Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Dawson's Creek is an American teen drama television series about the fictional lives of a close-knit group of friends beginning in high school and continuing in college that ran from 1998 to 2003. The series stars James Van Der Beek as Dawson Leery, Katie Holmes as his best friend and love interest Joey Potter, Joshua Jackson as their fellow best friend Pacey Witter, Michelle Williams as Jen Lindley, a New York City transplant to the fictional town of Capeside, Massachusetts zip code 90108, where the series was set; the show was created by Kevin Williamson and debuted on The WB on January 20, 1998. It was filmed in Wilmington, North Carolina. Part of a new craze for teen-themed movies and television shows in America in the late 1990s, it catapulted its leads to stardom and became a defining show for The WB; the show placed at No. 90 on Entertainment Weekly's "New TV Classics" list in 2007. The series ended on May 14, 2003. During the course of the series, 128 episodes of Dawson's Creek aired over six seasons.
Ed Grady as Gramps Ryan. J. Moller. I." Brooks. J.. In what would be his first television meeting, Williamson met executive Paul Stupin and, when asked if he had ideas for a television production, Williamson came up with the idea of a teen series based on his youth growing up near a North Caroli
Phoenix Theatre (New York City)
The Phoenix Theatre was a pioneering off-Broadway theatre in New York City, extant from 1953 to 1982. The Phoenix was founded by T. Edward Hambleton; the project was a pioneering effort in the establishment of off-Broadway theatre. Houghton and Hambleton wanted a theatre away from Times Square, that would host a permanent company, abjure the star system, produce four or five plays a season for limited engagements, with ticket prices much lower than on Broadway; the Phoenix Theatre was established in a building at East 12th Street and Second Avenue in the East Village, far from Broadway. The building, opened in 1926, had housed the Yiddish Art Theatre, is now the Village East Cinema; the Phoenix opened on December 1, 1953, with a production of Madam Will You Walk?, Sidney Howard's last play, starring Hume Cronyn and Jessica Tandy, followed by productions of Coriolanus and The Golden Apple. The opening season concluded with The Seagull, starring Montgomery Clift, directed by Houghton himself; the Phoenix Theatre's opening season was judged successful.
In the following seasons the theater mounted many more productions featuring notable figures of the theatre, garnered various awards. Associated persons included British actors Pamela Brown and Rachel Redgrave, Peggy Ashcroft. Productions mounted over the span of the Phoenix Theatre's existence include The Doctor's Dilemma, The Master Builder, Story of a Soldier, Six Characters in Search of an Author, The Mother of Us All, Measure for Measure, Livin' the Life, The Good Woman of Szechuan, The Taming of the Shrew, Anna Christie. Houghton, frustrated by the role of theatrical producer because it precluded him from directing, left the Phoenix to become a professor at Vassar College, beginning in 1959 and disengaging from the Phoenix within a few years. T. Edward Hambleton continued to run the Phoenix for the remainder of its existence. In 1961 the Phoenix, financially troubled, moved to a new and smaller house at 334 East 74th Street and ceased being a repertory company; the first production at the new site was Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mamma's Hung You in the Closet and I'm Feelin' So Sad.
But two years the Phoenix merged with Ellis Rabb's company, the Association of Producing Artists, again took up being a repertory company. The company was called the APA-Phoenix Theatre. In 1966, the APA-Phoenix moved to the Lyceum Theatre, in the heart of the Broadway district near Times Square, remained there until 1969. In 1969 the association with the APA ended, the Phoenix became peripatetic, staging shows at various venues including the ANTA Washington Square Theatre, the Sheridan Square Playhouse, the 48th Street Playhouse, the Ethel Barrymore Theatre, the Marymount Manhattan Theatre. In 1972, the Phoenix Theatre In 1982, the Phoenix Theatre moved to a new home in the basement theatre at St. Peter's Evangelical Lutheran Church, which sits under the Citigroup Center at 619 Lexington Avenue at 54th Street; the opening production was Michael Hastings' Two Fish in the Sky. The Phoenix Theatre celebrated its new home, its new season, its 30th anniversary with a gala soirée, but Two Fish in the Sky was panned and flopped, hoped-for corporate support was not forthcoming.
Citing insuperable financial challenges, the Phoenix announced on December 13, 1982, that it was ceasing operations. That venue is used since 1993 by York Theatre. Phoenix Theatre at the Internet Broadway Database
SeaQuest DSV is an American science fiction television series created by Rockne S. O'Bannon, it aired on NBC between 1993 and 1996. In its final season, it was renamed seaQuest 2032. Set in "the near future"—originally the year 2018 in the first season—seaQuest DSV mixed high drama with realistic scientific fiction, it starred film star Roy Scheider as Captain Nathan Bridger and commander of the eponymous naval submarine seaQuest DSV 4600. Jonathan Brandis starred as Lucas Wolenczak, a teenaged computer genius placed aboard seaQuest by his father and Stephanie Beacham as Kristin Westphalen, the chief medical officer and head of the seaQuest science department. In the third season, Michael Ironside replaced Scheider as lead of the series and starred as Captain Oliver Hudson. Present was a dolphin character called Darwin who, due to technological advances, was able to communicate with the crew. Steven Spielberg expressed interest in the project and served as one of the show's executive producers during the first two seasons.
Production of the first season was marked by disputes between the producers, NBC and cast members, changes in the production staff, an earthquake. The second season contained changes in the cast as well as continued disputes between cast members and producers, while the third season introduced a new lead actor and title. While popular, the series began to decline in ratings throughout its run and was abruptly canceled in the middle of its third season; the series follows the adventures of the high-tech submarine seaQuest DSV 4600, a deep submergence vehicle operated by the United Earth Oceans Organization, a global coalition of up-world countries and undersea confederations, similar to the United Nations. The UEO was created following a major showdown of nations and confederations at the Livingston Trench in the North Atlantic Ocean that occurred circa 2018 as depicted in the pilot episode, "To Be Or Not to Be", it remained a recurring element for the duration of the series; the seaQuest was designed by retired naval captain Nathan Bridger and built by NORPAC and given as a loan to the UEO after its creation.
The storyline begins in the year 2018, after mankind has exhausted all natural resources, except for the ones on the ocean floor. Many new colonies have been established there and it's the mission of the seaQuest and its crew to protect them from hostile nonaligned nations and to aid in mediating disputes as well as engage in undersea research, much of, still in the preliminary stages when the show began production in 1993. Bridger, though reluctant due to a promise he made with his wife after their son, was killed in a naval military action before her death, is convinced to return to the navy, under the auspices of the UEO, assume command of the seaQuest; the first season's storylines dealt with plausible oceanographic research, environmental issues, political machinations of the world and the interpersonal relationships of the crew. In the first-season finale, Bridger sacrifices the seaQuest to prevent an ecological disaster and for a short time it was not known if the show would be renewed for another season.
The series had suffered in the ratings, as it was pitted against Murder, She Wrote on CBS and Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman on ABC. When it was decided the show would return, NBC and Universal used this opportunity to change the show's format, beginning by relocating the show's production from Los Angeles to Orlando. Several cast changes were made as both Royce D. Applegate and John D'Aquino were released by NBC as the network wanted a younger cast for the second season. Stacy Haiduk informed producers that she did not wish to relocate to Orlando for the second season, having just returned to Los Angeles after spending four years in Florida during the production of The Adventures of Superboy. Stephanie Beacham, who as Dr. Westphalen was one of the first season's strongest characters, was hesitant to relocate to Florida. Beacham blamed continued disputes between the network and the show's producers as a major reason why she did not return. Joining the series for season two were Edward Kerr as Lieutenant James Brody, seaQuest's weapons officer.
As the seaQuest itself was rebuilt in the storyline, it allowed for the sets to be redesigned for the new Florida location and a shortened version of the Emmy award winning main title theme was instituted as the series returned to the airwaves on September 18, 1994 with the two-hour television movie season premiere, "Daggers". NBC and the show's producers decided they wanted more traditionally science-fiction oriented episodes this season, a direction, explored toward the end of the first season when seaQuest discovered a million-year-old alien ship entombed in the ocean floor in the episode "Such Great Patience." The second season explored heavy science-fiction concepts such as genetic engineering, parapsychology, time travel and various "monsters of the week" Roy Scheider was vocal in his anger at the show's new direction. In an intervi
The Guthrie Theater, founded in 1963, is a center for theater performance, production and professional training in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The concept of the theater was born in 1959 in a series of discussions between Sir Tyrone Guthrie, Oliver Rea and Peter Zeisler. Disenchanted with Broadway, they intended to form a theater with a resident acting company, to perform classic plays in rotating repertory, while maintaining the highest professional standards; the Guthrie Theater has performed in two main-stage facilities. The first building was designed by Ralph Rapson, included a 1,441-seat thrust stage designed by Tanya Moiseiwitsch, was operated from 1963–2006. After closing its 2005–2006 season, the theater moved to its current facility designed by Jean Nouvel. In 1982, the theater won the Regional Theatre Tony Award. In 1959, Sir Tyrone Guthrie published a small invitation in the drama page of The New York Times soliciting communities' interest and involvement in a resident theater. Out of the seven cities that responded, the Twin Cities showed not only interest but eagerness for the project.
Frank Whiting, the director of the University of Minnesota Theater, introduced Guthrie to the arts community in the Twin Cities and helped gather support that persuaded Guthrie to locate his theater in Minneapolis. With the help of the newly founded Tyrone Guthrie Theater Foundation a fundraising effort raised over US$2 million; the new theater was completed in 1963 in time for the May 7 opening of Hamlet. During its first season the Guthrie featured well known stage actors Hume Cronyn, Jessica Tandy and Zoe Caldwell and featured a group of younger actors including George Grizzard, Ellen Geer and Joan van Ark. Tyrone Guthrie served as Artistic Director until 1966 and continued to direct at the theater he founded until 1969, two years before his death. In 1966 Douglas Campbell was named Artistic Director. Throughout the 1960s the Guthrie found critical acclaim in its productions of Henry V, St. Joan, Caucasian Chalk Circle, Three Sisters and The House of Atreus. In 1968 the production of The House of Atreus was taken on the road in a national tour, a first for a resident theater.
Starting in 1968, the Guthrie began a tradition of producing plays on smaller stages in the Twin Cities area, including the Crawford-Livingston Theater in St. Paul and The Other Place. In 1971, Michael Langham became artistic director and produced classic plays including Oedipus Rex, Love's Labour's Lost, She Stoops to Conquer, A Streetcar Named Desire. After Langham left in 1977, the Guthrie crossed a milestone of sorts when for the first time it selected an artistic director, not a respected collaborator or friend of Tyrone Guthrie; that year Alvin Epstein was selected as artistic director and was the first American to fill that role. In 1980 Liviu Ciulei replaced Epstein. Ciulei was the former artistic director of Teatrul Bulandra in Romania and had a profound influence on the Guthrie, he challenged audiences with his bold theatrical interpretations and his contemporary and international style. Ciulei's interest in theater didn't stop at the productions themselves, he was a designer and architect and one of the first things he did was to redesign the theater itself.
His changes allowed more structural flexibility in the stage to allow each production a unique physical presentation. While Ciulei was not able to attain all the goals he had envisioned, he was able to maintain and advance the Guthrie's national and international reputation as a first-rate example of American theater and drew critical success with productions of classics such as Peer Gynt, The Marriage of Figaro, A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Seagull, Tartuffe, he was able to reestablish the Guthrie’s commitment to acting ensembles by gathering together a rotating repertory in his last season as Artistic Director in 1985. In 1982 the theater won the Regional Theatre Tony Award; that year the Guthrie turned to Garland Wright, who had spent some time as Liviu Ciulei’s associate artistic director in the early 1980s as Ciulei's replacement. Wright had shared a vision with Ciulei that included the desire to have a second, smaller stage that could act as a lab to enable the exploration of new work and performance techniques.
Born out of this vision was the Guthrie Laboratory located in the Minneapolis Warehouse District. Wright shared a desire to keep the concept of a resident acting company alive and used his ensembles to great effect, he was able to combine critical and popular success with a series of productions that helped reestablish a large and loyal audience base. Productions from this period include The Misanthrope, Richard III, The Screens, a trilogy of Richard II, Henry IV and Henry V, Medea and As You Like It. Wright created a series of outreach programs designed to garner interest in theater among young people and involving high school and colleague instructors. Garland Wright announced his resignation in 1994 and after an international search for his successor, Joe Dowling was chosen as the Guthrie's seventh artistic director. Dowling had gained an international reputation with his work at Ireland's national theater, the Abbey Theatre, including becoming the Abbey's youngest artistic director in its long history.
Under Dowling's artistic leadership, the Guthrie has enjoyed unprecedented growth. Subscriptions are at an all-time high of more than 32,000, up more than 50% from the beginning of Dowling's tenure. Dowling's time at the Guthrie Theater has been marked by a return to regional touring, co-productions by visiting international theater companies, collaborations with local theater companies, his own dynamic productions of the classics. Paired with an innovative philosophy that inc
Farmington Hills, Michigan
Farmington Hills is the second largest city in Oakland County in the U. S. state of Michigan. Its population was 79,740 at the 2010 census, it is part of the northwestern suburbs of Metropolitan Detroit and is about 30 miles northeast of downtown Ann Arbor. Farmington Hills ranks as one of the safest cities in the United States, as well as in the state of Michigan. In 2010, the area ranked as the 30th safest city in the U. S. Farmington Hills ranks as the 36th highest-income place in the United States with a population of 50,000 or more and ranks as 14th America's best cities to live by 24/7 Wall St. Although the two cities have separate services and addresses and Farmington Hills are thought of as the same community. Features of the community include a renovated downtown, boutiques, a vintage cinema, numerous restaurants, exotic car dealerships, art galleries, public parks including Heritage Park. There are several historical sites including the Governor Warner Mansion. Both cities are served by Farmington Public Schools.
Farmington Hills serves as a major business center for the greater Detroit area. Farmington Hills is the home of the Holocaust Memorial Center, the only Holocaust Memorial in the State of Michigan; the Center's mission is to educate evils of the Holocaust. The Holocaust Memorial Center was located in neighboring West Bloomfield Township, but has since expanded and moved to its current facility. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 33.31 square miles, of which 33.28 square miles is land and 0.03 square miles is water. The first white settler in what became Farmington Township was a Quaker from Farmington, New York, named Arthur Power, he purchased land in 1823 and returned in 1824 with a group of families and associates to clear the land. The settlement became known as Quakertown. A post office was established in February 1826 with the name of Farmington; the original post office is still standing today, is a designated historical site. The township of Farmington was organized in 1827, the settlement was incorporated as the village of Farmington in the winter of 1866-67.
A fire on October 9, 1872 destroyed many buildings in the village center. Farmington was incorporated as a city in 1926. A small settlement was developed in Clarenceville, in the extreme southeast corner of the township on the boundary with Livonia in Wayne County. Stephen Jennings built a tavern and a general store to accommodate travelers on the plank road between Detroit and Howell; the name remains in the Clarenceville School District. Though the school buildings for Clarenceville are in Livonia in Wayne County, the school district serves a portion of Farmington Hills. In 1847, a post office named North Farmington was established a mile south of the township line as Wolcott's Corners. After the death of postmaster Chauncey D. Walcott in 1865, the office moved to the township line in the northeast quarter of section 4; the post office functioned until September 1902. In 1839, a post office named East Farmington was opened, but it closed in 1842. Before the remainder of Farmington Township was incorporated as the city of Farmington Hills, there were two other incorporated entities within its boundaries.
The first began as a subdivision named Quaker Valley Farms, incorporated as the village of Quakertown in 1959. The other was Wood Creek Farms, developed in 1937 as a subdivision by George Wellington of Franklin, who named it after a New England estate, it was incorporated as a village in 1957. The villages, together with the remainder of Farmington Township, were incorporated into the City of Farmington Hills in 1973. In 1964, the city of Farmington started a tradition; the festival is held in mid-July each summer, a fair is held in downtown Farmington which has exhibits of arts and crafts, stage entertainment, street food and family, a fun atmosphere. Gale, an educational publishing company owned by Cengage Learning, the auto loan company TD Auto Finance, are located in Farmington Hills. Other large corporations have branches in newly-built office buildings; the Nissan Technical Center North America and Nissan Trading Corp. are located in Farmington Hills. The Nissan technical center handled project engineering of vehicle bodies used in North America and Latin America.
It has a small laboratory, where as of 2012, several scientists were doing research on fuel cells. The company planned to add electrical battery and recharging of electrical vehicle research to the laboratory; as of January 2012 the technical center had 800 full-time employees. At that time Nissan planned to hire 150 more engineers to work in the technical center; the technical center opened in November 1991 at a cost of $80 million. In 2005 Nissan opened a $14 million design studio in Farmington Hills, the Nissan AZEAL was the first car to be designed there. Hitachi Automotive Systems Americas, Inc. operates the Farmington Hills Office in Farmington Hills. Hino Motors Manufacturing U. S. A. Inc. has its headquarters in Farmington Hills. The office is a sales and service office of a truck subsidiary of Toyota. In 2005 Governor of Michigan Jennifer Granholm celebrated the office's opening. A business park in the 12 Mile and Halsted area houses offices of Panasonic and Mercedes Benz. Panasonic moved into 90,000 square feet of leased space there in 2012, with plans to hire 60 full-time employees for a research and design center.
That space was unoccupied for four years and was leased by Motorola. Mango Languages, a language learning software compa
The O. C. is an American teen drama television series created by Josh Schwartz that aired on the Fox network in the United States from August 5, 2003, to February 22, 2007, running a total of four seasons. "O. C." is an abbreviation of Orange County, the location in California in which the series is set. The series centers on Ryan Atwood, a troubled but gifted young man from a broken home, adopted by the wealthy and philanthropic Sandy and Kirsten Cohen. Ryan and his foster brother Seth, a awkward yet quick-witted teenager, deal with life as outsiders in the high-class world of Newport Beach. Ryan and Seth spend much time navigating their relationships with girl-next-door Marissa Cooper, Seth's childhood crush Summer Roberts, the fast-talking loner Taylor Townsend. Storylines deal with the culture clash between the idealistic Cohen family and the shallow and closed-minded community in which they reside; the series includes elements of postmodernism, functions as a mixture of melodrama and comedy.
The series premiered with high ratings and was one of the most popular new dramas of the 2003–2004 television season. It was referred to as a pop cultural phenomenon and received positive reception from critics. However, ratings declined; the low ratings led to its cancellation in early 2007 after an online petition that gained over 700,000 signatures. The O. C. has been broadcast in more than fifty countries worldwide. The series has been released on DVD, as well as on iTunes. Season 1 focuses on Ryan Atwood's arrival in Newport Beach to live with Sandy and Kirsten Cohen, who take him in after his mother kicks him out. A major theme of the first season is the culture shock Ryan feels as he adjusts from a life of domestic abuse and poverty to living in a superficial high-class society, he befriends and bonds with Seth Cohen, begins to have a romantic relationship with Marissa Cooper. Although coming from different backgrounds, Ryan soon discovers that he deals with similar issues to his new peers, such as self-identity conflict and familial alienation.
The relationship between Ryan and Marissa flourishes when he supports her through her parents' divorce. As the show progresses, Ryan takes a protective role over Marissa, showing Ryan to be a much more stable, controlled person than portrayed. Other storylines include Seth's development from a friendless loner to having two romantic choices in Summer and Anna, as well as the arrivals of Oliver Trask, a troubled teen who befriends Marissa during their coinciding therapy sessions, Theresa Diaz, Ryan's close friend and former love interest from his hometown of Chino. Meanwhile, Sandy Cohen comes into conflict with Caleb Nichol, Kirsten's father and a wealthy industrialist, said to "basically own Newport." The second season of The O. C. continues to follow the tumultuous romantic relationships between Ryan and Marissa and Summer, Sandy and Kirsten. Josh Schwartz, the show's creator, stated that in Season 2, the show would "no longer be about Ryan's past. For example, the story follows Ryan in his advanced physics class, where tension is created between him and another student, who presumes that Ryan will be useless as a lab partner, who thus prevents him from contributing to the work that must be submitted.
Ryan's character begins to grow when he stands up to Lindsay and convinces her to allow him to contribute, forcing them to work together to complete the assignment. They become involved romantically, creating extreme complications and relational shifts amongst the now "Cooper-Nichol" family; the Bait Shop becomes a prominent social destination for the teenage characters. A number of recurring characters are introduced, such as D. J. Lindsay Gardner, Zach Stevens, Alex Kelly, with whom the main characters form a variety of relationships. Ryan's brother, Trey Atwood, gets out of jail and threatens to bring Ryan's old life into his new one. Sandy and Kirsten face new conflicts after drifting apart during the summer. Season 2 ends with Marissa shooting Trey after Ryan confronts him for attempting to sexually assault Marissa. Season 3 creates many dynamic changes with regards to relationships and power within the characters' society. Firstly, Marissa is expelled from the Harbor School; the Cooper family, left with little money, is forced to move into a trailer park.
Julie Cooper-Nichol, once one of the richest women in all of Newport, struggles to put food on the table for her daughters. Marissa's life begins to spiral out of control, as she struggles with alcohol and drug abuse, as well as dealing with the loss of her close friend Johnny. Kirsten confronts her alcohol addiction and leaves rehab, only to encounter more problems when she begins business with a con artist; the other characters look towards college, with Seth and Summer competing for a spot at Brown University. Sandy's moral compass becomes imperiled when a past love interest makes her way back into his life, he takes over Caleb's old position as head of The Newport Group, pursuing a project to establish more low-income housing in Newport. Ryan attempts to resolve his individual relationships with his mother, with his childhood friend Theresa Diaz, he pursues the idea of a post-secondary education, with encouragement from both Sandy and Kirsten to visit Berkeley. Ryan's life is put on hold when, in the season 3 finale, Ryan decides to drive Marissa to the airport, they are run off the road by Kevin Volchok, Marissa's most recent love affair gone wrong.
In the last few minutes of the episode, Ryan pulls Marissa out f