The Independent is a British online newspaper. Established in 1986 as a politically independent national morning newspaper published in London, it was controlled by Tony O'Reilly's Independent News & Media from 1997 until it was sold to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev in 2010; the last printed edition of The Independent was published on Saturday 26 March 2016, leaving only its digital editions. Nicknamed the Indy, it began as a broadsheet, but changed to tabloid format in 2003; until September 2011, the paper described itself on the banner at the top of every newspaper as "free from party political bias, free from proprietorial influence". It tends to take a pro-market stance on economic issues; the daily edition was named National Newspaper of the Year at the 2004 British Press Awards. In June 2015, it had an average daily circulation of just below 58,000, 85 per cent down from its 1990 peak, while the Sunday edition had a circulation of just over 97,000. Launched in 1986, the first issue of The Independent was published on 7 October in broadsheet format.
It was produced by Newspaper Publishing plc and created by Andreas Whittam Smith, Stephen Glover and Matthew Symonds. All three partners were former journalists at The Daily Telegraph who had left the paper towards the end of Lord Hartwell's ownership. Marcus Sieff was the first chairman of Newspaper Publishing, Whittam Smith took control of the paper; the paper was created at a time of a fundamental change in British newspaper publishing. Rupert Murdoch was challenging long-accepted practices of the print unions and defeated them in the Wapping dispute. Production costs could be reduced which, it was said at the time, created openings for more competition; as a result of controversy around Murdoch's move to Wapping, the plant was having to function under siege from sacked print workers picketing outside. The Independent attracted some of the staff from the two Murdoch broadsheets who had chosen not to move to his company's new headquarters. Launched with the advertising slogan "It is. Are you?", challenging both The Guardian for centre-left readers and The Times as the newspaper of record, The Independent reached a circulation of over 400,000 by 1989.
Competing in a moribund market, The Independent sparked a general freshening of newspaper design as well as, within a few years, a price war in the market sector. When The Independent launched The Independent on Sunday in 1990, sales were less than anticipated due to the launch of the Sunday Correspondent four months prior, although this direct rival closed at the end of November 1990; some aspects of production merged with the main paper, although the Sunday paper retained a distinct editorial staff. In the 1990s, The Independent was faced with price cutting by the Murdoch titles, started an advertising campaign accusing The Times and The Daily Telegraph of reflecting the views of their proprietors, Rupert Murdoch and Conrad Black, it featured spoofs of the other papers' mastheads with the words The Rupert Murdoch or The Conrad Black, with The Independent below the main title. Newspaper Publishing had financial problems. A number of other media companies were interested in the paper. Tony O'Reilly's media group and Mirror Group Newspapers had bought a stake of about a third each by mid-1994.
In March 1995, Newspaper Publishing was restructured with a rights issue, splitting the shareholding into O'Reilly's Independent News & Media, MGN, Prisa. In April 1996, there was another refinancing, in March 1998, O'Reilly bought the other shares of the company for £30 million, assumed the company's debt. Brendan Hopkins headed Independent News, Andrew Marr was appointed editor of The Independent, Rosie Boycott became editor of The Independent on Sunday. Marr introduced a dramatic if short-lived redesign which won critical favour but was a commercial failure as a result of a limited promotional budget. Marr admitted his changes had been a mistake in My Trade. Boycott left in April 1998 to join the Daily Express, Marr left in May 1998 becoming the BBC's political editor. Simon Kelner was appointed as the editor. By this time the circulation had fallen below 200,000. Independent News spent to increase circulation, the paper went through several redesigns. While circulation increased, it did not approach the level, achieved in 1989, or restore profitability.
Job cuts and financial controls reduced the quality of the product. Ivan Fallon, on the board since 1995 and a key figure at The Sunday Times, replaced Hopkins as head of Independent News & Media in July 2002. By mid-2004, the newspaper was losing £5 million per year. A gradual improvement meant. In November 2008, following further staff cuts, production was moved to Northcliffe House, in Kensington High Street, the headquarters of Associated Newspapers; the two newspaper groups' editorial and commercial operations remained separate, but they shared services including security, information technology and payroll. On 25 March 2010, Independent News & Media sold the newspaper to Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev for a nominal £1 fee and £9.25m over the next 10 months, choosing this option over closing The Independent and The Independent on Sunday, which would have cost £28m and £40m due to long-term contracts. In 2009, Lebedev had bought a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard. Two weeks editor Roger Alton resigned.
In July 2011, The Independent's columnist Johann Hari was stripped of the Orwell Prize he had won in 2008 after claims, to which Hari admitted, of plagiarism and inaccuracy. In January 2012, Chris Blackhurst
Welford Road Stadium
Welford Road is a rugby union stadium in Leicester, is the home ground for Leicester Tigers. The ground was opened on 10 September 1892 and is located between Aylestone Road and Welford Road on the southern edge of the city centre; the ground was developed in two main periods, either side of the First World War stands were built on both sides and between 1995 and 2016 both ends were developed and the north side redeveloped. The stadium has a capacity of 25,849, making it the largest purpose-built club rugby union ground in England, it hosted five full England national team matches between 1902 and 1923, staged a single match at each of the 1991 and 1999 Rugby World Cups. In 1891 Leicester rented a ground in the north of the city, on the Belgrave Road where Roberts Road and Buller Road now stand, called the Belgrave Road Cycle and Cricket Ground, at the end of the 1890/91 season Leicester applied for a renewal of the lease but found the terms unacceptable. A committee was formed to find a suitable new ground and in December 1891 accepted the town corporation's offer of a 10-year lease on the ground between Aylestone Road and Welford Road, at the time this was the edge of the built up town.
The lease was signed in March 1892 and £1,100 was spent leveling and preparing the ground. The ground was opened on 10 September 1892 when Leicester played the first game at the ground against a Leicestershire XV; the first stands accommodated 3,000 spectators and that season saw derby matches produce attendances up to 7,000 whilst 10,000 saw Leicester lose 12-0 to Coventry in the second round of the Midlands Counties Cup. The original club house built in 1909 was located on Aylestone Road, the ground was known as Welford Road rather than Aylestone Road as at this time the cricket club played on another sportsground on the Aylestone Road; the Members' & Crumbie Stands were built just before and just after the First World War respectively. The east side of the ground was developed in 1995 terracing on an ash bank it became an all seater modern stand. Called the Alliance and Leicester Stand it is known as the Mattioli Woods Stand; the total ground capacity is 25,849 after the north stand was redeveloped in 2008 and west stand in 2016.
The newly opened West Stand is a new all seating stand replacing the original 1909 clubhouse and a 1980s extension at the Aylestone Road end. Costing £6.7m the new stand has 2,917 spaces for general admittance & 190 executive seats. Replacing a temporary stand housing 992 places it has brought the capacity of the stadium to 25,849; the stand is known as the Robin Hood Stand due to a sponsorship agreement with Nottingham Building Society. Before redevelopment of Welford Road began in 2008 Leicester Tigers explored many other options. On 23 November 2004 the club announced that it had entered into a 50–50 joint venture with the city's main football club, Leicester City, to purchase City's current ground, King Power Stadium known as the Walkers Stadium. If the purchase had gone through, the Tigers would have surrendered their lease on Welford Road and moved into Walkers Stadium. However, after several months of talks, the two clubs could not agree as to which side would have priority at Walkers Stadium, they ended any ground share plans in July 2005.
Leicester purchased the freehold to the ground and adjacent land in 2006 prior to this the club operated on a long term 99 year rolling lease from the city council. On 11 June 2007 the club announced plans that it was working with AFL, who were involved in redeveloping Manchester United's Old Trafford, for a redevelopment plan which would raise the capacity from 17,498 to 25,000 by 2011. On 20 February 2008 Leicester Tigers received planning consent for the £60million redevelopment of their Welford Road home; the first phase of the development would include space for 10,000 supporters in a new North Stand, taking capacity up from 17,498 to 24,000. After full renovation it will have a capacity of above 30,000. In the summer of 2008 work began on the construction of the new North Stand – called the "Caterpillar Stand" after the club's main sponsor, Caterpillar Inc. known as the Holland and Barrett Stand again due to sponsorship. The work was completed for the first home game of the 2009-10 season against Newcastle Falcons.
The stand has room for 10,000 spectators along with a 1,000 seat hospitality suite. On the ground floor is the Final Whistle bar. An official opening ceremony took place on 6 November 2009 when Tigers beat world champions South Africa. Opened on 19 September 2009 against Newcastle Falcons with a total capacity of 10,000, it was called the Caterpillar Stand but was renamed in 2014 to the MET-Rx Stand after Holland and Barrett became the main sponsors for 2016/17 season they received the naming rights to the North Stand; the first development on the northern side of the ground was a 3,000 seat pavilion moved from the Belgrave Road Cycle and Cricket Ground in 1892, expanded by a further 500 people a year later. This stand was moved to the south side of the ground in 1899 and replaced with a new stand seating 2,020 people. In 1913 work began to replace this stand with the New Members' Stand seating 4,000. With the First World War intervening it was not opened until 1918; this stand was known as the Members' Stand until 1999 when the stand became known as the Next Stand due to a sponsorship from Next plc.
In 2008 the stand was demolished to make room for the current stand. The first development of the south side of the ground was in 1893 when a 600-seat stand was erected, in 1895 a press box was added. In 1899 the Old Members' Stand was moved
The Newcastle Falcons are an English rugby union team that plays in the English Premiership. The club was established in 1877 as the Gosforth Football Club. Around 1882 the club merged with the Northumberland Football Club and assumed their name until 1887. In 1990, the name was changed to Newcastle Gosforth and the club began to play at Kingston Park stadium in Kingston Park, Newcastle upon Tyne. In 1996, following the start of "open era" the club adopted the name Newcastle Rugby Club before adopting its current name; the Falcons are the only professional rugby union club in North East England, with one Premiership and four domestic cups to their name. It boasted a number of home-grown internationals including Jonny Wilkinson, Jamie Noon, Mathew Tait, Toby Flood, Dave Wilson, Geoff Parling, Phil Dowson, Lee Dickson, Kieran Brookes and Mark Wilson, their northern rivals in the Premiership are Sale Sharks and in the European Champions Cup are Edinburgh Rugby. Gosforth Football Club Northumberland Football Club.
Gosforth Football Club. Newcastle Gosforth Newcastle Rugby Club. Newcastle Falcons The original Gosforth Football Club was founded in 1877 by a group of Old Boys of Durham School, in whose colours of green and white hoops the club played until the mid-1990s; the name Gosforth came from one of the suburbs of Newcastle upon Tyne. In 1955, the club moved to a new ground at North Road, to be its home until 1990. During that time and in the late 1970s Gosforth enjoyed tremendous success both on and off the field winning the John Player Cup in seasons 1975–76 and 1976–77. Gosforth supplied innumerable players to all counties over the years, to the North of England sides and to the full international and British Lions teams; these include Arthur Smith, Ray McLoughlin, Malcolm Young, Roger Uttley, Peter Dixon, Duncan Madsen, Dave Robinson, Richard Breakey, Jim Pollock and Colin White. In 1990 the club name was changed to Newcastle Gosforth and they moved to Kingston Park. Gosforth Rugby Football Club continued as an amateur side working in partnership with Northumbria University and play at Druid Park.
For the 1996–97 season the new name of Newcastle Falcons and new black-and-white colours were adopted, after local businessman Sir John Hall took control and attempted to create a sporting club in Newcastle that would emulate the success of the Barcelona model. The four teams that made up that sporting club were the football team, nicknamed the Magpies, the Newcastle Eagles basketball team, the Newcastle Wasps ice hockey team and the Newcastle Falcons rugby union team. Newcastle was the first "professional" club in the world. In 1995, Sir John Hall installed former Wasps captain Rob Andrew as his salaried Director of Rugby and saw the club earn promotion from the national Second Division to the Premiership; the following season, Newcastle became English Premiership champions at their first attempt in 1997–98. Alongside Andrew, the Championship winning side starred cross-code All Black and Rugby League legend Inga Tuigamala, Scotland legend Doddie Weir, England star Tony Underwood and Irish Lions star Alan Tait and youngster Jonny Wilkinson.
During the following 1998–99 season Newcastle didn't play in Europe, as English teams did not take part, but the Falcons did go on to the Tetley's Bitter Cup final against Wasps, lost 29–19. In 1999, Rob Andrew retired allowing for 20-year-old international Jonny Wilkinson to assume the fly half role full-time. Andrew would remain as Director of Rugby. Hall sold the Falcons for a'nominal' sum in 1999 to local businessman Dave Thompson, under whom the Falcons won two Powergen Cups: in 2001 the Falcons beat Harlequins FC 30–27. In 2004, legendary Wallabies full-back Matt Burke signed for the Falcons. For the Falcons, Burke played alongside former English rival Jonny Wilkinson. In Wilkinson, England international Dave Walder and emerging future England number 10 Toby Flood the Falcons had great competition for kicking duties over the coming seasons. During the 2004–05 season the Falcons recorded their best Heineken Cup performance to date by winning their pool and progressing to a quarter-final tie against Stade Français in the Parc des Princes.
In August 2005 Falcons toured Japan pre-season. They beat NEC Green Rockets but lost to a fired-up Toyota Verblitz. In August 2006 Rob Andrew left the Falcons to take charge of the England set-up ahead of the 2007 World Cup in a wide-ranging role that encompasses all aspects of the professional representative game in England. John Fletcher succeeded Rob Andrew as director of rugby at Newcastle Falcons with immediate effect. Fletcher, a former England A centre, had been the club's academy boss and he headed up a team of Peter Walton, Steve Black and Bob Morton, with ex-Falcons prop Ian Peel taking over as acting academy manager; the season began with high hopes as All-Black prop Carl Hayman signed for the Falcons as the highest paid Rugby Union player in the world. The season was the beginning of a downward spiral for the Falcons. On 11 March 2008, Fletcher and Walton left the club by mutual consent, following Black who had left a couple of months earlier. Steve Bates took over as interim director of rugby until summer 2008.
Dave Thompson stated at that time that nine years of underachievement were the reason for the departure of John Fle
St Helens R.F.C.
St Helens R. F. C. is a professional rugby league club in St Helens, Merseyside who compete in the Super League, the top tier of competition for rugby league in Europe. Formed in 1873, St Helens are one of the 22 original members of the Northern Rugby Football Union and have been league champions on 13 occasions. St Helens are the third most successful side in the Challenge Cup with 12 wins in 21 Final appearances. St Helens are founding members of the Super League and are one of only four teams to have appeared in every season since its creation in 1996. Since 1961 the club's home colours have been white, with a red "V" on the jersey. St Helens play their home games at the Totally Wicked Stadium in St Helens, having moved from their previous home, Knowsley Road, in 2012. St Helens are one of the oldest members of the Rugby Football League. Founded as St Helens Football Club on 19 November 1873 at the Fleece Hotel by William Douglas Herman, they played their first match on 31 January 1874 against Liverpool Royal Infirmary.
They became known as St Helens Rangers up until the 1880s. The club moved from the City Ground in 1890 where they had shared with St Helens Recs when neither were members of the Northern Rugby Football Union, they defeated Manchester Rangers in the first match played at Knowsley Road. In 1895 the club were one of 22 clubs that resigned from the Rugby Football Union and established the Northern Union; the first match of the new code was an 8—3 win at home to Rochdale Hornets before 3,000 spectators, Bob Doherty scoring St Helens' first try. They played in a vertically striped blue and white jersey—a stark contrast to the well known broad red band which would become the kit for the club later; the club reverted to this kit for one season during the rugby league centenary season in 1995. The Challenge Cup was launched in 1897 and it was St Helens who contested its first final with Batley, at Headingley, Leeds; the "Gallant Youths" of Batley emerged victorious 10—3, with Dave "Red" Traynor scoring the lone St Helens' try.
Between 1897 and 1901, St Helens were not successful generally considered a mid—table side. They finished second to bottom in the 1900—01 Lancashire League season, meaning they did not qualify to compete in the national league the year later. In the 1901—02 season, they did finish third in the Lancashire league. In 1902 -- 03, the combined Lancashire and Yorkshire leagues saw. St Helens finished next to bottom and suffered relegation. Promotion was gained at the 1st attempt, only for another poor year to see them finish once again in a relegation position; however the two Divisions became one League to save the club from a 2nd relegation. The Champion fortunes that St Helens fans' greet today were not apparent in this period, with the club finishing fourth to bottom in 1907, third to bottom in 1908, mid—table between 1909 and 1913. On 14 June 1913, St Helens Recs joined the Northern Union after defecting from rugby union and association football; the Recs were based individually at the City Road ground, after sharing with St Helens, before their move to Knowsley Road, when neither played rugby league.
The Recs played their first game on 6 September 1913. St Helens now had two professional rugby league teams. In both sides first year in co—existence, St Helens finished yet again in a disappointing low mid—table finish. During the First World War, St Helens struggled to compete and failed to complete the full fixture list of the Emergency War League on two occasions, with the club finishing mid—table in the first year of the war, as well as being beaten by 37 points to 3 by Huddersfield in that year's Challenge Cup Final; the aftermath of the war was still taking its toll on national sport, not the club's ability to compete and complete fixtures, on 31 Jan 1918'close down' due to a lack of finances following a 22-0 defeat by Widnes. Saints re-open on 25 December 1918 and are beaten 20 points to nil by St Helens Recs in a friendly fixture at City Road. In the shortened 1918—1919 season, St Helens played only nine times; the clubs lack of success and disappointing league finishes continued for another seven seasons.
The club defeated town rivals the Recs in the Lancashire County Cup Final by 10 points to 2 in the 1926–27 season. The season after, they were trophyless. One year after the Challenge Cup's début at Wembley, St Helens reached the final there where they were defeated by 10 points to 3 by Widnes in 1930, they won their first National Championship in the 1931–32 season, defeating Huddersfield 9—5 in the final. This was the same season that they won their second Lancashire League, the first coming in the 1929–30 season, they lost the 1933 Lancashire Cup Final to Warrington, whilst finishing in no competitive position in the league once more. St Helens achieved any more honours during the remainder of the 1930s. What appeared to be building as something of an inter—town derby between the two St Helens clubs was struck down as St Helens Recs played their last game on 29 April 1939, as, due to the economic depression, it was not possible for the town to sustain two teams. Like during the First World War, the club could not enjoy having a full—time squad during the Second World War and struggled to compete.
They did not compete in the National Championship until a 17 team Emergency War League was formed in the 1941—42 season, did not win any regional honours. They finished bottom of the EWL in seasons 1942—43 and 1943—44 and next-to-bottom in 1944—45; the club's fortunes that had seen them be successful so the decade previous did not change in the 1940s. After the commitments of the Second World War, St Helens still found it hard to compete, the tren
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field. One of the two codes of rugby, it originated in Northern England in 1895 as a split from the Rugby Football Union over the issue of payments to players, its rules progressively changed with the aim of producing a faster, more entertaining game for spectators. In rugby league, points are scored by carrying the ball and touching it to the ground beyond the opposing team's goal line; the opposing team attempts to stop the attacking side scoring points by tackling the player carrying the ball. In addition to tries, points can be scored by kicking goals. After each try, the scoring team gains a free kick to try at goal with a conversion for further points. Kicks at goal may be awarded for penalties, field goals can be attempted at any time. Rugby league is the national sport of Papua New Guinea, is a popular sport in Northern England, the states of Queensland and New South Wales in Australia, South Auckland in New Zealand, southwest France and Lebanon.
The Super League and the National Rugby League are the premier club competitions. Rugby league is played internationally, predominantly by European and Pacific Island countries, is governed by the Rugby League International Federation; the first Rugby League World Cup was held in France in 1954. Rugby league football takes its name from the bodies that split to create a new form of rugby, distinct from that run by the Rugby Football Unions, in Britain and New Zealand between 1895 and 1908; the first of these, the Northern Rugby Football Union, was established in 1895 as a breakaway faction of England's Rugby Football Union. Both organisations played the game under the same rules at first, although the Northern Union began to modify rules immediately, thus creating a new faster, stronger paced form of rugby football. Similar breakaway factions split from RFU-affiliated unions in Australia and New Zealand in 1907 and 1908, renaming themselves "rugby football leagues" and introducing Northern Union rules.
In 1922, the Northern Union changed its name to the Rugby Football League and thus over time the sport itself became known as "rugby league" football. In 1895, a schism in Rugby football resulted in the formation of the Northern Rugby Football Union. Although many factors played a part in the split, including the success of working class northern teams, the main division was caused by the RFU decision to enforce the amateur principle of the sport, preventing "broken time payments" to players who had taken time off work to play rugby. Northern teams had more working class players who could not afford to play without this compensation, in contrast to affluent southern teams who had other sources of income to sustain the amateur principle. In 1895, a decree by the RFU banning the playing of rugby at grounds where entrance fees were charged led to twenty-two clubs meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield on 29 August 1895 and forming the "Northern Rugby Football Union". Within fifteen years of that first meeting in Huddersfield, more than 200 RFU clubs had left to join the rugby revolution.
In 1897, the line-out was in 1898 professionalism introduced. In 1906, the Northern Union changed its rules, reducing teams from 15 to 13 a side and replacing the ruck formed after every tackle with the play the ball. A similar schism to that which occurred in England took place in Australia. There, on 8 August 1907 the New South Wales Rugby Football League was founded at Bateman's Hotel in George Street. Rugby league went on to displace rugby union as the primary football code in New South Wales and Queensland. On 5 May 1954 over 100,000 spectators watched the 1953–54 Challenge Cup Final at Odsal Stadium, England, setting a new record for attendance at a rugby football match of either code. In 1954 the Rugby League World Cup, the first for either code of rugby, was formed at the instigation of the French. In 1966, the International Board introduced a rule that a team in possession was allowed three play-the-balls and on the fourth tackle a scrum was to be formed; this was increased to six tackles in 1972 and in 1983 the scrum was replaced by a handover.
1967 saw. The first sponsors, Joshua Tetley and John Player, entered the game for the 1971–72 Northern Rugby Football League season. Television would have an enormous impact on the sport of rugby league in the 1990s when Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation sought worldwide broadcasting rights and refused to take no for an answer; the media giant's "Super League" movement saw big changes for the traditional administrators of the game. In Europe, it resulted in a move from a winter sport to a summer one as the new Super League competition tried to expand its market. In Australasia, the Super League war resulted in long and costly legal battles and changing loyalties, causing significant damage to the code in an competitive sporting market. In 1997 two competitions were run alongside each other in Australia, after which a peace deal in the form of the National Rugby League was formed; the NRL has since become recognised as the sport's flagship competition and since that time has set record TV ratings and crowd figures.
The objective in rugby league is to score more points through tries and field goals than the opposition within the 80 minutes of play. If after two halves of play, each consisting of forty minutes, the two teams are drawing, a draw may be declar
Whitehaven is a town and port on the west coast of Cumbria, near the Lake District National Park in England. In Cumberland, it lies by road 38 miles south-west of Carlisle and 45 miles to the north of Barrow-in-Furness, it is the administrative seat of Borough of Copeland district council, has a town council for the parish of Whitehaven. The population of the town was 23,986 at the 2011 census; the town's growth was due to the exploitation of the extensive coal measures by the Lowther family, driving a growing export of coal through the harbour from the 17th century onwards. It was a major port for trading with the American colonies, was, after London, the second busiest port of England by tonnage from 1750 to 1772; this prosperity led to the creation of a Georgian planned town in the 18th century which has left an architectural legacy of over 170 listed buildings and Whitehaven has been designated a "Gem Town" due to the historic quality of the town environment. Whitehaven was the site of a major chemical industry after World War II, but both that and the coal industry have disappeared, today the major industry is the nearby Sellafield nuclear complex, the largest local employer of labour and has a significant administrative base in the town.
Whitehaven includes a number of former villages and suburbs, such as Mirehouse, Woodhouse and Hensingham, is served by the Cumbrian coast railway line and the A595 road. Although there was a Roman fort at Parton, around 1.2 miles to the north, there is no evidence of a Roman settlement on the site of the present town of Whitehaven. The area was settled by Irish-Norse Vikings in the 10th century; the area name of Copeland, which includes Whitehaven, indicates that the land was purchased from the Kingdom of Strathclyde with loot from Ireland. Following the arrival of the Normans, in about 1120 St Bees Priory was founded by William de Meschin, granted a large tract of land from the coast at Whitehaven to the river Keekle, south down the River Ehen to the sea; this included the small fishing village of Whitehaven. Following Henry VIII's dissolution of the priory in 1539, ownership of this estate passed through a number of secular landlords until it passed into the hands of the Lowther family in the 17th century.
Whitehaven was a township within the "Preston Quarter" of the parish of St Bees. and the town's churches were chapels-of-ease of St Bees until 1835 when three ecclesiastical districts were created in Whitehaven. The modern growth of Whitehaven started with the purchase by Sir Christopher Lowther of the Whitehaven estate in 1630 and the subsequent development of the port and the mines. In 1634 he built a stone pier providing shelter and access for shipping, enabling the export of coal from the Cumberland Coalfield to Ireland, a key event in the growth of the town, which grew from a small fishing village to an industrial port. In 1642, the manor of St. Bees was inherited by Sir John Lowther, 2nd Baronet, of Whitehaven, who developed the town of Whitehaven, its coal industry and the trade with Ireland, he oversaw the rise of Whitehaven from a small fishing village to a planned town three times the size of Carlisle. At his death the'port of Whitehaven' had 77 registered vessels, totalling about four thousand tons, was exporting over 35,000 tons of coal a year.
Whitehaven's growing prosperity was based on tobacco. By 1685, there were ships bringing tobacco from the British colonies of Virginia and Pennsylvania in America, by the early 18th century about 10% of England's tobacco imports passed through Whitehaven. By the middle of the 18th century it was the third port in England for tobacco imports; the tobacco was sold in the domestic market or re-exported to Ireland and Holland, etc. However, after the Acts of Union 1707 uniting England with Scotland, thereby abolishing excise between them, the port of Glasgow began to take over Whitehaven's tobacco trade, leading to the creation of Glasgow's Tobacco Lords. By the second half of the 18th century there was a marked decline in shipping of tobacco via Whitehaven, by 1820 the Customs Collector did not mention tobacco in his report on Whitehaven. Daniel Defoe visited Whitehaven in the 1720s, wrote that the town had: "grown up from a small place to be considerable by the coal trade, that it is now the most eminent port in England for shipping off of coals, except Newcastle and Sunderland and beyond the last.
They have of late fallen into some merchandising occasioned by the strange great number of their shipping, there are now some considerable merchants. To replace the tobacco trade Whitehaven turned to importing sugar from Barbados, cotton wool from Antigua and coffee and cocoa from St Lucia. There is little evidence to suggest. Due to the coal trade Whitehaven was, after London, the second port of England in terms of tonnage of shipping from 1750 to 1772. By 1835 Whitehaven was still the fifth placed port, with 443 ships registered, but by the end of the 19th century only 68 vessels were registered. During the 19th century the port of Whitehaven was overtaken by Bristol and Glasgow, as they had better deep water dock facilities, were closer to large centres of population and industry; the huge development of a national railway network had reduced Whitehaven's 18th century competitive advantage of having coal extracted close to a harbour for shipment by sea. The earliest reference to coal mining in the Whitehaven area is in the time of Prior Langton o
Mark John Cueto is a former English international rugby union player. He played on the wing for Sale England, he is the second leading try scorer in the Aviva Premiership. On 28 January 2015, it was announced Cueto was to retire at the end of the 2014-15 season He owes his surname to a Spaniard great-grandfather Antonio, who sailed from Santander in the 1900s and settled in Maryport, where he set up a fish-and-chip shop, his Cumbrian home town of Workington is in an area more associated with rugby league than union. Although he played his first rugby game as an eight-year-old in Workington, played after he moved with his parents to Wolverhampton, he did not grow up playing the game; when he was 10 years old, his parents moved again to Crewe, where he took up football instead of rugby, becoming a keen Manchester United fan. He did not play rugby again until he was 17, his early clubs were Altrincham Kersal. When he was 17 and in his final A-level year at Alsager Comprehensive, there was the annual rugby match against Holmes Chapel.
It was an occasion of no great importance. Holmes Chapel had a reasonable team, but rugby players were thin on the ground at Alsager and there was not much debate about the result. To make up a team, Alsager teacher Lindsay Purcell recruited a number of footballers. Cueto was one of those press-ganged into service, though when it came to sport he was persuaded. Football was number one but he had done athletics, basketball and cricket. Cueto is married to Suzie from Corby in Northamptonshire, who works in the Manchester United FC hospitality department, she gave birth to a baby boy called Max, their first child, on 6 August 2010. They live together in Altrincham, he is a graduate of Manchester Metropolitan University. Cueto made his début for Sale Sharks against Bristol Shoguns in 2001 and made the England tour to Argentina in 2002, playing against Argentina A. Cueto saw success at club level in his first five years at the club, winning the European Challenge Cup twice, first in 2002 when Sale beat Pontypridd 25–22 at the Kassam Stadium on 26 May 2002.
He was part of the Sale team that beat Pau, the champions in 2000, by 27 points to 3 at the Kassam Stadium on 21 May 2005. Cueto scored a try in the victory. Cueto helped Sale Sharks to top the league in the 2005–06 season and carry that form through to win the season ending play-offs, scoring a try as they beat Leicester Tigers in the final, to become Premiership champions for the first time. In May 2010, Cueto was voted into Sale Shark's Hall of Fame, he played his 150th match for Sale in their 54–21 defeat to Leicester in late December 2010. A few days Cueto was appointed club captain by the new coach Pete Anglesea. Cueto was Sale's sixth captain of the season. In April, Cueto was banned by the Rugby Football Union for nine weeks after pleading guilty to "making contact with the eye or eye area"; the incident occurred in a match against Northampton on 2 April. At the start of the 2011/12 season, in August, Cueto was replaced as Sale captain, with Sam Tuitupou taking over role. On 8 February 2013 Cueto broke the Premiership try scoring record of 75 by Steve Hanley, touching down for his 76th try in a 21-16 comeback win over Exeter.
Cueto was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2016 New Year Honours for services to rugby union. Cueto represented England in the 2000–01 World Sevens Series. Cueto appears alongside All Blacks captain Richie McCaw on the cover of the United Kingdom version of the EA Sports game Rugby 08, he was not selected for the full England squad during Clive Woodward's time as head coach, having to wait until November 2004 for his début against Canada at Twickenham, when he scored two tries. In 2005, he was called up to the British and Irish Lions for their New Zealand tour after original selection Iain Balshaw was ruled out due to injury, he featured in the third Test at Auckland. Cueto was a prominent member of England's 2007 Rugby World Cup in France, he started the first match of England's defence of the title at Full-back against the USA. He played in England's embarrassing 36–0 defeat to South Africa. Having been dropped for the next match against Samoa, he was installed to the English defence for the encounter with Tonga, which ensured England's progression through to the quarter-final stage.
He was left out of the surprise quarter-final victory against Australia and the more surprising semi-final victory over France due to a niggling injury. During the semi-final, England wing Josh Lewsey suffered a pulled hamstring and was forced to miss the final. Cueto was selected to take his place for the 2007 final against previous pool opponents, South Africa, his participation in the match became memorable when he was denied a try in the second half of the match by Australian television match official Stuart Dickinson. After a great deal of deliberation over real-time footage Dickinson disallowed the try on the basis of Cueto's left foot entering touch before the ball was grounded; this was not obvious and Cueto's left leg was subsequently raised within the boundary of play, travelling over it after the ball was on the ground. A division of opinion still exists, although most experts including BBC Radio 5 Live presenter Ian Robertson subsequently backed