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Maggie Nichols (gymnast)

Margaret Mary "Maggie" Nichols is an American collegiate artistic gymnast for the University of Oklahoma. She was the ninth NCAA gymnast to complete a Gym Slam, the first to do so for Oklahoma, the first NCAA gymnast to have achieved it twice. Nichols represented the United States in international competitions, including the 2015 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships, where she won a gold medal with the American team and an individual bronze medal on floor exercise. At the USA Gymnastics National Championships, she was the bronze medalist in the all-around and on uneven bars and floor exercise in 2014 and the silver medalist in the all-around in 2015. Before a knee injury in early 2016, she was a contender for the U. S. women's gymnastics team at the 2016 Summer Olympics. Nichols was added to the national team in March and was selected to represent the United States at the City of Jesolo Trophy and the Germany-Romania-USA Friendly. At the City of Jesolo Trophy, she finished first with the team and sixth in the all-around, won a silver medal on the floor exercise.

At the U. S. Classic, Nichols finished sixth in the all-around, eleventh on uneven bars, eighth on balance beam, fifth on floor. At the National Championships, she placed fifth in the all-around and on beam, sixth on bars, ninth on floor. At her second City of Jesolo Trophy, Nichols finished first with the team and third in the all-around. At the Tokyo Cup, she finished third in the all-around, she went on to place third in the all-around and on floor at the U. S. Classic, fifth on uneven bars, seventh on balance beam. At the National Championships in August, she placed third in the all-around behind Simone Biles and Kyla Ross, third on uneven bars and floor exercise, fourth on balance beam. Nichols helped the United States finish first at the Pan American Gymnastics Championships in Mississauga and placed third in the all-around competition with a score of 55.500. However, she dislocated her kneecap on floor exercise during the team final and withdrew from the selection camp for the 2014 World Championships team.

At the City of Jesolo Trophy, Nichols seventh in the all-around. On July 25, she competed at the Secret U. S. Classic and finished third in the all-around, behind two-time reigning world all-around champion Simone Biles and 2012 Olympic all-around champion Gabby Douglas, she debuted her Amanar vault, scoring 15.80. The following month, Nichols competed at the 2015 P&G Championships in Indianapolis. On the first night of competition, she led for the first three rotations, scoring 15.80 for her Amanar vault. Her all-around total for the night was 1.400 points behind Biles. On night two, she began on bars with a 14.8. During her beam warmup, she fell on her full-twisting double back dismount and decided to change it to a simpler double pike, she scored a 14.65, higher than her score on night one despite losing three-tenths in start value. On floor, she stumbled out of bounds on her double-double mount, incurring a three-tenth deduction, scored a low 14.15. She finished the competition on vault, where she scored 15.85 to finish in second place with a two-night total of 119.150.

At the 2015 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships, Nichols competed on vault and floor in the preliminary round. During the team final, she competed on all four events, contributing an all-around total of 59.232 toward the U. S. women's gold-medal finish. She qualified for the floor event final where she earned a bronze medal. Nichols competed at the 2016 AT&T American Cup on March 5, scoring 59.699 to place second behind Gabby Douglas. Afterward, U. S. national team coordinator Márta Károlyi said, "Maggie showed again that I can rely on her". This competition cemented Nichols as a contender for the 2016 Olympic team. A month Nichols tore her meniscus while training her Amanar vault and had to withdraw from the 2016 Pacific Rim Gymnastics Championships in Seattle, she was out of competition for two months. In June, she returned to competition at the P&G Gymnastics Championships, she performed only on the uneven bars and balance beam, finishing 13th and 10th and advanced to the 2016 Olympic Trials in July.

There, she finished sixth in the all-around, fifth on vault, ninth on uneven bars, eighth on balance beam, fourth on floor. She was not chosen as an alternate athlete. Marta explained the reason she was not chosen as an alternate, was that while she had performed well at the Trials, her score was not in the top 3 on any event which made her of no possible benefit in a team final format. A few days after the conclusion of the Olympic Trials on July 13, 2016, Nichols announced her retirement from elite gymnastics via Instagram and interview, said she was taking time to rest before starting her NCAA career at the University of Oklahoma in August. Nichols committed to the Oklahoma Sooners women's gymnastics team in 2015 with a full athletic scholarship. In the 2016–2017 season, as a freshman majoring in health and exercise science, she made the competitive lineup on all four events and scored at least one perfect 10 on each; as of Week 5, she led the NCAA standings in all the all-around. She finished the regular season in first place in the all-around, ahead of Utah's MyKayla Skinner.

Meira Chand

Meira Chand is a novelist of Swiss-Indian parentage and was born and educated in London. She grew up in South London, her mother, Norah Knoble was of Swiss origin, her Indian father, Habans Lal Gulati came to London in 1919 to study medicine. He was Britain’s first Indian GP, a pioneer of early NHS services and the Socialist Medical Association, first Indian Labour member of the London County Council for South Battersea, standing as a parliamentary candidate, she attended Putney High School and studied art at St Martin’s School of Art & Design and Hammersmith Art School. In 1962 she married Kumar Chand, went with him to live in the Kobe/Osaka region of Japan. In 1971 she relocated with her husband and two children to Mumbai in India, but returned to Japan in 1976, she remained in Japan until 1997 when she moved to Singapore, where she now permanently lives, becoming a Singapore citizen in 2011. She has an MA in Creative Writing from Edith Cowan University, Australia, a PhD in Creative Writing from the University of Western Australia.

Five of her eight novels are set in Japan, The Gossamer Fly, Last Quadrant, The Bonsai Tree, The Painted Cage and A Choice of Evils, a novel of the Pacific war, that explores the Japanese occupation of China, questions of war guilt and responsibility. Contemporary India is the location of House of the Sun that, in 1990, was adapted for the stage in London where it had a successful run at Theatre Royal Stratford East, it was the first Asian play with an all-Asian direction to be performed in London. The play was voted Critic’s Choice by Time Out magazine. Set in India, but in Calcutta during the early days of the Raj, A Far Horizon considers the notorious story of the Black Hole of Calcutta. Written after her move to Singapore, A Different Sky takes place against the backdrop of colonial times before independence in the country. Based on meticulous historical research, the novel follows the lives of three families in the 30 years leading up to Singapore’s independence; the book fictionally examines an era that includes the Second World War and the subsequent Japanese occupation of Singapore, the rise of post-war nationalism in Malaya.

On its publication in 2010 it was chosen as a Book of the Month by the UK bookshop chain Waterstones. The novel was on Oprah Winfrey’s recommended reading list for November 2011, long listed for the Impac Dublin literary award 2012, she wrote the story from which The LKY Musical, the 2015 smash hit Singaporean theatre production was developed with a team of international artists. A tale of high drama, betrayal and loyalty, the musical centres on the early life of Lee Kuan Yew, his struggles and enduring relationship with his wife, it offers insights into the emotional conflict faced by Singapore’s founder and his friends at a time when the island’s history balanced on a knife-edge. In Singapore she is involved in many programmes to nurture young writers and to develop literature and promote the joy of reading; the Gossamer Fly ISBN 978-0-89919-002-0 Last Quadrant ISBN 978-0-89919-079-2 The Bonsai Tree ISBN 978-0-7195-4007-3 The Painted Cage ISBN 978-0-7126-1274-6 House of the Sun ISBN 978-0-09-174003-0 A Choice of Evils ISBN 978-0-297-81743-7 A Far Horizon ISBN 978-0-297-81748-2 A Different Sky ISBN 978-1-84655-343-1 Sacred Waters ISBN 978-981-4779-50-0 About Meira. Meira Chand. Retrieved 18 August 2009. National Library Distinguished Readers. National Library Board Singapore. Retrieved 18 August 2009. House of the Sun Tour Schedule. Tamasha. Retrieved 21 March 2015. Meira Chand's website

William Gibson (Australian politician)

William Gerrand Gibson was an Australian politician. He was the first member of the Country Party elected to federal parliament, serving in the House of Representatives and as a Senator for Victoria, he was the party's deputy leader from 1923 to 1929 and was a government minister in the Bruce–Page Government. Gibson was born on 19 May 1869 in Victoria, his parents Grace and David Gibson were both born in Scotland, arrived in Victoria in 1860. His younger brother David became a member of parliament. Gibson was educated locally, worked with his father for a period before acquiring his own farm, he married Mary Helen Young Paterson on 4 November 1896 at Riddells Creek. As well as farming, Gibson established himself as a merchant, running general stores at Romsey and Lancefield, he was president of the Romsey and West Bourke Agricultural Society and the local branch of the Australian Natives Association. In 1910, Gibson bought a subdivision of Gnarpurt, James Chester Manifold's property near Lismore in the Western District.

He subsequently established a successful grazing property, with his brother David taking up land nearby in Cressy. He was elected manager of the Western Plains Co-operative Society in 1911. In 1916, Victorian farmers became suspicious of price-fixing of the price of wheat under the War Precautions Act and established the Victorian Farmers' Union in response and Gibson was elected secretary of its Lismore branch, his brother, David Havelock, won the Victorian Legislative Assembly seat of Grenville for the union in 1917. At a 1918 by-election, he won the federal seat of Corangamite for the Farmers' Union, defeating James Scullin on preferences, it was the first win for. In February 1920, when parliament resumed after the 1919 federal election, Gibson chaired the inaugural meeting of the parliamentary Country Party, which saw William McWilliams elected unopposed as leader, he pressed for regulated wheat and dairy prices to be raised until the abolition of price controls in 1921. He was Postmaster-General from 1923 to 1929, encouraged the construction of telephone lines, the extension of roadside mail deliveries and the building of post offices in country districts.

He encouraged the development of radio broadcasting. In 1928, he was appointed Minister for Railways, as well. Gibson was returned to farming, he won Corangamite back at the 1931 elections, but Joseph Lyons did not take the Country Party into his ministry. At the 1934 elections, he was elected to the Senate and he remained a senator until he retired in 1947. Gibson was elected to the Senate on a joint ticket with the UAP, with the support of the Victorian state executive of the Country Party; this was opposed by the federal executive, which endorsed the sitting Country Party senator Robert Elliott. Gibson took his seat on 1 July 1935 as a member of the Country Party. However, on 23 September the parliamentary party voted to expel him, he subsequently sat as an "Independent Country" senator. He was not re-admitted to the party until November 1939, when the new leader Archie Cameron invited him to rejoin. In 1941, Gibson was elected chair of the Joint Committee on Wireless Broadcasting, which came to be known as the Gibson Committee due to his "vigorous leadership".

Its report led to the passage of the Broadcasting Act 1942 by the Curtin Government. Gibson retired to "Cluan", his home in Lismore, in retirement enjoyed fishing and golf, he died at the Lismore Bush Nursing Hospital on 22 May 1955, aged 86. He was survived by his son David and daughter Margaret, having been widowed in 1944, his daughter Grace died in 1946 at the age of 48.

Rio Grande Valley State Park

The Rio Grande Valley State Park is a park located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, established in 1983. Although named "State Park" this open space is managed by various local and federal agencies, as well as other organizations; the Rio Grande Valley State Park is made up of 4,300 acres of land along both sides of the Rio Grande stretching from the Sandia Pueblo in the north, south to the Isleta Pueblo. The bosque, or woods, is the local name for the floodplain cottonwood ecosystem that dominates the area; the RGVSP is an area used for public recreation and includes sandy, forested trails, the paved Paseo del Bosque Multi-use Trail and constructed ponds and wetlands within and adjacent to the forest. There are several access points throughout the Albuquerque and surrounding area which offer parking, designated picnic areas, vault toilets, trash receptacles. People may enjoy the park by bicycle, or on horseback. Dogs on leash, under direct control of their owners are permitted: please clean up after your pet to protect the health of the ecosystem and all those who depend on it and enjoy it daily.

Several agencies manage sites within and adjacent to the park that provide engagement with the local ecosystem and its resident plants and animals. The Paseo del Bosque Trail is a 16 mile paved pedestrian/bicycle/equestrian trail parallel to the Rio Grande. Constructed in the 1970s, it runs between the north and south edges of the metro area of Albuquerque, in the bosque on the east side of the river, connects several picnic areas, the Rio Grande Valley State Park, the Rio Grande Nature Center State Park, the Albuquerque Biological Park, the National Hispanic Cultural Center; the trail has been named one of the "best bike trails in the West" by Sunset Magazine. It is a popular equestrian trail, with trailhead parking adequate for horse trailers. In the North Valley, on the west side of the connecting Los Ranchos open space just north of Paseo del Norte, is a feed store, a rare welcome for through-travelers on horseback; the main trail is paved, in the Corrales Bosque segment there is a parallel ditchbank dirt trail, these two trails connected by many short cross trails.

Some bicycle riders like to ride fast here, noting the fun of tight blind curves, while others note that this is not safe. Some plants here have thorns that will puncture bicycle tires and sometimes hiking shoes; these are most abundant on side trails. The trail is the nucleus of the proposed Rio Grande Trail. Rio Grande Valley State Park Paseo del Bosque Trail Trail map

Penrose tiling

A Penrose tiling is an example of an aperiodic tiling. Here, a tiling is a covering of the plane by non-overlapping polygons or other shapes, aperiodic means that shifting any tiling with these shapes by any finite distance, without rotation, cannot produce the same tiling. However, despite their lack of translational symmetry, Penrose tilings may have both reflection symmetry and fivefold rotational symmetry. Penrose tilings are named after mathematician and physicist Roger Penrose, who investigated them in the 1970s. There are several different variations of Penrose tilings with different tile shapes; the original form of Penrose tiling used tiles of four different shapes, but this was reduced to only two shapes: either two different rhombi, or two different quadrilaterals called kites and darts. The Penrose tilings are obtained by constraining the ways in which these shapes are allowed to fit together; this may be done in several different ways, including matching rules, substitution tiling or finite subdivision rules and project schemes, coverings.

Constrained in this manner, each variation yields infinitely many different Penrose tilings. Penrose tilings are self-similar: they may be converted to equivalent Penrose tilings with different sizes of tiles, using processes called inflation and deflation; the pattern represented by every finite patch of tiles in a Penrose tiling occurs infinitely many times throughout the tiling. They are quasicrystals: implemented as a physical structure a Penrose tiling will produce diffraction patterns with Bragg peaks and five-fold symmetry, revealing the repeated patterns and fixed orientations of its tiles; the study of these tilings has been important in the understanding of physical materials that form quasicrystals. Penrose tilings have been applied in architecture and decoration, as in the floor tiling shown. Covering a flat surface with some pattern of geometric shapes, with no overlaps or gaps, is called a tiling; the most familiar tilings, such as covering a floor with squares meeting edge-to-edge, are examples of periodic tilings.

If a square tiling is shifted by the width of a tile, parallel to the sides of the tile, the result is the same pattern of tiles as before the shift. A shift that preserves the tiling in this way is called a period of the tiling; the tiles in the square tiling have only one shape, it is common for other tilings to have only a finite number of shapes. These shapes are called prototiles, a set of prototiles is said to admit a tiling or tile the plane if there is a tiling of the plane using only these shapes; that is, each tile in the tiling must be congruent to one of these prototiles. A tiling that has no periods is non-periodic. A set of prototiles is said to be aperiodic if all of its tilings are non-periodic, in this case its tilings are called aperiodic tilings. Penrose tilings are among the simplest known examples of aperiodic tilings of the plane by finite sets of prototiles; the subject of aperiodic tilings received new interest in the 1960s when logician Hao Wang noted connections between decision problems and tilings.

In particular, he introduced tilings by square plates with colored edges, now known as Wang dominoes or tiles, posed the "Domino Problem": to determine whether a given set of Wang dominoes could tile the plane with matching colors on adjacent domino edges. He observed that if this problem were undecidable there would have to exist an aperiodic set of Wang dominoes. At the time, this seemed implausible, so Wang conjectured no such set could exist. Wang's student Robert Berger proved that the Domino Problem was undecidable in his 1964 thesis, obtained an aperiodic set of 20426 Wang dominoes, he described a reduction to 104 such prototiles. The color matching required in a tiling by Wang dominoes can be achieved by modifying the edges of the tiles like jigsaw puzzle pieces so that they can fit together only as prescribed by the edge colorings. Raphael Robinson, in a 1971 paper which simplified Berger's techniques and undecidability proof, used this technique to obtain an aperiodic set of just six prototiles.

The first Penrose tiling is an aperiodic set of six prototiles, introduced by Roger Penrose in a 1974 paper, but it is based on pentagons rather than squares. Any attempt to tile the plane with regular pentagons leaves gaps, but Johannes Kepler showed, in his 1619 work Harmonices Mundi, that these gaps can be filled using pentagrams and related shapes. Traces of these ideas can be found in the work of Albrecht Dürer. Acknowledging inspiration from Kepler, Penrose found matching rules for these shapes, obtaining an aperiodic set, his tiling can be viewed as a completion of Kepler's finite Aa pattern. Penrose subsequently reduced the number of prototiles to two, discovering the kite and dart tiling and the rhombus tiling; the rhombus tiling was independently discovered by Robert Ammann in 1976. Penrose and John H. Conway investigated the properties of Penrose tilings, discovered that a substitution property explained their hierarchical nature. In 1981, De Bruijn explained a method to construct Penrose tilings from five families of parallel lines as well as a "cut and project method", in which Penrose tilings are obtained as two-dimensional projections from a five-dimensional cubic structure.

In this approach, the Penrose ti