Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. Over time, the term has become a metonym for the financial markets of the United States as a whole, the American financial services industry, or New York–based financial interests. Anchored by Wall Street, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Several other major exchanges have or had headquarters in the Wall Street area, including the New York Mercantile Exchange, the New York Board of Trade, the former American Stock Exchange. There are varying accounts about. A accepted version is that the name of the street was derived from a wall on the northern boundary of the New Amsterdam settlement, built to protect against Native Americans and the British.
A conflicting explanation is that Wall Street was named after Walloons—the Dutch name for a Walloon is Waal. Among the first settlers that embarked on the ship "Nieu Nederlandt" in 1624 were 30 Walloon families. While the Dutch word "wal" can be translated as "rampart", it only appeared as "de Walstraat" on English maps of New Amsterdam; however some English maps show the name as Waal Straat, not as Wal Straat. According to one version of the story: The red people from Manhattan Island crossed to the mainland, where a treaty was made with the Dutch, the place was therefore called the Pipe of Peace, in their language, Hoboken, but soon after that, the Dutch governor, sent his men out there one night and massacred the entire population. Few of them escaped, but they spread the story of what had been done, this did much to antagonize all the remaining tribes against all the white settlers. Shortly after, Nieuw Amsterdam erected a double palisade for defense against its now enraged red neighbors, this remained for some time the northern limit of the Dutch city.
The space between the former walls is now called Wall Street, its spirit is still that of a bulwark against the people. In the 1640s basic picket and plank fences denoted residences in the colony. On behalf of the Dutch West India Company, Peter Stuyvesant, using both African slaves and white colonists, collaborated with the city government in the construction of a more substantial fortification, a strengthened 12-foot wall. In 1685, surveyors laid out Wall Street along the lines of the original stockade; the wall started at Pearl Street, the shoreline at that time, crossing the Indian path Broadway and ending at the other shoreline, where it took a turn south and ran along the shore until it ended at the old fort. In these early days, local merchants and traders would gather at disparate spots to buy and sell shares and bonds, over time divided themselves into two classes—auctioneers and dealers. Wall Street was the marketplace where owners could hire out their slaves by the day or week; the rampart was removed in 1699 and a new City Hall built at Wall and Nassau in 1700.
Slavery was introduced to Manhattan in 1626, but it was not until December 13, 1711, that the New York City Common Council made Wall Street the city's first official slave market for the sale and rental of enslaved Africans and Indians. The slave market operated from 1711 to 1762 at the corner of Pearl Streets, it was a wooden structure with a roof and open sides, although walls may have been added over the years and could hold 50 men. The city directly benefited from the sale of slaves by implementing taxes on every person, bought and sold there. In the late 18th century there was a buttonwood tree at the foot of Wall Street under which traders and speculators would gather to trade securities; the benefit was being in proximity to each other. In 1792, traders formalized their association with the Buttonwood Agreement, the origin of the New York Stock Exchange; the idea of the agreement was to make the market more "structured" and "without the manipulative auctions", with a commission structure.
Persons signing the agreement agreed to charge each other a standard commission rate. In 1789 Wall Street was the scene of the United States' first presidential inauguration when George Washington took the oath of office on the balcony of Federal Hall on April 30, 1789; this was the location of the passing of the Bill Of Rights. Alexander Hamilton, the first Treasury secretary and "architect of the early United States financial system," is buried in the cemetery of Trinity Church, as is Robert Fulton famed for his steamboats. In the first few decades, both residences and businesses occupied the area, but business predominated. "There are old stories of people's houses being surrounded by the clamor of business and trade and the owners complaining that they can't get anything done," according to a historian named Burrows. The opening of the Erie Canal in the early 19th century meant a huge boom in business for New York City, since it was the only major eastern seaport which had direct access by inland waterways to ports on the Great Lakes.
Wall Street became the "money capital of America". Historian Charles R. Geisst suggested that there has been a "tug-of-war" between business interests on Wall Street and authorities in Washington, D. C. the capital of the United States by then. During the 19th c
Andy Warhol was an American artist and producer, a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture, advertising that flourished by the 1960s, span a variety of media, including painting, photography and sculpture; some of his best known works include the silkscreen paintings Campbell's Soup Cans and Marilyn Diptych, the experimental film Chelsea Girls, the multimedia events known as the Exploding Plastic Inevitable. Born and raised in Pittsburgh, Warhol pursued a successful career as a commercial illustrator. After exhibiting his work in several galleries in the late 1950s, he began to receive recognition as an influential and controversial artist, his New York studio, The Factory, became a well-known gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, Bohemian street people, Hollywood celebrities, wealthy patrons. He promoted a collection of personalities known as Warhol superstars, is credited with coining the used expression "15 minutes of fame."
In the late 1960s, he managed and produced the experimental rock band The Velvet Underground and founded Interview magazine. He authored numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Popism: The Warhol Sixties, he lived as a gay man before the gay liberation movement. After gallbladder surgery, Warhol died of cardiac arrhythmia in February 1987 at the age of 58. Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions and feature and documentary films; the Andy Warhol Museum in his native city of Pittsburgh, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives, is the largest museum in the United States dedicated to a single artist. Many of his creations are collectible and valuable; the highest price paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash. A 2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market". Warhol was born on August 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he was the fourth child of Ondrej Warhola and Julia, whose first child was born in their homeland and died before their move to the U.
S. His parents were working-class Lemko emigrants from Austria-Hungary. Warhol's father emigrated to the United States in 1914, his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Warhol's grandparents. Warhol's father worked in a coal mine; the family lived at 55 Beelen Street and at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh. The family was attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church. Andy Warhol had two older brothers—Pavol, the oldest, was born before the family emigrated. Pavol's son, James Warhola, became a successful children's book illustrator. In third grade, Warhol had Sydenham's chorea, the nervous system disease that causes involuntary movements of the extremities, believed to be a complication of scarlet fever which causes skin pigmentation blotchiness. At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio and collected pictures of movie stars around his bed. Warhol described this period as important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences.
When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident. As a teenager, Warhol graduated from Schenley High School in 1945; as a teen, Warhol won a Scholastic Art and Writing Award. After graduating from high school, his intentions were to study art education at the University of Pittsburgh in the hope of becoming an art teacher, but his plans changed and he enrolled in the Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, where he studied commercial art. During his time there, Warhol joined the campus Beaux Arts Society, he served as art director of the student art magazine, illustrating a cover in 1948 and a full-page interior illustration in 1949. These are believed to be his first two published artworks. Warhol earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in pictorial design in 1949; that year, he moved to New York City and began a career in magazine illustration and advertising. Warhol's early career was dedicated to commercial and advertising art, where his first commission had been to draw shoes for Glamour magazine in the late 1940s.
In the 1950s, Warhol worked as a designer for shoe manufacturer Israel Miller. American photographer John Coplans recalled, he somehow gave each shoe a temperament of its own, a sort of sly, Toulouse-Lautrec kind of sophistication, but the shape and the style came through and the buckle was always in the right place. The kids in the apartment noticed that the vamps on Andy's shoe drawings kept getting longer and longer but Miller didn't mind. Miller loved them. Warhol's "whimsical" ink drawings of shoe advertisements figured in some of his earliest showings at the Bodley Gallery in New York. Warhol was an early adopter of the silk screen printmaking process as a technique for making paintings. A young Warhol was taught silk screen printmaking techniques by Max Arthur Cohn at his graphic arts business in Manhattan. While working in the shoe industry, Warhol developed his "blotted line" technique, applying ink to paper and blotting the ink while still wet
Stephen Alan Wynn is an American real estate businessman and art collector. He is known for his involvement in the American luxury hotel industry. Early in his career he oversaw the construction and operation of several notable Las Vegas and Atlantic City hotels, including the Golden Nugget, the Golden Nugget Atlantic City, The Mirage, Treasure Island, the Bellagio, Beau Rivage in Mississippi, he played a pivotal role in the resurgence and expansion of the Las Vegas Strip in the 1990s. In 2000, Wynn sold his company, Mirage Resorts, to MGM Grand Inc. resulting in the formation of MGM Mirage. Wynn took his company Wynn Resorts public in an initial public offering, was Wynn Resorts' CEO and Chairman of the Board until February 6, 2018, when he announced his resignation, he is a prominent donor to the Republican Party, was the finance chair of the Republican National Committee from January 2017 to January 2018, when he resigned amid sexual misconduct allegations. Through Wynn Resorts, he has overseen the construction and development of several luxury resorts, opening Wynn Las Vegas in 2005, Wynn Macau in 2006, Encore Las Vegas in 2008, Encore at Wynn Macau in 2010 and Wynn Palace in Macau in 2016.
Current projects include Wynn Everett near Boston. In 2006, Wynn was inducted into the American Gaming Association Hall of Fame; as of September 2015, Wynn's net worth was estimated by Forbes at $2.4 billion, making him the 279th wealthiest American. Steve Wynn collects fine art exhibiting pieces by artists such as Picasso and Claude Monet in Wynn Resorts' hotels. In 2018, Wynn was accused by dozens of people of sexual misconduct, ranging from harassment to forcible assault to coercing a female employee into sex. Wynn stepped down as CEO of Wynn Resorts on February 2018 because of these allegations, his name was removed from a plaza on the campus of the University of Pennsylvania and his honorary degree from the school was rescinded. Steve Wynn was born Stephen Alan Weinberg in New Haven, Connecticut on January 27, 1942, his father, who ran a string of bingo parlors in the eastern United States, changed the family's last name in 1946 from "Weinberg" to "Wynn" when Steve was 4 years old "to avoid anti-Jewish discrimination".
Wynn was raised in Utica, New York, graduated from The Manlius School, a private boys' school east of Syracuse, New York, in 1959. Steve Wynn received his Bachelor of Arts in English literature from the University of Pennsylvania, where he was a member of the Sigma Alpha Mu fraternity. Shortly before graduating, in March 1963, his father died of heart problems, leaving $350,000 in gambling debts. Wynn relinquished a position at Yale Law School to take charge of his family's business in Waysons Corner, working the bingo parlors himself. Within a year he had expanded the company. Wynn and his young family moved in 1967 to Las Vegas where his success with his family's business allowed him to purchase a small stake in the Frontier Hotel and Casino; that year he met E. Parry Thomas, dubbed by Vanity Fair as "the most influential banker in Las Vegas." Thomas was the president of the Bank of Las Vegas, the only bank at the time willing to extend loans to Las Vegas casinos, Thomas helped finance several of Wynn's early land deals.
Starting in 1968, Wynn spent four years operating a wine and liquor importing company he had purchased. In 1971, Wynn managed to parlay his profits from a land deal involving Howard Hughes and Caesars Palace into a controlling interest in the Golden Nugget Las Vegas, a landmark downtown casino and one of the oldest casinos in the city. Wynn renovated and expanded the Golden Nugget from a gambling hall to a resort hotel and casino with enormous success, in the process attracting a new upscale clientele to downtown Las Vegas, his company stake increased so that, in 1973, he became the majority shareholder, the youngest casino owner in Las Vegas. In 1977 he opened the Golden Nugget's first hotel tower, followed by several others. Frank Sinatra was a periodic headliner at the Golden Nugget, Wynn has since maintained a relationship with the Sinatra family naming a restaurant at Encore "Sinatra". In 1980, Wynn began construction on the Golden Nugget Atlantic City in New Jersey, it was Atlantic City's first casino "built from scratch," first and only "locals casino", the city's sixth casino after the city legalized gambling in 1976.
Joel Bergman, who designed Wynn's other resorts, designed the Golden Nugget. Though at its opening it was the second smallest casino in the city, by 1983 it was the city's top earning casino; the Atlantic City Golden Nugget was sold by Wynn in 1987 for $440 million. In 1989, the company acquired the Nevada Club casino in Laughlin, re-branded it as the Golden Nugget Laughlin. Wynn's first major casino on the Las Vegas Strip was The Mirage, which opened on November 22, 1989, it was the first time Wynn was involved with the design and construction of a casino, he financed the $630 million project with high-yield bonds issued by Michael Milken. The resort's high cost and emphasis on luxury meant that it was considered high risk at the time, though the project ended up being enormously lucrative; the hotel, with its erupting volcano and South Seas theme, ignited a $12 billion building boom on the Strip. Its construction is considered noteworthy in that Wynn had set a new standard for Vegas resorts, when it opened The Mirage was the first casino to use security cameras full-time on all table games.
Known for its entertainment, the hotel became the main venue for the Siegfried & Roy show in 1990, in 1993 the hotel hosted the Cirque du Soleil show Nouvelle Expérience. Afterwards Wynn invi
Marc Quinn is a British contemporary visual artist whose work includes sculpture and painting. Quinn explores'what it is to be human in the world today' through subjects including the body, identity and the media, his work has used materials that vary from blood and flowers, to marble and stainless steel. Quinn has been the subject of solo exhibitions at Sir John Soane's Museum, National Portrait Gallery, Fondation Beyeler, Fondazione Prada and South London Gallery; the artist was a notable member of the Young British Artists movement, which included Sarah Lucas and Damien Hirst. Quinn is internationally celebrated and was awarded the commission for the first edition of the Fourth Plinth in Trafalgar Square in 2004, for which he exhibited Alison Lapper Pregnant. Quinn's notorious frozen self-portrait series made of his own blood, Self was subject to a retrospective at Fondation Beyeler in 2009. Quinn works in London. Quinn was born in London in 1964 to a British father, he spent his early years in Paris, where his father was a physicist working at the BIPM.
Quinn recalls an early fascination with the scientific instruments in his father's laboratory, in particular atomic clocks. He studied history of art at Robinson College, Cambridge. In the early 1990s, Quinn was the first artist to be represented by gallerist Jay Jopling; the artist had his first exhibition with Jopling in 1991, exhibiting Self, a frozen self-portrait made out of nine pints of the artist's blood. In 1993 Jay Jopling founded White Cube at 44 Duke Street London; as well as Quinn, White Cube exhibited Lucian Freud, Gilbert & George, Antony Gormley, Mona Hatoum, Damien Hirst, Gary Hume, Runa Islam, Jake & Dinos Chapman, Tracey Emin, Harland Miller, Sam Taylor-Wood, Gavin Turk and Cerith Wyn Evans. During the 1990s, Quinn and several peers were identified for their radical approach to the making and experiencing of art. In 1992, the loosely affiliated group was called the'Young British Artists' by writer Michael Corris in Artforum, included Cornelia Parker, Sarah Lucas, Damien Hirst, Rachel Whiteread and Tracey Emin.
In 1995, Quinn was given a solo exhibition at Tate Britain where new sculptures were shown as part of the Art Now series. In 1997 Quinn's work Self, was exhibited at the Royal Academy, London for the exhibition Sensation. Quinn's Self, along with works by Sarah Lucas and Damien Hirst, were distinguished amongst the British public; the exhibition received widespread media attention and had a record number of visitors for a contemporary art exhibition. The exhibition travelled to the Hamburger Bahnhof, to the Brooklyn Museum, New York. In 1998, he was given a solo exhibition at the South London Gallery, in 1999, he had a solo exhibition at Kunstverein Hannover; the Groninger Museum presented a solo exhibition of Quinn's work in 2000. The artist was invited to present a solo exhibition at the Fondazione Prada in Milan in 2000, where he presented an ambitious new work Garden. In 2002, he was given a solo exhibition at Tate Liverpool which included new works and photography, coincided with the Liverpool Biennial, where Quinn presented 1+1=3.
In 2001, the National Portrait Gallery gave Quinn a solo exhibition for his genomic portrait of Sir John Sulston. In 2004 Quinn was awarded the first-ever commission for the Fourth Plinth in London's Trafalgar Square, for which he produced a marble sculpture of pregnant disabled artist, Alison Lapper. In 2006, Museo d'Arte Contemporanea Rome presented Marc Quinn's works in a solo exhibition focused on his recent figurative sculpture, in 2009, the Fondation Beyeler presented a solo exhibition of Marc Quinn's ongoing series Self, including all sculptures from 1991 to 2006. In 2012, Quinn was commissioned to produce a monumental work for the opening ceremony of the Paralympic Games at the London Olympics 2012, for which he produced Breath, a monumental sculpture of Alison Lapper held up by air. In 2013, Quinn presented a solo exhibition on the occasion of the 55th Venice Biennale for art, at Fondazione Giorgio Cini, curated by Germano Celant. Quinn's first monograph Memory Box by Germano Celant was published in 2013.
A feature length documentary about Quinn's life and work, Making Waves, was released in 2014, produced and directed by Gerry Fox. London's Somerset House presented a solo exhibition of Quinn in 2015. In 2017, Marc Quinn staged a major exhibition at the Sir John Soane's Museum in London; the exhibition was the first in a new series of collaborations with contemporary artists and architects, inspired by the spirit of Sir John Soane, sought to bring the collection to life in innovative ways. Quinn's early work was concerned with issues of corporeality and preservation, he experimented with organic and degradable materials including bread, lead, flowers and DNA producing sculpture and installation, including Bread Sculptures, Emotional Detox, DNA Portrait of John Sulston. In the 2000s, he began to focus on the use of marble and concrete; the artist explored its extremes through the lens of classical and urban materials. Since 2010 he has worked with metals including stainless steel, graffiti paints, seaside detritus and painting, as seen in The History Paintings and The Toxic Sublime.
The first work for Marc Quinn to gain international fame was, exhibited in 1991, when he was 27. Self is a self-portrait for
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal is a U. S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp; the newspaper is published in online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser; the Wall Street Journal is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.475 million copies as of June 2018, compared with USA Today's 1.7 million. The Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ, launched as a quarterly but expanded to 12 issues as of 2014. An online version was launched in 1996, accessible only to subscribers since it began; the newspaper is notable for its award-winning news coverage, has won 37 Pulitzer Prizes. The editorial pages of the Journal are conservative in their position. The"Journal" editorial board has promoted fringe views on the science of climate change, acid rain, ozone depletion, as well as on the health harms of second-hand smoke and asbestos.
The first products of Dow Jones & Company, the publisher of the Journal, were brief news bulletins, nicknamed "flimsies", hand-delivered throughout the day to traders at the stock exchange in the early 1880s. They were aggregated in a printed daily summary called the Customers' Afternoon Letter. Reporters Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser converted this into The Wall Street Journal, published for the first time on July 8, 1889, began delivery of the Dow Jones News Service via telegraph. In 1896, The "Dow Jones Industrial Average" was launched, it was the first of several indices of bond prices on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1899, the Journal's Review & Outlook column, which still runs today, appeared for the first time written by Charles Dow. Journalist Clarence Barron purchased control of the company for US$130,000 in 1902. Barron and his predecessors were credited with creating an atmosphere of fearless, independent financial reporting—a novelty in the early days of business journalism.
In 1921, Barron's, the United States's premier financial weekly, was founded. Barron died in 1928, a year before Black Tuesday, the stock market crash that affected the Great Depression in the United States. Barron's descendants, the Bancroft family, would continue to control the company until 2007; the Journal took its modern shape and prominence in the 1940s, a time of industrial expansion for the United States and its financial institutions in New York. Bernard Kilgore was named managing editor of the paper in 1941, company CEO in 1945 compiling a 25-year career as the head of the Journal. Kilgore was the architect of the paper's iconic front-page design, with its "What's News" digest, its national distribution strategy, which brought the paper's circulation from 33,000 in 1941 to 1.1 million at the time of Kilgore's death in 1967. Under Kilgore, in 1947, the paper won its first Pulitzer Prize for William Henry Grimes's editorials. In 1967, Dow Jones Newswires began a major expansion outside of the United States that put journalists in every major financial center in Europe, Latin America and Africa.
In 1970, Dow Jones bought the Ottaway newspaper chain, which at the time comprised nine dailies and three Sunday newspapers. The name was changed to "Dow Jones Local Media Group".1971 to 1997 brought about a series of launches and joint ventures, including "Factiva", The Wall Street Journal Asia, The Wall Street Journal Europe, the WSJ.com website, Dow Jones Indexes, MarketWatch, "WSJ Weekend Edition". In 2007, News Corp. acquired Dow Jones. WSJ. A luxury lifestyle magazine, was launched in 2008. A complement to the print newspaper, The Wall Street Journal Online, was launched in 1996 and has allowed access only by subscription from the beginning. In 2003, Dow Jones began to integrate reporting of the Journal's print and online subscribers together in Audit Bureau of Circulations statements. In 2007, it was believed to be the largest paid-subscription news site on the Web, with 980,000 paid subscribers. Since online subscribership has fallen, due in part to rising subscription costs, was reported at 400,000 in March 2010.
In May 2008, an annual subscription to the online edition of The Wall Street Journal cost $119 for those who do not have subscriptions to the print edition. By June 2013, the monthly cost for a subscription to the online edition was $22.99, or $275.88 annually, excluding introductory offers. On November 30, 2004, Oasys Mobile and The Wall Street Journal released an app that would allow users to access content from the Wall Street Journal Online via their mobile phones. Many of The Wall Street Journal news stories are available through free online newspapers that subscribe to the Dow Jones syndicate. Pulitzer Prize–winning stories from 1995 are available free on the Pulitzer web site. In September 2005, the Journal launched a weekend edition, delivered to all subscribers, which marked a return to Saturday publication after a lapse of some 50 years; the move was designed in part to attract more consumer advertising. In 2005, the Journal reported a readership profile of about 60 percent top management, an average income of $191,000, an average household net worth of $2.1 million, an average age of 55.
In 2007, the Journal launched a worldwide expansion of its website to include major foreign-language editions. The p
Alberto Giacometti was a Swiss sculptor, painter and printmaker. Beginning in 1922, he lived and worked in Paris but visited his hometown Borgonovo to see his family and work on his art. Giacometti was one of the most important sculptors of the 20th century, his work was influenced by artistic styles such as Cubism and Surrealism. Philosophical questions about the human condition, as well as existential and phenomenological debates played a significant role in his work. Around 1935 he gave up on his Surrealistic influences in order to pursue a more deepened analysis of figurative compositions. Giacometti wrote texts for periodicals and exhibition catalogues and recorded his thoughts and memories in notebooks and diaries, his self-critical nature led to great doubts about his work and his ability to do justice to his own artistic ideas but acted as a great motivating force. Between 1938 and 1944 Giacometti's sculptures had a maximum height of seven centimeters, their small size reflected the actual distance between his model.
In this context he self-critically stated: "But wanting to create from memory what I had seen, to my terror the sculptures became smaller and smaller". After the war, Giacometti created his most famous sculptures: his tall and slender figurines; these sculptures were subject to his individual viewing experience—between an imaginary yet real, a tangible yet inaccessible space. In Giacometti's whole body of work, his painting constitutes only a small part. After 1957, his figurative paintings were as present as his sculptures, his monochromatic paintings of his late work do not refer to any other artistic styles of modernity. Giacometti was born in Borgonovo, Switzerland, in the canton Graubünden's southerly alpine valley Val Bregaglia near the Italian border, as the eldest of four children of Giovanni Giacometti, a well-known post-Impressionist painter, Annetta Giacometti-Stampa, he was a descendant of Protestant refugees escaping the inquisition. Coming from an artistic background, he was interested in art from an early age.
Alberto attended the Geneva School of Fine Arts. His brothers Diego and Bruno would go on to become architects as well. Additionally, Zaccaria Giacometti professor of constitutional law and chancellor of the University of Zurich, grew up together with them, having been orphaned at the age of 12 in 1905. In 1922, he moved to Paris to study under the sculptor an associate of Rodin, it was there that Giacometti experimented with Cubism and Surrealism and came to be regarded as one of the leading Surrealist sculptors. Among his associates were Miró, Max Ernst, Bror Hjorth, Balthus. Between 1936 and 1940, Giacometti concentrated his sculpting on the human head, focusing on the sitter's gaze, he preferred models he was close to -- the artist Isabel Rawsthorne. This was followed by a phase. Obsessed with creating his sculptures as he envisioned through his unique view of reality, he carved until they were as thin as nails and reduced to the size of a pack of cigarettes, much to his consternation. A friend of his once said that if Giacometti decided to sculpt you, "he would make your head look like the blade of a knife".
During WWII Giacometti took refuge in Switzerland. There in 1946 he met a secretary for the Red Cross. After his marriage his tiny sculptures became larger, but the larger they grew, the thinner they became. For the remainder of Giacometti's life, Annette was his main female model, his paintings underwent a parallel procedure. The figures appear isolated and attenuated, as the result of continuous reworking. Subjects were revisited: one of his favorite models was his younger brother Diego. In 1958 Giacometti was asked to create a monumental sculpture for the Chase Manhattan Bank building in New York, beginning construction. Although he had for many years "harbored an ambition to create work for a public square", he "had never set foot in New York, knew nothing about life in a evolving metropolis. Nor had he laid eyes on an actual skyscraper", according to his biographer James Lord. Giacometti's work on the project resulted in the four figures of standing women—his largest sculptures—entitled Grande femme debout I through IV.
The commission was never completed, because Giacometti was unsatisfied by the relationship between the sculpture and the site, abandoned the project. In 1962, Giacometti was awarded the grand prize for sculpture at the Venice Biennale, the award brought with it worldwide fame; when he had achieved popularity and his work was in demand, he still reworked models destroying them or setting them aside to be returned to years later. The prints produced by Giacometti are overlooked but the catalogue raisonné, Giacometti – The Complete Graphics and 15 Drawings by Herbert Lust, comments on their impact and gives details of the number of copies of each print; some of his most important images were in editions of only 30 and many were described as rare in 1970. In his years Giacometti's works were shown in a number of large exhibitions throughout Europe. Riding a wave of international popularity, despite his declining health, he traveled to the United States in 1965 for an exhibition of his works at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
As his last work he prepared the text for the book Paris sans fin, a sequence of 150 lithographs containing memories of all the places where he had l
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality. The current Jewish community in the United States consists of Ashkenazi Jews, who descend from diaspora Jewish populations of Central and Eastern Europe and comprise about 90-95% of the American Jewish population. Most American Ashkenazim are US-born, with a dwindling number of now elderly earlier immigrants, as well as some more recent foreign-born immigrants. During the colonial era, prior to the mass immigration of Ashkenazim and Portuguese Jews represented the bulk of America's small Jewish population, while their descendants are a minority today, they along with an array of other Jewish communities represented the remainder of American Jews, including other more recent Sephardic Jews, Mizrahi Jews, various other ethnically Jewish communities, as well as a smaller number of converts to Judaism; the American Jewish community manifests a wide range of Jewish cultural traditions, encompassing the full spectrum of Jewish religious observance.
Depending on religious definitions and varying population data, the United States has the largest or second largest Jewish community in the world, after Israel. In 2012, the American Jewish population was estimated at between 5.5 and 8 million, depending on the definition of the term, which constitutes between 1.7% and 2.6% of the total U. S. population. Jews have been present in the Thirteen Colonies since the mid-17th century. However, they were small in number, with at most 200 to 300 having arrived by 1700; those early arrivers were Sephardic Jewish immigrants, of Western Sephardic ancestry, but by 1720 Ashkenazi Jews from Central and Eastern Europe predominated. The English Plantation Act 1740 for the first time permitted Jews to become British citizens and emigrate to the colonies. Despite some being denied the ability to vote or hold office in local jurisdictions, Sephardic Jews became active in community affairs in the 1790s, after achieving political equality in the five states where they were most numerous.
Until about 1830, South Carolina had more Jews than anywhere else in North America. Large-scale Jewish immigration commenced in the 19th century, when, by mid-century, many German Jews had arrived, migrating to the United States in large numbers due to antisemitic laws and restrictions in their countries of birth, they became merchants and shop-owners. There were 250,000 Jews in the United States by 1880, many of them being the educated, secular, German Jews, although a minority population of the older Sephardic Jewish families remained influential. Jewish migration to the United States increased in the early 1880s, as a result of persecution and economic difficulties in parts of Eastern Europe. Most of these new immigrants were Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, most of whom arrived from the poor diaspora communities of the Russian Empire and the Pale of Settlement, located in modern-day Poland, Belarus and Moldova. During the same period, great numbers of Ashkenazi Jews arrived from Galicia, at that time the most impoverished region of the Austro-Hungarian empire with a heavy Jewish urban population, driven out by economic reasons.
Many Jews emigrated from Romania. Over 2,000,000 Jews landed between the late 19th century and 1924, when the Immigration Act of 1924 restricted immigration. Most settled in the New York metropolitan area, establishing the world's major concentrations of Jewish population. In 1915 the circulation of the daily Yiddish newspapers was half a million in New York City alone, 600,000 nationally. In addition thousands more subscribed to the numerous weekly papers and the many magazines. At the beginning of the 20th century, these newly arrived Jews built support networks consisting of many small synagogues and Landsmanshaften for Jews from the same town or village. American Jewish writers of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider American culture, Jews became part of American life. 500,000 American Jews fought in World War II, after the war younger families joined the new trend of suburbanization. There, Jews became assimilated and demonstrated rising intermarriage; the suburbs facilitated the formation of new centers, as Jewish school enrollment more than doubled between the end of World War II and the mid-1950s, while synagogue affiliation jumped from 20% in 1930 to 60% in 1960.
More recent waves of Jewish emigration from Russia and other regions have joined the mainstream American Jewish community. Americans of Jewish descent have been disproportionately successful in many fields and aspects over the years; the Jewish community in America has gone from a lower class minority, with most studies putting upwards of 80% as manual factory laborers prior to World War I and with the majority of fields barred to them, to the consistent richest or second richest ethnicity in America for the past 40 years in terms of average annual salary, with high concentrations in academia and other fields, today have the highest per capita income of any ethnic group in the United States, at around double the average income of non-Jewish Americans. In 2016, Modern Orthodox Jews had a median household income of $158,000, while Open Orthodox Jews had a median household income at $185,000. Scholars debate whether the favorable historical experience for Jews in the United States has been such a unique experience as to validate American exceptionalism.