Sterculia is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae: subfamily Sterculioideae. Members of the genus are colloquially known as tropical chestnuts; the scientific name is taken from Sterculius of Roman mythology, the god of manure. Sterculia may be monoecious or dioecious, flowers unisexual or bisexual. Sterculia species are food plants for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the leaf miner Bucculatrix xenaula, which feeds on this genus. Gum karaya is extracted from Sterculia species, is used as a thickener and emulsifier in foods, as a laxative, as a denture adhesive. In India, this is sourced from: Gujarat, Madras, Madhya Pradesh and Chhota Nagpur; the Plant List counts 91 accepted species. The accepted species are listed here, except. Sterculia abbreviata E. L. Taylor ex Mondragón Sterculia aerisperma Cuatrec. Sterculia africana Fiori – Mopopaja tree Sterculia albidiflora Ducke Sterculia alexandri Harv. – Cape sterculia Sterculia amazonica E. L. Taylor ex Mondragón Sterculia antioquia E.
L. Taylor Sterculia apeibophylla Ducke Sterculia alexandri H. Karst. Sterculia apetala H. Karst. – Panama tree. Schum. Sterculia balanghas L. or Aiton Sterculia brevissima H. H. Hsue Sterculia caribaea R. Br. Sterculia ceramica R. Br. Sterculia chapelieri Baill. Sterculia chicomendesii E. L. Taylor Sterculia cinerea Schweinf. Or A. Rich. Sterculia cinnamomifolia Tsai & Mao Sterculia cochinchinensis Pierre Trôm nam in Vietnam Sterculia colombiana Sprague Sterculia colorata – Scarlet sterculia Sterculia comorensis Sprague Sterculia corrugata Little Sterculia costaricana Pittier Sterculia curiosa Taroda Sterculia dawei Sprague Sterculia duckei E. L. Taylor ex J. A. C. Silva & M. F. Silva Sterculia euosma W. W. Sm. Sterculia excelsa Mart. Sterculia foetida L. – bastard poon tree, hazel sterculia, wild almond tree Sterculia frondosa Rich. Sterculia gengmaensis H. H. Hsue Sterculia gilva Miq. Sterculia guangxiensis S. J. Xu & P. T. Li Sterculia guapayensis Cuatrec. Sterculia guianensis Sandwith Sterculia guttata Roxb. Ex G. Don Sterculia hainanensis Merr. and Chun Sterculia henryi Hemsl.
Sterculia hymenocalyx K. Schum. Sterculia hypochroa Pierre – Trôm quạt in Vietnam Sterculia impressinervis H. H. Hsue Sterculia kayae P. E. Berry Sterculia khasiana Debb. Sterculia killipiana Standl. Ex E. L. Taylor Sterculia kingtungensis H. H. Hsue Sterculia lanceifolia Roxb. Sterculia lanceolata Cav. Sterculia lisae E. L. Taylor Sterculia macerenica E. L. Taylor Sterculia mexicana R. Br. Sterculia mhoysa Engl. Sterculia micrantha Chun and H. H. Hsue Sterculia mirabilis Roberty Sterculia monosperma Vent. – China chestnut, seven sisters' fruit, pheng phok Sterculia multiovula E. L. Taylor Sterculia murex Hemsl. – Lowveld chestnut Sterculia narioensis E. L. Taylor Sterculia oblonga Mast. Sterculia ornatisepala E. L. Taylor Sterculia paniculata Sterculia parviflora Roxb. Sterculia pendula Ducke Sterculia peruviana E. L. Taylor ex Brako and Zarucchi Sterculia petensis E. L. Taylor Sterculia pexa Pierre Sterculia pinbienensis Mao Sterculia principis Gagnep. Sterculia pruriens ( K. Schum. Sterculia purpurea E. L. Taylor Sterculia quadrifida – Gorarbar Sterculia quinqueloba K.
Schum. – Five-lobed sterculia Sterculia rebeccae E. L. Taylor Sterculia recordiana Standl. Sterculia rhinopetala K. Schum. – Red sterculia Sterculia rigidifolia Ducke Sterculia rogersii N. E. Br. – Ulumbu tree Sterculia rugosa R. Br. Sterculia rubiginosa Vent – Bai rua long in Vietnam Sterculia scandens Hemsl. Sterculia schliebenii Mildbr. Sterculia setigera Delile Sterculia simaoensis Y. Y. Qian Sterculia speciosa K. Schum. Sterculia steyermarkii E. L. Taylor ex Mondragón Sterculia stigmarota Pierre Sterculia stipulifera Ducke Sterculia striata A. St.-Hil. & Naudin Sterculia subnobilis H. H. Hsue Sterculia subracemosa Chun & H. H. Hsue Sterculia subviolacea K. Schum. Sterculia tavia Baill. Sterculia tessmannii Mildbr. Sterculia tonkinensis Aug. DC. Sterculia tantraensis Sterculia tragacantha Lindl. Sterculia urens – Gulu S. urens var. thorelii is a synonym of S. thorelii Pierre – Sterculia venezuelensis Pittier Sterculia villifera Steud. – Broad-leaved bottle tree Sterculia villosa Roxb. Sterculia xolocotzii T. Wendt & E.
L. Taylor Sterculia yuanjiangensis H. H. Hsue & X. J. Xu Data related to Sterculia at Wikispecies Media related to Sterculia at Wikimedia Commons FAO: Species with edible "nuts" listed by families angiosperms
Strongyloides stercoralis is a human pathogenic parasitic roundworm causing the disease strongyloidiasis. Its common name is threadworm. In the UK and Australia, the term threadworm can refer to nematodes of the genus Enterobius, otherwise known as pinworms; the Strongyloides stercoralis nematode can parasitize humans. The adult parasitic stage lives in tunnels in the mucosa of the small intestine; the genus Strongyloides contains 53 species, S. stercoralis is the type species. S. stercoralis has been reported including cats and dogs. However, it seems that the species in dogs is not S. stercoralis, but the related species S. canis. Non-human primates are more infected with S. fuelleborni and S. cebus, although S. stercoralis has been reported in captive primates. Other species of Strongyloides that are parasitic in humans, but with restricted distributions, are S. fuelleborni in central Africa and S. kellyi in Papua New Guinea. S. stercoralis infection is associated with fecal contamination of water.
Hence, it is a rare infection in developed economies. In developing countries, it is less prevalent in urban areas than in rural areas. S. stercoralis can be found in areas with subtropical climates. Strongyloidiasis was first described in the 19th century in French soldiers returning home from expeditions in Indochina. Today, the countries of the old Indochina still have endemic strongyloidiasis, with the typical prevalences being 10% or less. Regions of Japan used to have endemic strongyloidiasis, but control programs have eliminated the disease. Strongyloidiasis appears to have a high prevalence in some areas of Central America, it is endemic in Africa, but the prevalence is low. Pockets have been reported from rural Italy. In the Pacific islands, strongyloidiasis is rare. In tropical Australia, some rural and remote Australian Aboriginal communities have high prevalences of strongyloidiasis. In some African countries, S. fuelleborni was more common than S. stercoralis in parasite surveys from the 1970s, but the current status is unknown.
In Papua New Guinea, S. stercoralis is endemic. However, in some areas, another species, S. kellyi, is a common parasite of children in the New Guinea Highlands and Western Province. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of strongyloidiasis is of significance to travelers who may acquire the parasite during their stays in endemic areas; because strongyloidiasis could theoretically be transmittable through unsanitary bedclothes care must be taken never to use unclean hotel bed sheets in endemic areas. Using plastic slippers when showering may be important when travelling in tropical regions. Estimates of the number of people infected vary with one estimate putting the figure at 370 million worldwide. Local prevalence can exceed 40 % in some subtropical countries; the strongyloid's life cycle is heterogonic—it is more complex than that of most nematodes, with its alternation between free-living and parasitic cycles, its potential for autoinfection and multiplication within the host. The parasitic cycle is homogonic.
The heterogonic life cycle is advantageous to the parasite because it allows reproduction for one or more generations in the absence of a host. In the free-living cycle, the rhabditiform larvae passed in the stool can either molt twice and become infective filariform larvae or molt four times and become free-living adult males and females that mate and produce eggs from which rhabditiform larvae hatch. In the direct development, first-stage larvae transform into infective larvae via three molts; the indirect route results first in the development of free-living adults that mate. The direct route gives IL faster versus the indirect route. However, the indirect route results in an increase in the number of IL produced. Speed of development of IL is traded for increased numbers; the free-living males and females of S. stercoralis die after one generation. The latter, in turn, can either develop into a new generation of free-living adults or develop into infective filariform larvae; the filariform larvae penetrate the human host skin to initiate the parasitic cycle.
The infectious larvae penetrate the skin. While S. stercoralis is attracted to chemicals such as carbon dioxide or sodium chloride, these chemicals are not specific. Larvae have been thought to locate their hosts via chemicals in the skin, the predominant one being urocanic acid, a histidine metabolite on the uppermost layer of skin, removed by sweat or the daily skin-shedding cycle. Urocanic acid concentrations can be up to five times greater in the foot than any other part of the human body; some of them enter the superficial veins and are carried in the blood to the lungs, where they enter the alveoli. They are coughed up and swallowed into the gut, where they parasitise the intestinal mucosa of the duodenum and jejunum. In the small intestine, they become adult female worms; the females live threaded in the epithelium of the small intestine and, by parthenogenesis, produce eggs, which yield rhabditiform larvae. Only females will reach reproductive adulthood in the intestine. Female strongyloids reproduce through parthenogenesis.
The eggs hatch in the intestine and young larvae are excreted in the feces. It takes about two weeks to reach egg development from the initial skin penetration. By th
Saturn is a god in ancient Roman religion, a character in myth as a god of generation, plenty, agriculture, periodic renewal and liberation. In developments, he came to be a god of time, his reign was depicted as a Golden Age of peace. The Temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum housed the state treasury. In December, he was celebrated at what is the most famous of the Roman festivals, the Saturnalia, a time of feasting, role reversals, free speech, gift-giving and revelry. Saturn the planet and Saturday are both named after the god; the Roman land preserved the remembrance of a remote time during which Saturn and Janus reigned on the site of the city before its foundation: the Capitol was called mons Saturnius. The Romans identified Saturn with the Greek Cronus, whose myths were adapted for Latin literature and Roman art. In particular, Cronus's role in the genealogy of the Greek gods was transferred to Saturn; as early as Livius Andronicus, Jupiter was called the son of Saturn. Saturn had two mistresses.
The name of his wife, the Roman equivalent of Greek Rhea, means "wealth, resources." The association with Ops is considered a development, however, as this goddess was paired with Consus. Earlier was Saturn's association with Lua, a goddess who received the bloodied weapons of enemies destroyed in war. Under Saturn's rule, humans enjoyed the spontaneous bounty of the earth without labour in the "Golden Age" described by Hesiod and Ovid. According to Varro, Saturn's name was derived from satu, meaning "sowing". Though this etymology looks implausible on linguistic grounds it does reflect an original feature of the god. A more probable etymology connects the name with Etruscan god Satre and placenames such as Satria, an ancient town of Latium, Saturae palus, a marsh in Latium; this root may be related to Latin phytonym satureia. Another epithet, variably Sterculius and Sterces, referred to his agricultural functions. Agriculture was important to Roman identity, Saturn was a part of archaic Roman religion and ethnic identity.
His name appears in the ancient hymn of the Salian priests, his temple was the oldest known to have been recorded by the pontiffs. Quintus Lucilius Balbus gives a separate etymology in Cicero's De Natura Deorum. In this interpretation, the agricultural aspect of Saturn would be secondary to his primary relation with time and seasons. Since Time consumes all things, Balbus asserts. Since agriculture is so linked to seasons and therefore an understanding of the cyclical passage of time, it follows that agriculture would be associated with the deity Saturn; the temple of Saturn was located at the base of the Capitoline Hill, according to a tradition recorded by Varro known as Saturnius Mons, a row of columns from the last rebuilding of the temple still stands. The temple was consecrated in 497 BC but the area Saturni was built by king Tullus Hostilius as confirmed by archaeological studies conducted by E. Gjerstad, it housed the state treasury throughout Roman history. The position of Saturn's festival in the Roman calendar led to his association with concepts of time the temporal transition of the New Year.
In the Greek tradition, Cronus was sometimes conflated with Chronus, "Time," and his devouring of his children taken as an allegory for the passing of generations. The sickle or scythe of Father Time is a remnant of the agricultural implement of Cronus-Saturn, his aged appearance represents the waning of the old year with the birth of the new, in antiquity sometimes embodied by Aion. In late antiquity, Saturn is syncretized with a number of deities, begins to be depicted as winged, as is Kairos, "Timing, Right Time"; the figure of Saturn is one of the most complex in Roman religion. G. Dumézil refrained from discussing Saturn in his work on Roman religion on the grounds of insufficient knowledge. On the contrary, his follower Dominique Briquel has attempted a thorough interpretation of Saturn utilising Dumézil's three-functional theory of Indoeuropean religion, taking the ancient testimonies and the works of A. Brelich and G. Piccaluga as his basis; the main difficulty scholars find in studying Saturn is in assessing what is original of his figure and what is due to hellenising influences.
Moreover, some features of the god may be common to Cronus but are nonetheless ancient and can be considered proper to the Roman god, whereas others are later and arrived after 217 BC, the year in which the Greek customs of the Kronia were introduced into the Saturnalia. Among the features which are authentic of the Roman god, Briquel identifies: the time of his festival in the calendar, which corresponds to the date of the consecration of his temple; these three elements in Briquel's view indicate. The god's strict relationship with the cults of the Capitoline Hill and in particular with Jupiter are highlighted by the legends concerning the refusal of gods Iuventas and Terminus to leave their abode in the shrines on the Capitol
Simon & Schuster
Simon & Schuster, Inc. a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster. As of 2016, Simon & Schuster was publishing 2,000 titles annually under 35 different imprints. In 1924, Richard Simon's aunt, a crossword puzzle enthusiast, asked whether there was a book of New York World crossword puzzles, which were popular at the time. After discovering that none had been published and Max Schuster decided to launch a company to exploit the opportunity. At the time, Simon was a piano salesman and Schuster was editor of an automotive trade magazine, they pooled US$8,000, equivalent to $117 thousand today, to start a company that published crossword puzzles. The new publishing house used "fad" publishing to publish books that exploited current fads and trends. Simon called this "planned publishing". Instead of signing authors with a planned manuscript, they came up with their own ideas, hired writers to carry them out. In the 1930s, the publisher moved to what has been referred to as "Publisher's Row" on Park Avenue in Manhattan, New York.
In 1939, Simon & Schuster financially backed Robert Fair de Graff to found Pocket Books, America's first paperback publisher. In 1942, Simon & Schuster and Western Printing launched the Little Golden Books series in cooperation with the Artists and Writers Guild. In 1944, Marshall Field III, owner of the Chicago Sun, purchased Pocket Books; the company was sold back to Schuster following his death. In the 1950s and 1960s, many publishers including Simon & Schuster turned toward educational publishing due to the baby boom market. Pocket Books focused on paperbacks for the educational market instead of textbooks and started the Washington Square Press imprint in 1959. By 1964 it had published over 200 titles and was expected to put out another 400 by the end of that year. Books published under the imprint included classic reprints such as Lorna Doone, Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, Robinson Crusoe. In 1966, Max Schuster sold his half of Simon & Schuster to Leon Shimkin. Shimkin merged Simon & Schuster with Pocket Books under the name of Simon & Schuster.
In 1968, editor-in-chief Robert Gottlieb, who worked at Simon & Schuster since 1955 and edited several bestsellers including Joseph Heller's Catch-22, left abruptly to work at competitor Knopf, taking other influential S&S employees, Nina Bourne, Tony Schulte. In 1979, Richard Snyder was named CEO of the company. Over the next several years he would help grow the company substantially. After the 1983 death of Charles Bluhdorn, head of Gulf+Western who acquired Simon in Schuster in 1976, the company made the decision to diversify. Bluhdorn's successor Martin Davis told The New York Times, "Society was undergoing dramatic changes, so that there was a greater need for textbooks and educational information. We saw the opportunity to diversify into those areas, which are more stable and more profitable than trade publishing."In 1984, Simon & Schuster with CEO Richard E. Snyder acquired Esquire Corporation, buying everything but the magazine for $180 million. Prentice Hall was brought into the company fold in 1985 for over $700 million and was viewed by some executives to be a catalyst for change for the company as a whole.
This acquisition was followed by Silver Burdett in 1986, mapmaker Gousha in 1987 and Charles E. Simon in 1988. Part of the acquisition included educational publisher Allyn & Bacon which, according to editor and chief Michael Korda, became the "nucleus of S&S's educational and informational business." Three California educational companies were purchased between 1988 and 1990—Quercus, Fearon Education and Janus Book Publishers. In all, Simon & Schuster spent more than $1 billion in acquisitions between 1983 and 1991. In the 1980s, Snyder made an unsuccessful bid toward video publishing, believed to have led to the company's success in the audio book business. Snyder was dismayed to realize that Simon & Schuster did not own the video rights to Jane Fonda's Workout Book, a huge bestseller at the time, that the video company producing the VHS was making more money on the video; this prompted Snyder to ask editors to obtain video rights for every new book. Agents were reluctant to give these up—which meant the S&S Video division never took off.
According to Korda, the audio rights expanded into the audio division which by the 1990s would be a major business for Simon & Schuster. In 1989, Gulf and Western Inc. owner of Simon & Schuster, changed its name to Paramount Communications Inc. In 1990, The New York Times described Simon & Schuster as the largest book publisher in the United States with sales of $1.3 billion the previous year. That same year, Schuster acquired the children's publisher Green Tiger Press. In 1994, was fired from S&S and was replaced by the company's president and chief operating officer Jonathan Newcomb; that year, Paramount was sold to Viacom. In 1998, Viacom sold Simon & Schuster's educational operations, including Prentice Hall and Macmillan, to Pearson PLC, the global publisher and owner of Penguin and the Financial Times; the professional and reference operations were sold to Hicks Muse Furst. In 2002, Simon & Schuster acquired its Canadian distributor Distican. Simon & Schuster began publishing in Canada in 2013.
At the end of 2005, Viacom split into two companies: CBS Corporation, the other retaining the Viacom name. In 2005, Simon & Schuster acquired Strebor Books International, founded in 1999 by author Kristina Laferne Roberts, who has written under the pseudonym "Zane." A year in 2006, Simon & Schuster launched the conservative imprint Threshold Editions. In 2009, Simon & Schuster
In Roman mythology, Flora is a Sabine-derived goddess of flowers and of the season of spring – a symbol for nature and flowers. While she was otherwise a minor figure in Roman mythology, being one among several fertility goddesses, her association with the spring gave her particular importance at the coming of springtime, as did her role as goddess of youth, her Greek counterpart is Chloris. Her name is derived from the Latin word "flos" which means "flower". In modern English, "Flora" means the plants of a particular region or period, her festival, the Floralia, was held between April 28 and May 3 and symbolized the renewal of the cycle of life and flowers. The festival was first instituted in 240 B. C. E, on the advice of the Sibylline books, she was given a temple in 238 B. C. E. At the festival, with the men decked in flowers, the women wearing forbidden gay costumes, five days of farces and mimes were enacted – ithyphallic, including nudity when called for – followed by a sixth day of the hunting of goats and hares.
On May 23 another festival was held in her honor. Flora's Greek equivalent is Chloris, a nymph. Flora is married to Favonius, the wind god known as Zephyr, her companion was Hercules. Flora achieved more prominence in the neo-pagan revival of Antiquity among Renaissance humanists than she had enjoyed in ancient Rome. Flora is the main character of the ballet The Awakening of Flora, she is mentioned in Henry Purcell's Nymphs and Shepherds. There are many monuments of Flora, e.g. in Valencia and Szczecin. Ovid, Fasti V.193-212 Macrobius, Saturnalia I.10.11-14 Lactantius, Divinae institutions I.20.6-10 Media related to Flora at Wikimedia Commons "Flora". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. "Flora". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. The Obscure Goddess Online Directory: Flora
Pomona was a goddess of fruitful abundance in ancient Roman religion and myth. Her name comes from the Latin word pomum, "fruit," orchard fruit. Pomona was said to be a wood nymph. In the myth narrated by Ovid, she scorned the love of the woodland gods Silvanus and Picus, but married Vertumnus after he tricked her, disguised as an old woman, she and Vertumnus shared a festival held on August 13. Her priest was called the flamen Pomonalis; the pruning knife was her attribute. There is a grove, sacred to her called the Pomonal, located not far from Ostia, the ancient port of Rome. Pomona was the goddess of fruit trees and orchards. Unlike many other Roman goddesses and gods, she does not have a Greek counterpart, though she is associated with Demeter, she cares for their cultivation. She was not associated with the harvest of fruits itself, but with the flourishing of the fruit trees. In artistic depictions she is shown with a platter of fruit or a cornucopia; the City of Pomona in Los Angeles County, California, is named after the goddess.
Pomona College was founded in the city and retained its name after relocating to its present-day location, Claremont. The Pomona Docks were built on the site of the Pomona Gardens. A former public house nearby was named the Pomona Palace. A bronze statue of Pomona sits atop the Pulitzer Fountain in Manhattan's Grand Army Plaza in New York; the fountain was funded by newspaper tycoon Joseph Pulitzer, designed by the architect Thomas Hastings, crowned by a statue conceived by the sculptor Karl Bitter. The fountain was dedicated in May 1916. Pomona is mentioned in C. S. Lewis's children's book Prince Caspian. Pomona is the title of a play by Alistair McDowell, commissioned in 2014 for the Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama. Karpo, one of the Horae; the ballet Pomona, with music by Constant Lambert, choreography by Frederick Ashton and scenery and costumes by Vanessa Bell, was first performed by the Vic-Wells Ballet at the Sadler's Wells Theatre on 17 January 1933. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pomona". Encyclopædia Britannica.
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