CBGB was a New York City music club opened in 1973 by Hilly Kristal in Manhattan's East Village. The club was a biker bar and before, a dive bar; the letters CBGB were for Country, BlueGrass, Blues, Kristal's original vision, yet CBGB soon became a famed venue of punk rock and new wave bands like the Ramones, Patti Smith Group and Talking Heads. From the early 1980s onward, CBGB was known for hardcore punk. One storefront beside CBGB became the "CBGB Record Canteen", a record shop and café. In the late 1980s, "CBGB Record Canteen" was converted into an art gallery and second performance space, "CB's 313 Gallery". CB's Gallery was played by music artists of milder sounds, such as acoustic rock, jazz, or experimental music, such as Dadadah, Kristeen Young and Toshi Reagon, while CBGB continued to showcase hardcore punk, post punk and alternative rock. 313 Gallery was the host location for Alchemy, a weekly Goth night showcasing goth, dark rock, darkwave bands. On the other side, CBGB was operating a small cafe and bar in the mid-1990s, which served classic New York pizza, among other items.
Around 2000, CBGB entered a protracted dispute over unpaid rent amounts until the landlord, Bowery Residents' Committee, sued in 2005 and lost the case, but a deal to renew CBGB's lease, expiring in 2006, failed. The club closed upon its final concert, played by Patti Smith, on October 15, 2006. CBGB Radio launched on the iheartradio platform in 2010, CBGB music festivals began in 2012. In 2013, CBGB's onetime building, 315 Bowery, was added to the National Register of Historic Places as part of The Bowery Historic District. CBGB was founded on December 10, 1973 on the site of Kristal's earlier bar, Hilly's on the Bowery, that he ran from 1969 to 1972. Kristal focused on his more profitable East Village nightspot, Hilly's, which Kristal closed amid complaints from the bar's neighbors. After Hilly's closure, Kristal focused on the Bowery club, its full name of CBGB & OMFUG stands for "Country, Bluegrass and Other Music for Uplifting Gormandizers". Although a gormandizer is a ravenous eater of food, what Kristal meant was "a voracious eater of... music".
Kristal's intended theme of country and blues music along with poetry readings yielded to the American movement in punk rock. A pioneer in the genre, the Ramones played their first shows at CBGB. In 1973, while the future CBGB was still Hilly's, two locals—Bill Page and Rusty McKenna—convinced Kristal to let them book concerts. In February 1974, Hilly booked local band Squeeze to a residency, playing Tuesdays and Wednesdays, the club's change from country and bluegrass to original rock bands. Squeeze was led by guitarist Mark Suall with CBGB's quasi house band the Revelons, which included Fred Smith of Television and JD Daugherty of the Patti Smith Group. Although these bands did not play punk rock, they helped lay its foundation; the August 1973 collapse of the Mercer Arts Center left unsigned bands little option in New York City to play original music. Mercer refugees—including Suicide, The Fast, Wayne County, the Magic Tramps—soon played at CBGB. In 1974, on April 14, in the audience of Television's third gig were Patti Smith and Lenny Kaye, whose Patti Smith Group debuted at CBGB on February 14, 1975.
Other early performers included the Dina Regine Band. Dennis Lepri was lead guitarist as well as the Stillettoes; the newly formed band Angel and the Snake renamed Blondie, as well as the Ramones arrived in August 1974. Mink DeVille, Talking Heads, the Shirts, the Heartbreakers, the Fleshtones and other bands soon followed. In April 1977, The Damned played the club, marking the first time a British punk band had played in America. During 1975 and 1976, Metropolis Video recorded. Starting in 1977, Metropolis Video filmmaker Pat Ivers and partner Emily Armstrong continued to record shows in a project called Advanced TV renamed GoNightclubbing. Ivers' and Armstrong's films are available at the New York University Fales Library. CBGB's two rules were that a band must move its own equipment and play original songs—that is, no cover bands—although regular bands played one or two covers in set. CBGB's growing reputation drew more acts from outside New York City. In 1978, new wave songwriter Elvis Costello would open shows for The Voidoids, while The Police played at CBGB for their first American gigs.
Meanwhile, CBGB became famed for the Misfits, Patti Smith Group, Mink DeVille, the Dead Boys, the Dictators, the Fleshtones, the Voidoids, the Cramps, the B-52's, Joan Jett & the Blackhearts, the Shirts, Talking Heads. Yet in the 1980s, hardcore punk's New York underground was CBGB's mainstay. Named "thrash day" in a documentary on hardcore, Sunday at CBGB was matinée day, which became an institution, played from afternoon until evening by hardcore bands. In 1990, violence inside and outside of the venue prompted Kristal to suspend hardcore bookings, yet CBGB brought hardcore back at times. CBGB's last several years had no formal bans by genre. In 2005, atop its paid monthly rent of $19,000, CBGB was sued for some $90,000 in rent owed to its landlord, Bowery Residents' Committee. Refusing to pay until a judge ruled the debt legitimate, Kristal claimed that he had never been notified of scaled rent increases, accruing over a number of years, asserted by BRC's executive director Muzzy Rosenblatt.
Ruling the debt false—that BRC had never properly billed the rent increases—the judge indicated that CBGB ought to be declared a landmark, but noted that Rosenblatt did not need to renew the lease, soon expiring. Rosenblatt v
Poison (American band)
Poison is an American rock band which achieved great commercial success in the mid-1980s through the mid-1990s. Poison has sold over 45 million records worldwide and has sold 15 million records in the United States alone; the band has charted ten singles to the Top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100, including six Top 10 singles and the Hot 100 number-one, "Every Rose Has Its Thorn". The band's breakthrough debut album, the multi-platinum Look What the Cat Dragged In, was released in 1986 and they hit their peak with their second album, Open Up and Say... Ahh!, which became the band's most successful album, being certified 5x platinum in the US. The popularity continued into the new decade with their third consecutive multi-platinum selling album, Flesh & Blood. In the 1990s following the release of the band's first live album, Swallow This Live, the band experienced some line up changes and the fall of pop metal with the grunge movement, but despite a drop in popularity the band's fourth studio album, Native Tongue, still achieved Gold status and the band's first compilation album, Poison's Greatest Hits: 1986–1996, went double platinum.
In the 2000s, with the original line up back together, the band found new popularity after a successful greatest hits reunion tour in 1999. The band began the new decade with the release of the long-awaited Crack a Smile... and More!, followed by the Power to the People album. The band toured every year to sold out stadiums and arenas, they released a brand new album, Hollyweird, in 2002 and in 2006 the band celebrated their 20-year anniversary with The Best of Poison: 20 Years of Rock tour and album, certified Gold and marked Poison's return to the Billboard top 20 charts for the first time since 1993. Band members starred in successful reality TV shows. After 30 years, the band is still performing. Since their debut in 1986, they have released seven studio albums, four live albums, five compilation albums, have issued 28 singles to radio. In 2012 VH1 ranked them at #1 on their list of the "Top 5 Hair Bands of the'80s". Poison was formed in 1983, in Mechanicsburg and consisted of lead vocalist Bret Michaels, guitarist Matt Smith, bassist Bobby Dall and drummer Rikki Rockett.
Michaels began his performing career with a basement band called Laser and in 1979, joined forces with longtime childhood friend Rockett to form a band called the Spectres. In 1980, Michaels and Rockett teamed up with Smith and Dall to form the band Paris and the group started playing the club circuit, performing rock cover songs in local bars; the group formed a strong local following but in order to further their career the band made the decision to move to Los Angeles on March 6, 1983 and changed the name of the group from Paris to Poison, after the song of the same name by glam metal band Kix. Arriving in Los Angeles, the group struggled to survive away from home with no family and no money, but the band was determined to make it. Poison made the rounds performing in the famous local clubs. During this period, Poison's manager negotiated a deal under which the West Hollywood club, The Troubadour, would pay for shows. At this time, about to become a father and was concerned about the band's future, left the band to return home to Pennsylvania.
The band auditioned for a replacement guitarist narrowing down the field to three candidates: Slash, who would join Guns N' Roses. C. DeVille. Although Michaels and Dall did not get along with him, the band agreed that DeVille's "fire" made him the best choice. Michaels, Dall, DeVille signed to independent label Enigma Records in 1986 for $30,000, their debut album, Look What the Cat Dragged In, was released August 2, 1986. It included only one single, "Cry Tough". With heavy rotation on MTV, their debut earned the band tours with fellow glam rockers Ratt and Quiet Riot, as well as a coveted slot in the Texxas Jam in Dallas; the album sold 4 million copies worldwide. The band began giving intimate and controversial interviews to rock journalist Judy Wieder at the Hollywood home they all shared in June 1986, before the official release of Look What the Cat Dragged In. Wieder, the first to follow the band circulated their many dicey conversations to the popular rock magazines of the day, including Circus, Rip Magazine, Rock Express and Hit Parader, ensuring enormous visibility for the album's release.
In 1987 the band recorded a cover of the Kiss song "Rock and Roll All Nite" for soundtrack to Less Than Zero. Poison's second album, Open Up and Say... Ahh!, was released May 21, 1988. It peaked at No. 2 on the American charts and would go on to sell 8 million copies worldwide. The album included the band's biggest hit, the No. 1 single "Every Rose Has Its Thorn", along with other hits "Nothin' but a Good Time", "Fallen Angel", the Loggins and Messina cover "Your Mama Don't Dance". The album's initial cover art was controversial, as it depicted a demonic female figure with an obscenely long tongue. A censored version of the cover followed. In 1989, the band released their first video album titled Sight for Sore Ears which featured all their music videos from the first two albums. Conflict pursued the band persistently. Bryn Bridenthal, head of publicity at Geffen Records, slapped a $1.1 million lawsuit on the ba
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968. The group consisted of guitarist Jimmy Page, singer Robert Plant, bassist/keyboardist John Paul Jones, drummer John Bonham. Along with Black Sabbath and Deep Purple, the band's heavy, guitar-driven sound has led them to be cited as one of the progenitors of heavy metal, their style drew from a wide variety of influences, including blues and folk music. After changing their name from the New Yardbirds, Led Zeppelin signed a deal with Atlantic Records that afforded them considerable artistic freedom. Although the group were unpopular with critics, they achieved significant commercial success with eight studio albums released over eleven years, from Led Zeppelin to In Through the Out Door, their untitled fourth studio album known as Led Zeppelin IV and featuring the song "Stairway to Heaven", is among the most popular and influential works in rock music, it helped to secure the group's popularity. Page wrote most of Led Zeppelin's music early in their career, while Plant supplied the lyrics.
Jones' keyboard-based compositions became central to the group's catalogue, which featured increasing experimentation. The latter half of their career saw a series of record-breaking tours that earned the group a reputation for excess and debauchery. Although they remained commercially and critically successful, their output and touring schedule were limited during the late 1970s, the group disbanded following Bonham's death from alcohol-related asphyxia in 1980. In the decades that followed, the surviving members sporadically collaborated and participated in one-off Led Zeppelin reunions; the most successful of these was the 2007 Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Concert in London, with Jason Bonham taking his late father's place behind the drums. Many critics consider Led Zeppelin to be one of the most successful and influential rock groups in history, they are one of the best-selling music artists in the history of audio recording. With RIAA-certified sales of 111.5 million units, they are the third-best-selling band in the US.
Each of their nine studio albums placed in the top 10 of the Billboard album chart and six reached the number-one spot. They achieved eight consecutive UK number-one albums. Rolling Stone magazine described them as "the heaviest band of all time", "the biggest band of the Seventies", "unquestionably one of the most enduring bands in rock history", they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995. In 1966, London-based session guitarist Jimmy Page joined the blues-influenced rock band the Yardbirds to replace bassist Paul Samwell-Smith. Page soon switched from bass to lead guitar. Following Beck's departure in October 1966, the Yardbirds, tired from constant touring and recording, began to wind down. Page wanted to form a supergroup with him and Beck on guitars, the Who's Keith Moon and John Entwistle on drums and bass, respectively. Vocalists Steve Winwood and Steve Marriott were considered for the project; the group never formed, although Page and Moon did record a song together in 1966, "Beck's Bolero", in a session that included bassist-keyboardist John Paul Jones.
The Yardbirds played their final gig in July 1968 at Luton College of Technology in Bedfordshire. They were still committed to several concerts in Scandinavia, so drummer Jim McCarty and vocalist Keith Relf authorised Page and bassist Chris Dreja to use "the Yardbirds" name to fulfill the band's obligations. Page and Dreja began putting a new line-up together. Page's first choice for the lead singer was Terry Reid, but Reid declined the offer and suggested Robert Plant, a singer for the Band of Joy and Hobbstweedle. Plant accepted the position, recommending former Band of Joy drummer John Bonham. John Paul Jones inquired about the vacant position of bass guitarist at the suggestion of his wife after Dreja dropped out of the project to become a photographer. Page had known Jones since they were both session musicians and agreed to let him join as the final member; the four played together for the first time in a room below a record store on Gerrard Street in London. Page suggested that they attempt "Train Kept A-Rollin'" a jump blues song popularised in a rockabilly version by Johnny Burnette, covered by the Yardbirds.
"As soon as I heard John Bonham play", Jones recalled, "I knew this was going to be great... We locked together as a team immediately". Before leaving for Scandinavia, the group took part in a recording session for the P. J. Proby album, Three Week Hero; the album's track "Jim's Blues", with Plant on harmonica, was the first studio track to feature all four future members of Led Zeppelin. The band completed the Scandinavian tour as the New Yardbirds, playing together for the first time in front of a live audience at Gladsaxe Teen Clubs in Gladsaxe, Denmark, on 7 September 1968; that month, they began recording their first album, based on their live set. The album was recorded and mixed in nine days, Page covered the costs. After the album's completion, the band were forced to change their name after Dreja issued a cease and desist letter, stating that Page was allowed to use the New Yardbirds moniker for the Scandinavian dates only. One account of how the new band's name was chosen held that Moon and Entwistle had suggested that a supergroup with Page and Beck would go down like a "lead balloon", an idiom for disastrous results.
The group dropped the'a' in lead at the suggestion
Black Flag (band)
Black Flag is an American punk rock band formed in 1976 in Hermosa Beach, California. Called Panic, the band was established by Greg Ginn, the guitarist, primary songwriter, sole continuous member through multiple personnel changes in the band, they are considered to be one of the first hardcore punk bands as well as one of the pioneers of post-hardcore. After breaking up in 1986, Black Flag reunited in 2003 and again in 2013; the second reunion lasted well over a year, during which they released their first studio album in over two decades, What The…. The band announced their third reunion in January 2019. Brandon Pertzborn was replaced by Isaias Gil on the rest of the tour. Black Flag's sound mixed the raw simplicity of the Ramones with atonal guitar solos and, in years, frequent tempo shifts; the lyrics were written by Ginn, like other punk bands of the late 1970s and early 1980s, Black Flag voiced an anti-authoritarian and nonconformist message, in songs punctuated with descriptions of social isolation, neurosis and paranoia.
These themes were explored further when Henry Rollins joined the band as lead singer in 1981. Most of the band's material was released on Ginn's independent record label SST Records. Over the course of the 1980s, Black Flag's sound, as well as their notoriety, evolved in ways that both embraced and alienated much of their early audience; as well as being central to the creation of hardcore punk, they were innovators in the first wave of American West Coast punk rock and are considered a key influence on punk subculture in the United States and abroad. Along with being among the earliest punk rock groups to incorporate elements and the influence of heavy metal melodies and rhythm, there were overt freestyles, free jazz and contemporary classical elements in their sound in Ginn's guitar playing, the band interspersed records and performances with instrumentals throughout their career, they played longer and more complex songs at a time when other bands in their milieu performed a raw, three-chord format.
As a result, their extensive discography is more stylistically varied than many of their punk rock contemporaries. Black Flag has been well-respected within the punk subculture for their tireless promotion of an autonomous DIY punk ethic and aesthetic, they are regarded as pioneers in the movement of underground do-it-yourself record labels that flourished among 1980s punk rock bands. Through constant touring throughout the United States and Canada, Europe, Black Flag established a dedicated cult following. Called Panic, Black Flag was formed in 1976 in Hermosa Beach, California located in the South Bay region of Los Angeles. Ginn insisted; this work ethic proved too challenging for some early members. Ginn's brother Raymond Pettibon and SST house record producer-to-be Spot filled in during rehearsals. In the beginning and Morris were inspired by the raw, stripped-down attitude of bands such as the Ramones and the Stooges. Ginn has said "We were influenced by the Stooges and the Ramones. Keith and myself saw the Ramones when they first toured LA in 1976.
After we saw them, I said. I thought Keith would be a good singer and after seeing the Ramones, it made him think that he doesn't have to be some classical operatic singer."Chuck Dukowski, bassist of Würm, liked Ginn's band, joined, forming a committed quartet with Ginn and drummer Brian Migdol. The band held their first performance in December 1977 in California. To avoid confusion with another band called Panic, they changed their name to Black Flag in late 1978, they played their first show under this name on January 27, 1979, at the Moose Lodge Hall in Redondo Beach, California. This was the first time; the name was suggested by Ginn's brother, artist Raymond Pettibon, who designed the band's logo: a stylized black flag represented as four black bars. Pettibon stated "If a white flag means surrender, a black flag represents anarchy." Their new name was reminiscent of the anarchist symbol, the insecticide of the same name, of the British heavy metal band Black Sabbath, one of Ginn's favorite bands.
Ginn suggested that he was "comfortable with all the implications of the name." The band spray painted the simple, striking logo all over Los Angeles, attracting attention from both supporters and the Los Angeles Police Department. Pettibon created much of their cover artwork. There were few opportunities for punk rock bands to perform in Southern California. Black Flag organized their own gigs, performing at house parties, schools, they called club owners themselves to arrange appearances, plastered hundreds of flyers—usually Pettibon's severe, haunting comic strip style panels—on any available surface to publicize performances. Dukowski reported that the "minimum that went out was 500 for a show."Though Ginn was the band's leader, special note should be made to Dukowski's contributions to Black Flag. Ginn was profoundly disciplined. Dukowski's intelligent, fast-talking, high-energy persona attracted significant attention, he was Black Flag's spokesman to the press. Dukow
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
Record collecting is the hobby of collecting sound recordings of music and/or the "spoken word", but, in some cases of other recorded sounds. Although the typical focus is on vinyl records, all formats of recorded music can be collected; the scope of a record collection may include a focus on any of the following categories: genres, e.g. Classical, Funk, country music, Go-go, Modern Jazz, Elevator Music, novelty records, early stereo, etc. artists, e.g. Louis Armstrong, Elvis Presley, The Beatles, Stevie Wonder, Sir Simon Rattle, DJ/remixer Larry Levan, Berry Gordy, James Brown, etc. recording labels, e.g. Blue Note, His Master's Voice, Motown, 4AD, Philadelphia International Records, Apple Records, Audio Fidelity Records, Folkways Records, etc. periods, e.g. 1920s, 1960s and 1970s, Northern Soul, Philadelphia soul, Chicago blues, etc. formats, e.g. 78s, 7"s, LPs, Mono, 8-track cartridges, Reel-to-reel, Cassettes, CDs, etc. specialisms, e.g. unusual physical specimens regardless of recorded content, records having original "stock" generic sleeves identifying the label, or variations in the record's label design as issued by particular companies.
One collectible record format is known as a test pressing. Five to 10 initial copies are pressed for the purpose of checking the mix or levels on a record, or to ensure that the die is cutting properly. Though meant for the artist, pressing plant, or record label to keep as reference, they are sometimes placed in special packaging and given out to friends or devoted fans. First pressings of original commercial releases have higher values among collectors than pressings. Collectible are 45s with picture sleeves, original editions of LPs which have inserts and other features not on subsequent editions, or tracks or cover art withdrawn or altered. Subsequent pressings have the same label and catalog number but can be differentiated from the first pressings by the cover, colour of the label, matrix numbers on the disc itself, etc. Promotional or "promo" copies are free records, cassettes or CDs sent to radio stations to announce a new release coming soon from the record company, they are identified by the label, which takes the form of plain text listing the name of the recording and its associated credits, as well as markings specifying it as “Promotional”, “Audition,” “Demonstration” and/or “Not for Sale.”
Record and cassette promo copies come in the form of white label discs and clear cassettes while CD copies come in the form of CD-Rs with black-on-transparent labels. Because many commercial cassette releases use identical clear plastic and white print, promo copies are oftentimes distinguished by text on the J-card specifying them as such. Promo copies of best-selling records can have a lower or higher value than "stock" first pressings. Promo copies were pressed for records that were never released. Copies such as these two types are considered rare and valued by collectors and fans of popular artists. Reissues of popular records can be released by the same label many years with the same catalog number and cover art, but are undertaken by a different label, some of which specialize in reissues and have access to certain labels' catalogs and "vaults" of unreleased master recordings. “Bootlegs” are illegitimate releases. They vary in value and in sound and pressing quality, come in several categories.
Bootleg LPs, tapes and CDs feature recordings from live performances or tracks not commercially released. Some bootleg 45s are re-releases of rare or valuable singles – exact copies of rare records, with the original label graphics and numbers - known in the industry as “counterfeits.” Record collecting has been around nearly as long as recorded sound. In its earliest years and the recordings that were played on them were owned by the rich, out of the reach of the middle or lower classes. By the 1920s, improvements in the manufacturing processes, both in players and recordings, allowed prices for the machines to drop. While entertainment options in a middle to upper class home in the 1890s would consist of a piano, smaller instruments, a library of sheet music, by the 1910s and these options expanded to include a radio and a library of recorded sound. After the phonograph cylinder became obsolete, the record was the uncontested sound medium for decades; the number of available recordings mushroomed and the number of companies pressing records increased These were 78–rpm one-sided later double-sided, ten-inch shellac discs, with about two to four minutes of recording time on each side.
Growth in the recorded sound industries was stunted by the Great Depression and World War II, when the recording industries in some countries