Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975. Reagan was raised in a poor family in small towns of northern Illinois, he graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports announcer on several regional radio stations. After moving to California in 1937, he found work as an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected President of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories. Reagan had been a Democrat until 1962, when he became a conservative and switched to the Republican Party. In 1964, Reagan's speech, "A Time for Choosing", supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman.
Building a network of supporters, he was elected governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, was re-elected in 1970, he twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. Four years in 1980, he won the nomination and defeated incumbent president Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to have assumed office until Donald Trump in 2017. Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984, defeated him, winning the most electoral votes of any U. S. president, 525, or 97.6 percent of the 538 votes in the Electoral College. This was the second-most lopsided presidential election in modern U. S. history after Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1936 victory over Alfred M. Landon, in which he won 98.5 percent or 523 of the 531 electoral votes.
Soon after taking office, Reagan began implementing sweeping new economic initiatives. His supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, reduction in government spending. In his first term he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, fought public sector labor. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4%, an average annual growth of real GDP of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, increased military spending which contributed to increased federal outlays overall after adjustment for inflation. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including ending the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate.
He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, the Berlin Wall fell just ten months after the end of his term. Germany reunified the following year, on December 26, 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed; when Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of 68 percent, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era, he was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms, after a succession of five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent, he died at home on June 5, 2004. His tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States, he is an icon among conservatives.
Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, he was the younger son of Jack Reagan. Jack was a salesman and storyteller whose grandparents were Irish Catholic emigrants from County Tipperary, while Nelle was of half English and half Scottish descent. Reagan's older brother, Neil Reagan, became an advertising executive. Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"-like appearance and "Dutchboy" haircut. Reagan's family lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth and Chicago. In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C. Pitney Variety Store until settling in Dixon. After his election as president, Reagan resided in the upstairs White House private quarters, he would quip that he was "living above the store again". Ronald Reagan wrote that his mother "always expected to find the best in people and did".
She attended the Disciples of Christ church and was active, influential, within it.
Alka-Seltzer is an effervescent antacid and pain reliever first marketed by the Dr. Miles Medicine Company of Elkhart, United States. Alka-Seltzer contains three active ingredients: aspirin, sodium bicarbonate, anhydrous citric acid; the aspirin is a pain reliever and anti-inflammatory, the sodium bicarbonate is an antacid, the citric acid reacts with the sodium bicarbonate and water to form effervescence. It was developed by head chemist Maurice Treneer. Alka-Seltzer is marketed for relief of minor aches, inflammation, headache, stomachache, acid reflux and hangovers, while neutralizing excess stomach acid, it was launched in 1931. Its sister product, Alka-Seltzer Plus, treats cold and flu symptoms; the product has been extensively advertised since its launch in the United States. It was marketed by Mikey Wiseman, a company scientist of Dr. Miles Medicine Company, who helped direct its development. Print advertising was used and in 1932 the radio show Alka-Seltzer Comedy Star of Hollywood began, with National Barn Dance following in 1933, along with many more.
The radio sponsorships continued into the 1950s. Alka-Seltzer TV ads from the 1960s and 1970s in the US were among the most popular of the 20th century, ranking number 13, according to Advertising Age. To increase sales in a flat business, Bayer has revived several of the vintage spots. Paul Margulies—father of actress Julianna Margulies—created the famous "Plop, fizz, fizz" ad campaign when he worked as a Madison Avenue ad executive; the ubiquitous jingle was composed by Tom Dawes—a former member of The Cyrkle. During the race for space in the early 1960s before the moon landing there was a commercial with Speedy in a space suit and a jingle with the lyrics "On Man's first trip through space, I only hope that I'm aboard, securely strapped in place. They'll track our ship with radar and telescopes and soon, imagine seeing Speedy Alka-Seltzer on the moon!" George Raft starred in the 1969 Alka-Seltzer commercial "The Unfinished Lunch". It consisted in the prison lunchroom, he recoils. He bangs his cup on the steel table.
It ripples throughout the room. He starts intoning "Alka-Seltzer, Alka-Seltzer..." Soon, the other hundreds of inmates do the same. (The commercial was so popular that several weeks Raft appeared as a guest on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. Raft told Carson. Raft was enraged by the end of the day, thus making his inmate portrayal that much more convincing for the final editing; the film crew gave Raft his crumpled tin cup, which he showed to the audience. An animated mid-1960s commercial, animated by R. O. Blechman, shows a man and his own stomach sitting opposite each other in chairs, having an argument moderated by their therapist in a voiceover; the stomach accuses the man of purposely trying to irritate it. The man accuses his stomach of complaining too much about the foods he likes; the therapist suggests Alka-Seltzer, further suggests that the two must take care of each other. The closing words are of the stomach saying to the man: "Well, I'll try — if you will." Alka-Seltzer had a series of commercials during the mid-1960s that used a song called "No Matter What Shape".
A different version was recorded by The T-Bones and was released as a single, which became a hit in 1966. The ads were unique in that they featured only the midsections of people of all sizes. A version of this ad can be seen in the 1988 motion picture The In Crowd before the movie's first live broadcast of the fictitious "Perry Parker's Dance Party." In an Alka-Seltzer commercial from 1969, an actor in a commercial for the fictional product "Magdalini's Meatballs" has to eat a meatball and say "Mamma mia, that's-a spicy meat-a ball-a!" in an ersatz Italian accent. Take after take is ruined by some comedic trial or another. By the commercial's end, Jack has eaten so many meatballs that it's "Alka-Seltzer to the rescue." With his stomach settled, Jack does a perfect take. The director sighs and says, "OK, let's break for lunch."A 1970 commercial shows a newlywed couple in the bedroom after the woman has finished serving her husband a giant dumpling. She lies on the bed in delusional triumph, she offers her beleaguered husband a heart-shaped meatloaf.
When she hears the fizzy noise coming from the bathroom, he covers the glass of dissolving Alka-Seltzer as she wonders aloud if it is raining. Just when he has recovered his well-being, he hears her misreading recipes for dinner the next night: "Marshmallowed meatballs," "medium salad snails," and "pouched oysters", he returns to the bathroom for more Alka-Seltzer. The catchphrase, Howie Cohen told The Los Angeles Times, was inspired when he ate too much of the food at a London commercial shoot because "I am a nice Jewish kid from the Bronx, so I ate everything," and when he told his wife "I can't believe I ate the whole thing", she said, "There's your next Alka-Seltzer commercial."A 1971 commercial featured another catch-phrase from Cohen, "Try it, you'll like it!" It was remade with Kathy Griffin in 2006. In 1972, an actor spent the com
William Holden was an American actor, one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1950s and 1960s. He won the Academy Award for Best Actor for the film Stalag 17, a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Limited Series or Movie for the television film The Blue Knight. Holden starred in some of Hollywood's most popular and critically acclaimed films, including Sunset Boulevard, The Bridge on the River Kwai, The Wild Bunch and Network, he was named one of the "Top 10 Stars of the Year" six times, appeared as 25th on the American Film Institute's list of 25 greatest male stars of Classic Hollywood Cinema. Holden was born William Franklin Beedle Jr. on April 17, 1918, in O'Fallon, son of William Franklin Beedle, an industrial chemist, his wife Mary Blanche Beedle, a schoolteacher. He had Robert Westfield Beedle and Richard P. Beedle. One of his father's grandmothers, Rebecca Westfield, was born in England in 1817, while some of his mother's ancestors settled in Virginia's Lancaster County after emigrating from England in the 17th century.
His younger brother, Robert W. "Bobbie" Beedle, became a U. S. Navy fighter pilot and was killed in action in World War II, over New Ireland, a Japanese-occupied island in the South Pacific, on January 5, 1944, his family moved to South Pasadena. After graduating from South Pasadena High School, Holden attended Pasadena Junior College, where he became involved in local radio plays. Holden appeared uncredited in Million Dollar Legs at Paramount. A version of how he obtained his stage name "Holden" is based on a statement by George Ross of Billboard: "William Holden, the lad just signed for the coveted lead in Golden Boy, used to be Bill Beadle, and here is. On the Columbia lot is an assistant director and scout named Harold Winston. Not long ago he was divorced from the actress, Gloria Holden, but carried the torch after the marital rift. Winston was one of those who discovered the Golden Boy newcomer and who renamed him—in honor of his former spouse!" Holden's first starring role was in Golden Boy, costarring Barbara Stanwyck, in which he played a violinist-turned-boxer.
The film was made for Columbia who negotiated a sharing agreement with Paramount for Holden's services. Holden was still an unknown actor when he made Golden Boy, while Stanwyck was a film star, she liked Holden and went out of her way to help him succeed, devoting her personal time to coaching and encouraging him, which made them into lifelong friends. When she received her Honorary Oscar at the 1982 Academy Award ceremony, Holden had died in an accident just a few months prior. At the end of her acceptance speech, she paid him a personal tribute: "I loved him much, I miss him, he always wished. And so tonight, my golden boy, you got your wish". Next he starred with George Raft and Humphrey Bogart in the Warner Bros. gangster epic Invisible Stripes. Back at Paramount he starred with Bonita Granville in Those Were the Days! Followed by the role of George Gibbs in the film adaptation of Our Town, done for Sol Lesser at United Artists. Columbia put Holden in a Western with Jean Arthur, Arizona at Paramount he was in a hugely popular war film, I Wanted Wings with Ray Milland and Veronica Lake.
He did another Western at Columbia, Texas with Glenn Ford, a musical comedy at Paramount, The Fleet's In with Eddie Bracken, Dorothy Lamour and Betty Hutton. He stayed at Paramount for The Remarkable Andrew with Brian Donlevy made Meet the Stewarts at Columbia. Paramount reunited Bracken in Young and Willing. Holden served as a second and a first lieutenant in the United States Army Air Force during World War II, where he acted in training films for the First Motion Picture Unit, including Reconnaissance Pilot. Holden's first film back from the services was Blaze of Noon, an aviator picture at Paramount directed by John Farrow, he followed it with a romantic comedy, Dear Ruth and he was one of many cameos in Variety Girl. RKO borrowed him for Rachel and the Stranger with Robert Mitchum and Loretta Young he went over to 20th Century Fox for Apartment for Peggy. At Columbia he did The Dark Past and a Western with Ford, The Man from Colorado. At Paramount he did Streets of Laredo. Columbia teamed him with Lucille Ball for Miss Grant Takes Richmond he did a sequel to Dear Ruth, Dear Wife.
He did. His career took off in 1950 when Billy Wilder tapped him to play a role in Sunset Boulevard, in which he played a down-at-heel screenwriter taken in by a faded silent-screen star, played by Gloria Swanson. Holden earned his first Best Actor Oscar nomination with the part. Getting the part was a lucky break for Holden, as the role was cast with Montgomery Clift, who backed out of his contract. Swanson said, "Bill Holden was a man I could have fallen in love with, he was perfection on- and off-screen." And Wilder commented "Bill was a complex guy, a honorable friend. He was a genuine star; every woman was in love with him."Paramount reunited him with Nancy Olson, one of his Sunset Boulevard costars, in Union Station. Holden had another good break when cast as Judy Holliday's love interest in the big screen adaptation of Born Yesterday, he made two more films with Olson: Force of Arms at Submarine Command at Paramount. Holden did
Ocean Spray (cooperative)
Ocean Spray is an American agricultural cooperative of growers of cranberries and grapefruit headquartered in Plymouth County, Massachusetts. It has over 700 member growers; the cooperative employs about 2,000 people, with sales of $1.2 billion in fiscal year 2013 and account for 70% of North American cranberry production. Their products include cranberry sauce, fruit juices, fruit snacks, dried cranberries; the cooperative has made a number of innovations, including the first juice blend, the first juice boxes, sweetened dried cranberries. Its cranberry juice won the ChefsBest Award for best taste. Ocean Spray was formed in 1930, in Hanson, Massachusetts, by three cranberry growers who wanted to expand their market for cranberries. Led by growers Marcus L. Urann, Elizabeth F. Lee and John C. Makepeace, who had created a cranberry sauce, the cooperative developed more cranberry-based products. In the same year Ocean Spray became the first producer of cranberry juice drinks with the introduction of Cranberry Juice Cocktail.
In 1963, executive Edward Gelsthorpe worked with Sylvia Schur to develop Cranapple juice, a product that brought the cranberry to greater popularity and increased usage to year-round, earning Gelsthorpe the nickname "Cranapple Ed". In 1976, the cooperative expanded its membership to grapefruit growers in Florida. In September 2004, Ocean Spray agreed to purchase the processing assets of Northland Cranberry; this acquisition included a juice production facility in Wisconsin. In June 2004, Ocean Spray members voted down a joint venture of the cooperative’s beverage business with PepsiCo. Pepsi had offered the co-op $100 million, an assumption of debt and fixed prices for cranberry harvests. In July 2006, the cooperative signed a 25-year single-serve juice distribution deal with Pepsi. In June 2006, at the request of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals Ocean Spray agreed to end its support for animal experiments. Ocean Spray had funded tests involving infecting mice with H. pylori, bacteria that cause stomach ulcers, feeding them cranberry juice to see if it had any positive effect.
These experiments were conducted to determine the usefulness of Ocean Spray's cranberry juice as a digestif. Ocean Spray completed expansion of the Wisconsin Rapids processing plant in September 2008; the addition doubles the facility size to 440,000 sq ft. making it the world's largest cranberry processing facility. The plant has numerous environmentally friendly features including a wastewater treatment facility, energy-efficient lighting, the use of methane from the nearby Veolia Cranberry Creek Landfill for boiler fuel. With the addition, the plant will produce Craisins, in addition to produced juice concentrates. Throughout 2012, Ocean Spray contributed $387,100 to a $46 million political campaign known as "The Coalition Against The Costly Food Labeling Proposition, sponsored by Farmers and Food Producers"; this organization was set up to oppose a citizen's initiative, known as Proposition 37, demanding mandatory labeling of foods containing genetically modified ingredients. Ocean Spray has juice-filling facilities in Nevada.
In February 2018, Ocean Spray announced Randy Papadellis would be stepping down as President and Chief Executive Officer of the company. Bobby J. Chacko was named the Cooperative's 12th President and Chief Executive Officer on March 29, 2018. Official website "The Cranberry Industry and Ocean Spray Cooperative: Lessons in Cooperative Governance"
Marion Mitchell Morrison, known professionally as John Wayne and nicknamed'Duke', was an American actor and Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient. He was among the top box office draws for three decades. Wayne grew up in Southern California, he was president of Glendale High School class of 1925. He found work at local film studios when he lost his football scholarship to the University of Southern California as a result of a bodysurfing accident working for the Fox Film Corporation, he appeared in bit parts, but his first leading role came in Raoul Walsh's Western The Big Trail, an early widescreen film epic, a box-office failure. Only leading roles in numerous B movies followed during the 1930s, most of them Westerns. Wayne's career was rejuvenated, he starred in 142 motion pictures altogether, including the dozens with his name above the title produced before 1939. According to one biographer, "John Wayne personified for millions the nation's frontier heritage. Eighty-three of his movies were Westerns, in them he played cowboys and unconquerable loners extracted from the Republic's central creation myth."Wayne's other roles in Westerns include a cattleman driving his herd on the Chisholm Trail in Red River, a Civil War veteran whose niece is abducted by a tribe of Comanches in The Searchers, a troubled rancher competing with a lawyer for a woman's hand in marriage in The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance, a cantankerous one-eyed marshal in True Grit.
He is remembered for his roles in The Quiet Man, Rio Bravo with Dean Martin, The Longest Day. In his final screen performance, he starred as an aging gunfighter battling cancer in The Shootist, he appeared with many important Hollywood stars of his era, made his last public appearance at the Academy Awards ceremony on April 9, 1979. Wayne was born Marion Robert Morrison on May 1907 at 224 South Second Street in Winterset, Iowa; the local paper, Winterset Madisonian, reported on page 4 of the edition of May 30, 1907 that Wayne weighed 13 lbs. at birth. His middle name was soon changed from Robert to Mitchell when his parents decided to name their next son Robert. Wayne's father, Clyde Leonard Morrison, was the son of American Civil War veteran Marion Mitchell Morrison. Wayne's mother, the former Mary "Molly" Alberta Brown, was from Nebraska. Wayne's ancestry included English and Irish, he was raised Presbyterian. Wayne's family moved to Palmdale, in 1916 to Glendale at 404 Isabel Street, where his father worked as a pharmacist.
He attended Glendale Union High School where he performed well in academics. Wayne was part of its debating team, he was the president of the Latin Society and contributed to the school's newspaper sports column. A local fireman at the station on his route to school in Glendale started calling him "Little Duke" because he never went anywhere without his huge Airedale Terrier, Duke, he preferred "Duke" to "Marion", the nickname stuck. Wayne attended Wilson Middle School in Glendale; as a teen, he worked in an ice cream shop for a man. He was active as a member of the Order of DeMolay, he played football for the 1924 league champion Glendale High School team. Wayne applied to the U. S. Naval was not accepted. Instead, he attended the University of Southern California, he was a member of the Trojan Knights and Sigma Chi fraternities. Wayne played on the USC football team under coach Howard Jones. A broken collarbone injury curtailed his athletic career, he lost his athletic scholarship, without funds, had to leave the university.
As a favor to USC football coach Howard Jones, who had given silent western film star Tom Mix tickets to USC games, director John Ford and Mix hired Wayne as a prop boy and extra. Wayne credited his walk and persona to his acquaintance with Wyatt Earp, good friends with Tom Mix. Wayne soon moved to bit parts, establishing a longtime friendship with the director who provided most of those roles, John Ford. Early in this period he had a minor, uncredited role as a guard in the 1926 film Bardelys the Magnificent. Wayne appeared with his USC teammates playing football in Brown of Harvard, The Dropkick, Salute and Columbia's Maker of Men. While working for Fox Film Corporation in bit roles, Wayne was given on-screen credit as "Duke Morrison" only once, in Words and Music. Director Raoul Walsh saw him moving studio furniture while working as a prop boy and cast him in his first starring role in The Big Trail. For his screen name, Walsh suggested "Anthony Wayne", after Revolutionary War general "Mad" Anthony Wayne.
Fox Studios chief Winfield Sheehan rejected it as sounding "too Italian". Walsh suggested "John Wayne". Sheehan agreed, the name was set. Wayne was not present for the discussion, his pay was raised to $105 a week. The Big Trail was to be the first big-budget outdoor spectacle of the sound era, made at a then-staggering cost of over $2 million, using hundreds of extras and wide vistas of the American southwest, still unpopulated at the time. To take advantage of the breathtaking scenery, it was filmed in two versions, a standard 35 mm version and another in the new 70 mm Grandeur film p
Advertising is a marketing communication that employs an sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are businesses wishing to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser pays for and has control over the message, it differs from personal selling in that the message is non-personal, i.e. not directed to a particular individual. Advertising is communicated through various mass media, including traditional media such as newspapers, television, outdoor advertising or direct mail; the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement, or "ad" or advert for short. Commercial ads seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through "branding", which associates a product name or image with certain qualities in the minds of consumers. On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial entities that advertise more than consumer products or services include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Non-profit organizations may use free modes such as a public service announcement. Advertising may help to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful. Modern advertising originated with the techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the 1920s, most with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, considered the founder of modern, "Madison Avenue" advertising. Worldwide spending on advertising in 2015 amounted to an estimated US$529.43 billion. Advertising's projected distribution for 2017 was 40.4% on TV, 33.3% on digital, 9% on newspapers, 6.9% on magazines, 5.8% on outdoor and 4.3% on radio. Internationally, the largest advertising-agency groups are Dentsu, Omnicom, WPP. In Latin, advertere means "to turn towards". Egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia.
Lost and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, present to this day in many parts of Asia and South America; the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery. Advertisement takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers. A copper printing plate dated back to the Song dynasty used to print posters in the form of a square sheet of paper with a rabbit logo with "Jinan Liu's Fine Needle Shop" and "We buy high-quality steel rods and make fine-quality needles, to be ready for use at home in no time" written above and below is considered the world's earliest identified printed advertising medium. In Europe, as the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, the general population was unable to read, instead of signs that read "cobbler", "miller", "tailor", or "blacksmith", images associated with their trade would be used such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horseshoe, a candle or a bag of flour.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and their proprietors used street callers to announce their whereabouts. The first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in "Les Crieries de Paris", a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weekly newspapers in England; these early print advertisements were used to promote books and newspapers, which became affordable with advances in the printing press. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content. Thomas J. Barratt of London has been called "the father of modern advertising". Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an effective advertising campaign for the company products, which involved the use of targeted slogans and phrases. One of his slogans, "Good morning. Have you used Pears' soap?" was famous in its day and into the 20th century.
Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were circulated in his day. He stressed the importance of a strong and exclusive brand image for Pears and of emphasizing the product's availability through saturation campaigns, he understood the importance of reevaluating the market for changing tastes and mores, stating in 1907 that "tastes change, fashions change, the advertiser has to change with them. An idea, effective a generation ago would fall flat and unprofitable if presented to the public today. Not that the idea of today is always better than the older idea, but it is different – it hits the present taste."As the economy expanded across the world during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, the success of this advertising format led to the growth of mail-order advertising. In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles.
Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roo
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia