The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Leinkauf Historic District
The Leinkauf Historic District is a historic district in the city of Mobile, United States. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on June 24, 1987, it is bounded by Government, Eslava and Monterey Streets. The district covers 1,100 acres and contains 303 contributing buildings; the buildings range in age from the 1820s to early 20th century and cover a variety of 19th- and 20th-century architectural styles
The Battle House Hotel
The Battle House Hotel, now known as The Battle House Renaissance Mobile Hotel & Spa, is a historic hotel building in Mobile, Alabama. The current building was built in 1908 and is the second hotel to stand in this location, replacing an earlier Battle House, built in 1852 and burned down in 1905, it is one of the earliest steel frame structures in Alabama. The first Battle House Hotel was opened by James Battle and his two half-nephews John and Samuel on November 13, 1852 on the site of a former military headquarters set up by Andrew Jackson during the War of 1812; the Battle brothers' new hotel was a four-story brick building, with a two-story gallery of cast iron. The site had been home to two other hotels in the years between Andrew Jackson and the Battle brothers, the Franklin Hotel and the Waverly Hotel. Both of these earlier structures had burned. A notable event for the hotel occurred when Stephen A. Douglas was a guest of the hotel the night that he lost the presidency to Abraham Lincoln.
The first Battle House had such notable guests as Henry Clay, Jefferson Davis, Millard Fillmore, Oscar Wilde and Winfield Scott. A National Weather Service station was established at the Battle House in 1880 and electric lighting was added in 1884; the hotel was renovated in 1900. After more than 50 years in service, the hotel burned to the ground on February 12, 1905. After the fire, the proprietors hired Frank M. Andrews of New York City to design a new structure and it was built out of steel and concrete; the new hotel reopened for business in 1908. The hotel remained a prominent fixture of Mobile through the second World Wars. Woodrow Wilson stayed at the Battle House in 1913, it was while he was at the Battle House that he made his famous statement that "the United States will never again seek one additional foot of territory by conquest". The hotel was renovated in 1916 and again in 1949, with air-conditioning added in all guest rooms and public spaces at that time. Sheraton Hotels bought the Battle House in 1958 and it operated as the Sheraton-Battle House until it was sold to Gotham Hotels in 1968, when the hotel returned to its original name.
In May 1973, it was bought by local citizens, who renamed it the Battle House Royale and planned a complete renovation. However, the hotel was unsuccessful and closed its doors in 1974, remained closed for the next 30 years; the empty Battle House Royale building was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. By 1980 it was the only building left intact in its city block. In 2003, Retirement Systems of Alabama began restoration of the hotel, along with the construction of an adjoining skyscraper office building, which includes additional hotel rooms on its lower floors, the RSA Battle House Tower; the project was completed in 2007. Battle House Renaissance Mobile Hotel & Spa is a member of Historic Hotels of America, the official program of the National Trust for Historic Preservation; the eight-story building is steel frame with brick facings. At street level it features a projecting one-story portico with paired Tuscan columns. A wide third-story molded entablature is surmounted by cast iron balconies.
The window openings over the entire facade have articulated keystones and the openings on the seventh level feature cast iron balconies. The roof level features a molded projecting cornice with scroll brackets; the hotel lobby features a domed skylight, dating back to 1908. The ceiling and walls feature elaborate plasterwork and are painted using the trompe-l'œil technique; the walls are painted with portraits of Louis XIV of France, George III of the United Kingdom, Ferdinand V of Castile, George Washington. The Trellis Room, located on the lobby floor houses a restaurant with a four-diamond rating; the restaurant serves Northern Italian cuisine. The restaurant seats 90 and features a full-view kitchen so patrons can watch the chefs prepare their meals; the Trellis Room ceiling is barrel vaulted with a Tiffany glass skylight. The lobby floor hosts the Crystal Ballroom, known as "Mobile's First Harvest". At one time it was the hotel's restaurant; the room has been restored to vintage colors, as it was in 1908.
It features ornate plasterwork with an agricultural theme. The Battle House was a favorite place for southern planters to get away to once their crops were planted; the Crystal Ballroom is now used for social events such as weddings and Mardi Gras balls. The first Mardi Gras ball to be held at the Battle House was The Strikers Ball in 1852. At that time the balls were part of the New Year celebration. List of Historic Hotels of America Official website Historic Hotels of America This Historic Hotel In Alabama Has A Haunting History That Won’t Soon Be Forgotten
Old Dauphin Way Historic District
The Old Dauphin Way Historic District is a historic district in the city of Mobile, United States. It was named for Dauphin Way, now known as Dauphin Street, which bisects the center of the district from east to west; the district is bounded by Broad Street on the east, Springhill Avenue on the north, Government Street on the south, Houston Avenue on the west. Covering 766 acres and containing 1466 contributing buildings, Old Dauphin Way is the largest historic district in Mobile. Although most of the district contains working-class frame houses and ornate mansions are found along the main thoroughfares; the contributing buildings range in age from the mid-19th to the early 20th century. Architectural styles include Greek Revival, Gothic Revival, Queen Anne, Colonial Revival, Tudor Revival, American Foursquare; the Old Dauphin Way District is situated on portions of what was once the Price and Espejo tracts, early Spanish land grants to the west of colonial Mobile. The area began to first be developed during the 1840s.
This early development comprised residential estates along the roads leading from downtown to the village of Spring Hill. These included Spring Hill Road, Spring Hill Shell Road, Dauphin Way; the district was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 30, 1984. Examples of architecture within the Old Dauphin Way Historic District Old Dauphin Way Association
Midtown Historic District (Mobile, Alabama)
The Midtown Historic District is a historic district in the city of Mobile, United States. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on November 29, 2001, it is bounded by Taylor Avenue, Government Street, Houston Street, Kenneth Street, Springhill Avenue, Florida Street. The district contains 1,270 contributing buildings; the majority of the contributing buildings range in age from the 1880s to the 1950s and cover a wide variety of architectural styles. The district was affected by a tornado on December 25, 2012. Contributing and individually NRHP-listed buildings to the Midtown Historic District
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
Africatown known as AfricaTown USA and Plateau, is a historic community located three miles north of downtown Mobile, Alabama. It was formed by a group of 32 West Africans, who in 1860 were included in the last known illegal shipment of slaves to the United States; the Atlantic slave trade had been banned since 1808, but 110 enslaved people held by the Kingdom of Dahomey were smuggled into Mobile on the Clotilda, burned and scuttled to try to conceal its illicit cargo. More than 30 of these people, believed to be ethnic Yoruba and Fon and created their own community in what became Africatown, they retained their West African customs and language into the 1950s, while their children and some elders learned English. Cudjo Kazoola Lewis, a founder of Africatown, lived until 1935 and was long thought to be the last survivor of the slaves from the Clotilda. In 2019 scholar Dr. Hannah Durkin from Newcastle University documented Redoshi, a West African woman, now believed to be the last survivor of slaves from the Clotilda.
Known as Sally Smith, she lived to 1937. She had been sold to a planter who lived in Alabama. Redoshi and her family continued working on the same plantation; the population of Africatown has declined markedly from a peak population of 12,000 in the 20th century, when paper mills operated there. In the early 21st century, the community has about 2,000 residents, it is estimated. Other descendants live across the country. In 2009 the neighborhood was designated as a site on Mobile's African American Heritage Trail; the Africatown Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2012. Its related Old Plateau Cemetery known as Africatown Graveyard, was founded in 1876, it has been given a large historical plaque telling its history. In 1860 some wealthy slaveholders of Mobile and their friends decided to see if they could evade the federal law that prohibited importing slaves from Africa; this Atlantic slave trade had been prohibited by the United States by the 1807 Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves, although the domestic slave trade continued.
The slave traders bet each other and a group of men from New England that they could evade federal authorities. Timothy Meaher, a shipbuilder and landowner, they used Timothy Meaher's ship Clotilda, designed for the lumber trade. It was commanded by Captain William Foster. While the ship was in port at Whydah in the Kingdom of Dahomey, additional work was done to accommodate and conceal the transport of enslaved people. Foster loaded them; the ship sailed in May 1860 from Dahomey for its final destination, with 110 persons held as slaves. Foster had paid for 125 slaves, but as he was preparing for departure, he saw steamers offshore and left to evade them; the captives were said to be of the "Tarkbar" tribe, but research in the 21st century suggests that they were Takpa people, a band of Yoruba people from the interior of present-day Nigeria. They had been taken captive by forces of the King of Dahomey, he sold them into slavery at the market of Whydah. The captured people were sold for $100 each to captain of the Clotilda.
In early July 1860, the Clotilda approached the port of Mobile. Trying to evade discovery, Foster had the ship towed at night upriver beyond the port, he sent them ashore. The Africans were distributed as slaves among the parties who had invested in the venture. Before being taken from Mobile, they were on their own in terms of surviving, they built shelters of whatever they found growing in the Alabama lowlands, adapted their hunting to the rich game. Some slaves were sold to areas more distant from Mobile. Among them were Redoshi, a woman from the Clotilda, a man who became her husband, who were both sold to Washington Smith of Dallas County, Alabama, he had a plantation in the upcountry of the state, founded the Bank of Selma. Redoshi was known as Sally Smith as a slave, she married and the couple had a daughter. The family continued to work at the Smith plantation after emancipation. While Redoshi Smith was interviewed by Zora Neale Hurston and known by others in her life and after her death, she was forgotten.
In 2019 an English scholar published new information about her: she documented that Redoshi Smith lived until 1937, making her the last survivor of the slaves from the Clotilda. Federal authorities prosecuted his partners, including Foster. Lacking the ship and related evidence, such as its manifest, the 1861 federal court case of US v. Byrnes Meaher, Timothy Meaher and John Dabey did not find sufficient grounds to convict Meaher; the case was dismissed. Historians believe the start of the American Civil War contributed to the federal government's dropping the case. Meaher used 32 of the enslaved Africans as workers on his plantation. After the Civil War they were emancipated, but they continued to work Meaher's property in the delta north of Mobile on the west side of the river; the enslaved people founded a community known as Africatown, bounded on three sides by water: a bayou, Three Mile Creek, the Mobile River. Among the founders of Africatown was a man named Cudjoe Kazoola Lewis, he was said to be the oldest slave on the Clotil