Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
Me Too movement
The Me Too movement, with a large variety of local and international alternative names, is a movement against sexual harassment and sexual assault. The movement began to spread virally in October 2017 as a hashtag on social media in an attempt to demonstrate the widespread prevalence of sexual assault and harassment in the workplace, it followed sexual-abuse allegations against Harvey Weinstein. Tarana Burke, an American social activist and community organizer, began using the phrase "Me Too" as early as 2006, the phrase was popularized by American actress Alyssa Milano, on Twitter in 2017. Milano encouraged victims of sexual harassment to tweet about it and "give people a sense of the magnitude of the problem". A number of high-profile posts and responses from American celebrities Gwyneth Paltrow, Ashley Judd, Jennifer Lawrence, Uma Thurman, among others, soon followed. Tarana Burke, a social activist and community organizer, began using the phrase "Me Too" in 2006, on the Myspace social network as part of a campaign to promote "empowerment through empathy" among women of color who have experienced sexual abuse within underprivileged communities.
Burke, creating a documentary titled Me Too, has said she was inspired to use the phrase after being unable to respond to a 13-year-old girl who confided to her that she had been sexually assaulted. Burke said she wished she had told the girl, "Me too". Following widespread exposure of accusations of predatory behavior by Harvey Weinstein, her own blog post on the subject, on October 15, 2017, actress Alyssa Milano encouraged spreading the hashtag #MeToo, to attempt to draw attention to sexual assault and harassment. Milano acknowledged earlier use of the phrase by Burke. Milano credits her identification with the Me Too movement to being affected by sexual harassment during a concert when she was 19. Several hashtags related to sharing stories of workplace sexual harassment were in use before #MeToo, including #MyHarveyWeinstein, #YouOkSis, #WhatWereYouWearing and #SurvivorPrivilege; the phrase "Me too" was tweeted by Milano around noon on October 15, 2017, had been used more than 200,000 times by the end of the day, tweeted more than 500,000 times by October 16.
On Facebook, the hashtag was used by more than 4.7 million people in 12 million posts during the first 24 hours. The platform reported that 45% of users in the United States had a friend who had posted using the term. Tens of thousands of people, including hundreds of celebrities, replied with #MeToo stories; some men, such as actors Terry Crews and James Van Der Beek, have responded to the hashtag with their own experiences of harassment and abuse, while others have responded by acknowledging past behaviors against women, spawning the hashtag #HowIWillChange. In addition to Hollywood, "Me Too" declarations elicited discussion of sexual harassment and abuse in the music industry, sciences and politics. Feminist author Gloria Feldt stated in Time that many employers are being forced to make changes in response to #MeToo, for example examining gender-based pay differences and improving sexual harassment policies. Others have noted there has been pressure on companies in the financial industry, to disclose diversity statistics.
In January 2019, actress Emma Thompson pulled out of the production "Luck" based on the production company's decision to hire John Lasseter. Thompson wrote a letter in February 2019 to the American production company Skydance, to explain her reasons for leaving "Luck". Among others, Thompson stated: "If a man has been touching women inappropriately for decades, why would a woman want to work for him if the only reason he’s not touching them inappropriately now is that it says in his contract that he must behave “professionally”?. In November 2017, the hashtag #ChurchToo was started by Emily Joy and Hannah Paasch on Twitter and began trending in response to #MeToo as a way to try to highlight and stop sexual abuse that happens in a church. In early January 2018, about a hundred evangelical women launched #SilenceIsNotSpiritual to call for changes to how sexual misconduct is dealt within the church. #ChurchToo started spreading again virally in January 2018 in response to a live-streamed video admission by Pastor Andy Savage to his church that he sexually assaulted a 17-year-old girl twenty years before as a youth pastor while driving her home, but received applause by his church for admitting to the incident and asking for forgiveness.
Pastor Andy Savage resigned from his staff position at Highpoint Church and stepped away from ministry. Many have argued that one of the biggest crises in the history of the Catholic Church is the current child sexual abuse, being reported, according to Tom Inglis in his book Are the Irish Different?. The University of California has been no stranger to sexual harassment, with substantial accusations reported yearly in the hundreds at all nine UC campuses, notably UC Berkeley, Irvine, Los Angeles, San Diego. However, a landmark event at the University of California, Irvine spearheaded the removal and reprimand of several campus officials and professors accused of sexual harassment and discrimination. In early July 2018, UC Irvine removed millionaire benefactor Francisco J. Ayala's name from its biology school, central science library, graduate fellowships, scholar programs, endowed chairs after an internal investigation substantiated a number of sexual harassment claims; the results from the investigation were compiled in a 97-page report, which included testimony from victims enduring Ayala's harassment for 15 years.
His removal promptly sparked the removal of Professor Ron Carlson in August 2018, who had led the creative writing program at UC Irvine. He resigne
Houston is the most populous city in the U. S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 2.312 million in 2017. It is the most populous city in the Southern United States and on the Gulf Coast of the United States. Located in Southeast Texas near Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, it is the seat of Harris County and the principal city of the Greater Houston metropolitan area, the fifth most populous metropolitan statistical area in the United States and the second most populous in Texas after the Dallas-Fort Worth MSA. With a total area of 627 square miles, Houston is the eighth most expansive city in the United States, it is the largest city in the United States by total area, whose government is not consolidated with that of a county or borough. Though in Harris County, small portions of the city extend into Fort Bend and Montgomery counties. Houston was founded by land speculators on August 30, 1836, at the confluence of Buffalo Bayou and White Oak Bayou and incorporated as a city on June 5, 1837.
The city is named after former General Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas and had won Texas' independence from Mexico at the Battle of San Jacinto 25 miles east of Allen's Landing. After serving as the capital of the Texas Republic in the late 1830s, Houston grew into a regional trading center for the remainder of the 19th century; the arrival of the 20th century saw a convergence of economic factors which fueled rapid growth in Houston, including a burgeoning port and railroad industry, the decline of Galveston as Texas' primary port following a devastating 1900 hurricane, the subsequent construction of the Houston Ship Channel, the Texas oil boom. In the mid-20th century, Houston's economy diversified as it became home to the Texas Medical Center—the world's largest concentration of healthcare and research institutions—and NASA's Johnson Space Center, where the Mission Control Center is located. Houston's economy has a broad industrial base in energy, manufacturing and transportation.
Leading in healthcare sectors and building oilfield equipment, Houston has the second most Fortune 500 headquarters of any U. S. municipality within its city limits. The Port of Houston ranks first in the United States in international waterborne tonnage handled and second in total cargo tonnage handled. Nicknamed the "Space City", Houston is a global city, with strengths in culture and research; the city has a population from various ethnic and religious backgrounds and a large and growing international community. Houston is the most diverse metropolitan area in Texas and has been described as the most racially and ethnically diverse major metropolis in the U. S, it is home to many cultural institutions and exhibits, which attract more than 7 million visitors a year to the Museum District. Houston has an active visual and performing arts scene in the Theater District and offers year-round resident companies in all major performing arts; the Allen brothers—Augustus Chapman and John Kirby—explored town sites on Buffalo Bayou and Galveston Bay.
According to historian David McComb, "he brothers, on August 26, 1836, bought from Elizabeth E. Parrott, wife of T. F. L. Parrott and widow of John Austin, the south half of the lower league granted to her by her late husband, they paid $5,000 total, but only $1,000 of this in cash. They lobbied the Republic of Texas Congress to designate Houston as the temporary capital, agreeing to provide the new government with a capital building. About a dozen persons resided in the town at the beginning of 1837, but that number grew to about 1,500 by the time the Texas Congress convened in Houston for the first time that May. Houston was granted incorporation with James S. Holman becoming its first mayor. In the same year, Houston became the county seat of Harrisburg County. In 1839, the Republic of Texas relocated its capital to Austin; the town suffered another setback that year when a yellow fever epidemic claimed about one life out of every eight residents. Yet it persisted as a commercial center, forming a symbiosis with Galveston.
Landlocked farmers brought their produce to Houston, using Buffalo Bayou to gain access to Galveston and the Gulf of Mexico. Houston merchants profited from selling staples to farmers and shipping the farmers' produce to Galveston; the great majority of slaves in Texas came with their owners from the older slave states. Sizable numbers, came through the domestic slave trade. New Orleans was the center of this trade in the Deep South. Thousands of enslaved blacks lived near the city before the American Civil War. Many of them near the city worked on sugar and cotton plantations, while most of those in the city limits had domestic and artisan jobs. In 1840, the community established a chamber of commerce in part to promote shipping and navigation at the newly created port on Buffalo Bayou. By 1860, Houston had emerged as a commercial and railroad hub for the export of cotton. Railroad spurs from the Texas inland converged in Houston, where they met rail lines to the ports of Galveston and Beaumont.
During the American Civil War, Houston served as a headquarters for General John Magruder, who used the city as an organization point for the Battle of Galveston. After the Civil War, Houston businessmen initia
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
Norman Milton Lear is an American television writer and producer who produced such 1970s sitcoms as All in the Family and Son, One Day at a Time, The Jeffersons, Good Times, Maude. As a political activist, he founded the advocacy organization People for the American Way in 1981 and has supported First Amendment rights and progressive causes. Lear was born in New Haven, the son of Jeanette and Hyman "Herman" Lear, a traveling salesman, his mother was born in Elizabethgrad in Kherson Gubernia in Ukraine, while his father was born in Connecticut, to Russian-born parents. He had Claire Lear Brown. Lear had a Bar Mitzvah ceremony; when Lear was nine years old, his father went to prison for selling fake bonds. Lear thought of his father as a "rascal" and said that the character of Archie Bunker was in part inspired by his father, while the character of Edith Bunker was in part inspired by his mother. Lear graduated from Weaver High School in Hartford, Connecticut, in 1940 and subsequently attended Emerson College in Boston, but dropped out in 1942 to join the United States Army Air Forces.
After the Pearl Harbor attack in World War II, Lear enlisted in September 1942. He served in the Mediterranean theater as a radio operator/gunner on Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers with the 772nd Bombardment Squadron, 463d Operations Group of the Fifteenth Air Force. Lear flew 52 combat missions. Lear was discharged from the Army in 1945, his fellow World War II crew members are featured in the books Crew Umbriag, by Daniel P. Carroll, 772nd Bomb Squadron: The Men, The Memories, by Turner Publishing and Co. After World War II, Lear had a career in public relations; the career choice was inspired by his Uncle Jack: "My dad had a brother, who flipped me a quarter every time he saw me. He was a press agent. That's the only role model. So all I wanted was to grow up to be a guy who could flip a quarter to a nephew." Lear decided to move to California to restart his career in publicity, driving with his toddler daughter across the country. His first night in Los Angeles, Lear stumbled upon a production of George Bernard Shaw's Major Barbara at a 90-seat theater in the round Circle Theater off Sunset Boulevard.
One of the actors in the play was Sydney Chaplin, the son of actors Charlie Chaplin and Lita Grey. Chaplin, Alan Mowbray and Dame Gladys Cooper sat in front of him, after the show was over, Chaplin performed. Lear had a first cousin in Los Angeles, married to Ed Simmons, who wanted to be a comedy writer. Simmons and Lear teamed up to sell home furnishings door-to-door for a company called The Gans Brothers and sold family photos door-to-door. Throughout the 1950s Lear and Simmons turned out comedy sketches for television appearances of Martin and Lewis and Martin, others, they wrote for Martin and Lewis when they appeared on the Colgate Comedy Hour and a 1953 article from Billboard magazine stated that Lear and Simmons were guaranteed a record-breaking $52,000 each to write for five additional Martin and Lewis appearances on the Colgate Comedy Hour that year. In a 2015 interview with Vanity Magazine Lear said that Jerry Lewis had hired him and Simmons to become writers for Martin and Lewis three weeks before the comedy duo made their first appearance on the Colgate Comedy Hour in 1950.
Lear acknowledged in 1986 that he and Simmons were the main writers for The Martin and Lewis Show for three years. In 1954 Lear was enlisted as a writer hoping to salvage the new Celeste Holm CBS sitcom, Celeste!, but the program was canceled after eight episodes. During this time, he became the producer of NBC's The Martha Raye Show, after Nat Hiken left as the series director. Lear wrote some of the opening monologues for The Tennessee Ernie Ford Show, which aired from 1956 to 1961. In 1959 Lear created his first television series, a half-hour western for Revue Studios called The Deputy, starring Henry Fonda. Starting out as a comedy writer a film director, Lear tried to sell a concept for a sitcom about a blue-collar American family to ABC, they rejected. After a third pilot was taped, CBS picked up the show, known as All in the Family, it premiered January 12, 1971, to disappointing ratings, but it took home several Emmy Awards that year, including Outstanding Comedy Series. The show did well in summer reruns, it flourished in the 1971–72 season, becoming the top-rated show on TV for the next five years.
After falling from the #1 spot, All in the Family still remained in the top ten, well after it transitioned into Archie Bunker's Place. The show was based loosely on the British sitcom Till Death Us Do Part, about an irascible working-class Tory and his Socialist son-in-law. Lear's second big TV sitcom was based on a British sitcom and Son, about a west London junk dealer and his son. Lear changed the setting to the Watts section of Los Angeles and the characters to African-Americans, the NBC show Sanford and Son was an instant hit. Numerous hit shows followed thereafter, including Maude, The Jeffersons, One Day at a Time, Good Times. What most of the Lear sitcoms had in common was that they were shot on videotape in place of film, used a live studio audience, dealt with the social and political issues of the day. M
KTTV, virtual and VHF digital channel 11, is a Fox owned-and-operated television station located in Los Angeles, United States. The station is owned by the Fox Television Stations subsidiary of Fox Corporation as part of a duopoly with MyNetworkTV owned-and-operated station KCOP-TV; the two stations share studio facilities within the Fox Television Center in West Los Angeles, KTTV's transmitter is located on Mount Wilson. The station is available to DirecTV subscribers in the few areas of the Western United States that do not have an over-the-air Fox affiliate. KTTV's origins can be traced to December 1946, when the station's license and construction permit was secured by the Times Mirror Company, publishers of the Los Angeles Times, it was one of five licenses that were granted by the Federal Communications Commission to parties interested in launching commercial television stations in Los Angeles. In 1948, CBS, which owned KNX radio, purchased a 49% interest in the station and assisted in completing its construction in exchange for making channel 11 the network's Los Angeles television outlet.
KTTV began operations on January 1, 1949 and was operated by KTTV, the Times/CBS-owned holding company. The station's first telecast was the Tournament of Roses Parade, which channel 11 would air every New Year's Day until 1995. In May 1950, Times-Mirror purchased the Nassour Studios – a large motion picture facility on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood, centralized KTTV's operations there. CBS did not join Times-Mirror in the purchase. KTTV converted the Nassour Studios into a major production house for television, producing programs locally and for the emerging syndication market. Prior to the move, KTTV operated out of several different facilities, including the former headquarters of Capitol Records on Melrose Avenue. In 1950, CBS chose to acquire its own station in Los Angeles – pioneer station KTSL –, being spun off by the Don Lee Broadcasting System as a result of its sale to General Tire and Rubber; the KTSL purchase forced CBS to divest its interest in KTTV due to FCC rules in effect at the time that barred the common ownership of two television stations in the same media market.
KTTV's relationship with CBS ended after two years as the network moved its programming to KTSL. A few months channel 11 agreed to become the new Los Angeles outlet of the DuMont Television Network, affiliated with KTSL and, before that, KTLA. In 1954, DuMont moved its programming to KHJ-TV, KTTV became an independent station. During the late 1950s, the station was briefly affiliated with the NTA Film Network. In 1958, channel 11 scored an advantage against its rivals when it became the television home of the Los Angeles Dodgers baseball team, which had relocated from Brooklyn, New York that year. For the first 11 years and at the request of the team, KTTV's Dodger telecasts were limited to road games against the archrival San Francisco Giants; the number of Dodger games broadcast on the station increased and the home game blackout was lifted. The show Confidential File on KTTV covered the 1962 convention of the Daughters of Bilitis and aired after Confidential File became syndicated nationally.
The Times-Mirror Company sold the station to Metromedia in 1963. That year, Metromedia purchased KLAC and the original KLAC-FM, giving channel 11 sister stations on the radio dial. Metromedia would engineer a trade of FM frequencies, resulting in KLAC-FM moving to 94.7 FM in 1965. By the 1970s, KTTV offered a traditional general entertainment schedule common among independent stations at the time, consisting of children's programs, off-network reruns, sports programming and old movies, along with a 10:00 p.m. newscast. Some of the staff members in the earlier 1970s were: John Jones, Sales Manager. A.. With the evolution of cable television, KTTV became a regional superstation. Thanks to its Dodgers broadcasts and round-the-clock programming, KTTV was seen on various cable systems across the Western United States during the 1970s and into the 1980s, as far east as El Paso, Texas. KTLA, with its Angels broadcasts became a superstation. KTTV and KTLA were seen on most Southern and Central California cable systems, with KHJ-TV and KCOP getting carried outside Los Angeles to a lesser extent.
In 1986, Australian newspaper publisher Rupert Murdoch and his company, the News Corporation, purchased KTTV and the other Metromedia television stations. The Metromedia stations ended up becoming part of a new holding company formed by News Corporation called Fox Television Stations. Following the News Corporation purchase, KTTV added more first-run
Scrabble (game show)
Scrabble is an American television game show, based on the Scrabble board game. Muriel Green of Exposure Unlimited came up with the initial concept for a television game show based on the Scrabble board game. During 1983 Green convinced Selchow and Righter, who at that time owned the Scrabble board game, to license Exposure Unlimited the right to produce the television show. Exposure Unlimited hired and co-produced the show with Reg Grundy Productions and licensed the show to NBC, it ran from July 2, 1984, to March 23, 1990, again from January 18, 1993, to June 11, 1993, with both runs airing on NBC. A total of 1,335 episodes were produced from both editions. Jay Stewart was the announcer for the first year and was replaced by Charlie Tuna in the summer of 1985, who announced for the remainder of the original version and the entirety of the 1993 revival; the original 1984-90 version was the first successful "board-game-turned-game-show" in history, the second was Family Game Night on The Hub from 2010 until 2014 and the third was Celebrity Name Game from 2014 until 2017.
All words used in the game were between nine letters in length. For each word, Woolery gave a clue that involved a pun or play on words. Viewers could win a Scrabble T-shirt by submitting a word and clue and having them selected for use in the show's opening title sequence; the first round of every game was the Crossword round, in which two contestants competed to guess words as they were laid out on a computer-generated Scrabble board. Two new contestants played each Crossword, with the winner advancing to the Scrabble Sprint to face the reigning champion. On September 29, 1986, as part of a broader format change, episodes were re-structured to include two Crosswords; the first Crossword was played between the show's reigning champion and a challenger, the second Crossword was played between two new contestants. A horizontal or vertical row of squares was outlined to indicate the number of letters, with one filled in. In order to fill the rest in, the contestants drew from a rack of numbered blue tiles placed in the middle of the contestant desk.
The contestant with initial control could either guess the word or draw two tiles, inserting them into a slot in front of him/her. Each numbered tile represented a letter, there were always two more tiles than there were letters in the word; these tiles represented all the missing letters, plus three additional "stopper" letters that did not belong in the word. After the contestant was shown the letters represented by the tiles drawn, he/she chose one to be placed. If the letter belonged in the word, it appeared in its proper position and the contestant could either attempt to guess the word or place the other letter. If both letters were in the word, the contestant could either attempt a guess or draw two more tiles. If the contestant tried to place a stopper or gave an incorrect guess for the word in play and any unused letters passed to the opponent. If the opponent could not venture a guess and there was an unused letter, he/she had to draw an additional tile and place the one of the letters on his/her turn.
Play continued. The last letter in the word was never revealed, if the contestant had one space left he/she was required to guess. If wrong, the opponent got the opportunity; the word would be thrown out. If all three stoppers were found, the contestant that did not try to place the letter was given a chance to guess. If he/she could not, play switched to Speedword mode. Letters were filled in one at a time, either contestant could buzz in at any time. An incorrect answer locked the contestant out. If both responded incorrectly or neither buzzed in enough after the next-to-last letter was placed, the word was revealed and neither contestant scored. Whenever time ran short or the score became tied at 2–2, the rest of the round was played in Speedword; the first contestant to solve three words advanced to the Scrabble Sprint. The first word in each Crossword round was played horizontally, with one letter placed in the center square of the board. One of the letters in the first word formed the building block for the next word, played vertically.
Play continued in this manner. Pink and blue squares, laid out in the same configuration as the premium squares on the original Scrabble board, awarded money as shown in the sections below. Whenever two new contestants played this round, a backstage coin toss determined who would start the first word. Following the 1986 episode re-structuring, if a champion was playing the first Crossword, it was started by the challenger; each successive word was started by the trailing contestant, or by the one who did not start the previous word if the score was tied. In the first week of the show, a cumulative money pot was used in the Crossword round; each letter placed in a normal square was worth $25, with blue squares adding $50 and pink squares $100. The winner of the round collected all the money in the pot. After that week, the Crossword winner received a flat $500. Beginning in October 1984, contestants could win a cash bonus with the colored squares by placing a letter in one of them and solving the word.
Blue squares awarded $500, while pink squares awarded $1,000. Beginning in 1986, the bonus rule was added to Speedword, provided a contestant guessed the word r