital and island setting was Long Island in Boston Harbor, which he had visited during the Blizzard of 1978 as a child with his uncle and family. Shutter Island was filmed in Massachusetts
Lullaby (2014 film)
Lullaby is a 2014 American drama film written and directed by Andrew Levitas, starring Garrett Hedlund, Richard Jenkins, Anne Archer, Jessica Brown Findlay, Amy Adams, Jessica Barden, Terrence Howard, Jennifer Hudson. The movie explores the right-to-die issues of a cancer stricken Jewish patriarch who has decided to stop taking his medication and turn off his life support machines, how his decision affects his family members' relationships with him and with each other. On February 6, 2014, ARC Entertainment announced that they have acquired all the North American distribution rights to the film. Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, reports that 32% of 28 surveyed critics gave the film a positive review. Metacritic rated it 35/100 based on 14 reviews. Lullaby on IMDb
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea